Bioenergy from Wood: Sustainable Production in the World

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Wood Science and Forest Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 4201

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Graduate Program in Forest Sciences—PPGCFL, Forest Engineering, Escola Agrícola de Jundiaí, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Rodovia RN 160, Km 03 S/N, Distrito de Jundiaí, Macaíba 59.280-000, Brazil
Interests: forest biomass energy; liquid products from carbonization; wood vinegar for agricultural, veterinary uses, and animal production; eucalyptus energetic forests (short-rotation cropping)

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, Canada
Interests: forest biomass for energy; short-rotation cropping; agroforestry systems; low-carbon silvicultural systems; biomass from eucalyptus stumps

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Guest Editor
Department of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES), Av. Governador Lindenberg, 316, Jerônimo Monteiro 29550-000, ES, Brazil
Interests: biomass and energy; pyrolysis and thermochemistry; charcoal and PAHs; gaseous emissions and air pollution; charcoal for domestic use; energy and food security

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Guest Editor
Department of Forest Sciences, Federal University of Lavras, P.O. Box 3037, Lavras 37200-900, MG, Brazil
Interests: slow and fast pyrolysis; combustion; thermochemical processes kinetics; wood vinegar; wood energy applied in agro-industry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wood bioenergy is the energy generated from wood and woody biomasses. Therefore, thermochemical conversion processes that turn these raw materials into biofuels or commodities are of strategic interest nowadays. The present Special Issue intends to harbor scientific articles encompassing the following subjects:

  • Forest plantations as a source of wood and woody biomass for energetic uses;
  • Carbon sequestering strategies and GWG emission mitigation by adopting energetic forests as a source of biofuels;
  • The sustainable management of fast-growing forest plantations and the development of high-lignin-content genetic materials to improve the profitability and efficiency of carbonization as a source of charcoal to produce metallic commodities;
  • Case studies on how the adoption of wood bioenergy can bring environmental, economic, and social improvements;
  • Novelties and new developments in thermochemical conversion processes of wood and woody biomass;
  • Energetic coprocessing of forest biomass and synthetic wastes (plastics, polymers, etc.) for directly generating energy, fuels, coproducts, and commodities;
  • The development or improvement of kilns, reactors, and other technologies aimed at converting forest biomass into liquid or solid fuels, coproducts, and green commodities;
  • Direct and indirect societal and economic reductions in GHG emissions that come from the replacement of fossil fuels with wood and woody biomass for power generation;
  • Improvement in air quality and public health by reducing pollution from direct burning and carbonization of wood and woody biomass;
  • Recovery of liquid products from wood carbonization and commodities and the role of their sales in improving the global efficiency of the process;
  • Green co-products from wood carbonization and the importance of their use in agriculture, veterinary, human, and animal health.

Prof. Dr. Alexandre Santos Pimenta
Prof. Dr. Laércio C. Couto
Dr. Ananias Francisco Dias Junior
Prof. Dr. Paulo Fernando Trugilho
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy from wood
  • energetic forests
  • biomass from trees and woody shrubs
  • wood thermochemical conversion processes
  • bioenergy from wood and environmental benefits

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 3055 KiB  
Article
Kiln-Furnace System: Validation of a Technology for Producing Charcoal with Less Environmental Impact in Brazil
by Lívia Ferreira Da Silva, Marina Donária Chaves Arantes, Reginaldo Arthur Glória Marcelino, Ana Flávia Neves Mendes Castro, Glauciana Da Mata Ataíde, Renato Vinícius Oliveira Castro, Renato da Silva Vieira, Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro, Humberto Fauller De Siqueira, Thiago De Paula Protásio, Edy Eime Pereira Baraúna, Talita Baldin and Fernando Colen
Forests 2024, 15(4), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15040645 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Brazil is the world’s largest producer of charcoal. Therefore, there is need for improvement in the gravimetric yield of conversion and the reduction of gas emissions, including greenhouse gases (GHGs), released during carbonization. The objective was to apply the methodology of Measurement, Reporting [...] Read more.
Brazil is the world’s largest producer of charcoal. Therefore, there is need for improvement in the gravimetric yield of conversion and the reduction of gas emissions, including greenhouse gases (GHGs), released during carbonization. The objective was to apply the methodology of Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) to evaluate the emission of GHG, mainly CO2 and CH4. The charcoal production kiln-furnace system used was composed of 4 kilns with a capacity of ~6 t of wood, each. The MRV cluster of coal gravimetric yield and gas burners were used to determine the gravimetric yield and burner efficiency and thus evaluate the emission of GHGs generated in the carbonization system. The carbonization was performed in an isolated way producing, in total, 3.34 t of charcoal, with an average gravimetric yield of 25.82%. The MRV methodology was effective for evaluating the GHG emissions. The wood burner reduced by 50% the methane burning and provided a reduction of 0.392 tCO2 eq (23.91%). The humidity of wood and high precipitation were the main limiting factors in this research, and responsible for the decrease in the gravimetric yield. The kiln-furnace system was effective for a sustainable production with the use of non-continuous carbonization gas burners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioenergy from Wood: Sustainable Production in the World)
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16 pages, 1411 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Wood Residues from Vegetation Suppression during Wind Energy Plant Implementation and Its Potential for Renewable Phenolic Compounds through Flash Pyrolysis: A Case Study in Northeast Brazil’s Semi-Arid Region
by Marcela Cristina Pereira dos Santos Almeida, Janduir Egito da Silva, Willame Gomes da Silva Batista, José Luiz Francisco Alves, Dulce Maria de Araújo Melo, Alexandre Santos Pimenta and Renata Martins Braga
Forests 2024, 15(4), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15040621 - 29 Mar 2024
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Abstract
In the past few years, wind power has become a viable alternative in Brazil to diversify the energy mix and mitigate pollutant emissions from fossil fuels. Significant wind energy generation potential is inherent in the Brazilian Northeast state of Rio Grande do Norte, [...] Read more.
In the past few years, wind power has become a viable alternative in Brazil to diversify the energy mix and mitigate pollutant emissions from fossil fuels. Significant wind energy generation potential is inherent in the Brazilian Northeast state of Rio Grande do Norte, due to prevailing strong winds along the coastline and elevated regions. However, clean and renewable wind energy may lead to potential biodiversity impacts, including the removal of native vegetation during plant construction and operation. This case study explores the flash pyrolysis-based valorization of three commonly suppressed species, namely Cenostigma pyramidale (CP), Commiphora leptophloeos (CL), and Aspidosperma pyrifolium (AP), in a wind farm situated within the Mato Grande region of Rio Grande do Norte State. The study centers on determining their bioenergy-related properties and assessing their potential for producing phenolic-rich bio-oil. The investigation of three wood residues as potential sources of high-value chemicals, specifically phenolic compounds, was conducted using a micro-furnace type temperature programmable pyrolyzer combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS setup). The range of higher heating values observed for three wood residues was 17.5–18.4 MJ kg−1, with the highest value attributed to AP wood residue. The bulk density ranged from 126.5 to 268.7 kg m−3, while ash content, volatile matter content, fixed carbon content, and lignin content were within the respective ranges of 0.8–2.9 wt.%, 78.5–89.6 wt.%, 2.6–9.5 wt.%, and 19.1–30.6 wt.%. Although the energy-related properties signifying the potential value of three wood residues as energy resources are evident, their applicability in the bioenergy sector can be expanded via pelleting or briquetting. Yields of phenolic compounds exceeding 40% from the volatile pyrolysis products of CL and AP wood residues at 500 °C make them favorable for phenolic-rich bio-oil production. The findings of this study endorse the utilization of wood residues resulting from vegetation suppression during the installation of wind energy plants as potential feedstocks for producing bioenergy and sustainable phenolic compounds. This presents a solution for addressing a regional environmental concern following the principles of green chemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioenergy from Wood: Sustainable Production in the World)
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15 pages, 1689 KiB  
Article
Quantification and Determinants of Carbonization Yield in the Rural Zone of Lubumbashi, DR Congo: Implications for Sustainable Charcoal Production
by Nathan Kasanda Mukendi, Héritier Khoji Muteya, Dieu-donné N’tambwe Nghonda, Fabio Berti, Yannick Useni Sikuzani, Laurent Ngoy Ndjibu, Jean-Paul Katond Mbay, Jules Nkulu Mwine Fyama, Philippe Lebailly and Jan Bogaert
Forests 2024, 15(3), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15030554 - 18 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Although charcoal production is a source of income, it is often associated with deforestation due to the felling of trees in rural areas. In this study, we quantified the yield of carbonization in the rural area of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo [...] Read more.
Although charcoal production is a source of income, it is often associated with deforestation due to the felling of trees in rural areas. In this study, we quantified the yield of carbonization in the rural area of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), and identified its determinants. By analyzing 20 kilns of professional producers in different villages, we found that these charcoal producers build large kilns, which contained an average of 46.9 ± 21.5 m3 of wood from 19 species of Miombo woodland trees, with a predominance of Julbernardia paniculata (Benth.) Troupin, alongside Brachystegia microphylla Harms and B. spiciformis Benth. The average carbonization yield was 10.2%, varying from village to village due to parameters such as kiln size, quantity of wood used, kiln coverage time, wind exposure, substrate type, and tree species. It was noted that the moisture content and dimensions of the wood did not significantly correlate with the quantity of charcoal harvested per kiln. Yield improvement should, therefore, take these parameters into account to enable charcoal producers to increase their income while adopting sustainable production practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioenergy from Wood: Sustainable Production in the World)
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14 pages, 4639 KiB  
Article
Wood Vinegar from Slow Pyrolysis of Eucalyptus Wood: Assessment of Removing Contaminants by Sequential Vacuum Distillation
by Alexandre Santos Pimenta, Gil Sander Próspero Gama, Francisco Marlon Carneiro Feijó, Renata Martins Braga, Tatiane Kelly Barbosa de Azevedo, Rafael Rodolfo de Melo, Neyton de Oliveira Miranda and Gabriel Siqueira de Andrade
Forests 2023, 14(12), 2414; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14122414 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1115
Abstract
Eucalyptus wood vinegar (WV) is a versatile natural product employed in several areas such as for agriculture, zootechnics, and veterinary applications. However, the product may contain contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, methanol, metals, and so on in its raw form. Thus, refining [...] Read more.
Eucalyptus wood vinegar (WV) is a versatile natural product employed in several areas such as for agriculture, zootechnics, and veterinary applications. However, the product may contain contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, methanol, metals, and so on in its raw form. Thus, refining is required to remove them. Only after reaching a high-purity grade can WV be applied as a basis for pharmaceuticals, antimicrobials, and additives for animal husbandry. This work aimed to assess the effect of refining on the contaminant content of a WV produced on an industrial scale and traded as agricultural input in the Brazilian market. WV was refined by sequential vacuum distillations and had its contaminant contents assessed before and after refining. The following chemical classes were investigated: metals and other elements, insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, and others), mycotoxins, polychlorinated dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds, encompassing more than 100 chemical species. Also, the WV physical–chemical properties before and after refining were determined. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were employed to attain the WV’s chemical profile. The main chemical components, such as phenolic compounds, furans, ketones, pyrans, etc., were annotated in the WV chemical profile. No traces of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, heavy metals, mycotoxins, polychlorinated dioxins, or polychlorinated furans were found in raw WV or refined versions. However, several other undes/irable chemicals were determined in the raw product, such as PAHs and volatile organic compounds (acetaldehyde, acetone, ethylene glycol, and methanol). Nevertheless, all of them were effectively removed from the raw WV after the first or second sequential refining steps, resulting in a pure product. Therefore, only one refining step can be applied to raw WV to yield a high-quality product for pharmaceutical and animal husbandry applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioenergy from Wood: Sustainable Production in the World)
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