Sustainable Materials in the Forest Products Industry

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Wood Science and Forest Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 4662

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Biomaterials and Nanotechnology Research Group & BioNanoTeam, 34473 Istanbul, Türkiye
2. Turkish Academy of Sciences, 06670 Ankara, Türkiye
3. Department of Forest Products Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa, 34473 Istanbul, Türkiye
Interests: sustainable materials; green materials; nanomaterials/nanocomposites; lignocellulosic biomaterials (nanocellulose, nanolignin); thermal analysis (DMTA/TMA, TGA, DSC); renewable energy (biomass energy, pellets, and briquettes); industry 4.0

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Guest Editor
1. Turkish Academy of Sciences, 06670 Ankara, Türkiye
2. Department of Environmental Engineering, Igdir University, 76000 Igdir, Türkiye
Interests: composites; lignocellulosic biomaterials; wood-based composites; non-wood forest products industry; wood preservation technology; energy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable development in the forest products industry explores the origins of sustainability as it applies to forestry and forest products. Sustainable forest management is one of the most significant ways of reducing pressure on the world’s forests. The bio-based economy necessitates the sustainable utilization of bioresources for the production of a range of products. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant and renewable resource on Earth, which may be processed in a variety of ways and provides both environmental and performance benefits. Lignocellulosic-based sustainable materials are composed mainly of three basic structural components: cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose. Lignocellulosic-based sustainable resources have the potential to replace plastics and materials that have been traditionally based on fossil resources. The development of high-performance bio-based and sustainable materials is a crucial aspect for the bio-based industry's long-term growth. The aim of this Special Issue is to evaluate and cover novel research in the area of sustainable materials in the forest products industry, in both original and review articles.

Dr. Zeki Candan
Dr. Mehmet Hakki Alma
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainable materials
  • green materials
  • composites
  • biomaterials
  • biocomposites
  • forest products industry
  • wood-based materials
  • furniture
  • pulp and paper science
  • nanoscience and nanotechnology
  • renewable energy
  • biomass energy
  • lignocellulosic materials
  • bioadhesives
  • carbon footprint

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 4343 KiB  
Article
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fiberboard Made of MDF Residues and Phase Change Materials
by Gustavo E. Rodríguez, Cecilia Bustos Ávila and Alain Cloutier
Forests 2024, 15(5), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15050802 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 683
Abstract
The wood-based panel industry is experiencing an excessive accumulation of solid residues from the production of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) panels and moldings. It is possible to create new MDF products with acceptable physical and mechanical properties by revaluing MDF residues. Additionally, those products’ [...] Read more.
The wood-based panel industry is experiencing an excessive accumulation of solid residues from the production of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) panels and moldings. It is possible to create new MDF products with acceptable physical and mechanical properties by revaluing MDF residues. Additionally, those products’ thermal properties can be improved by incorporating phase change materials (PCMs). This study aims to develop a wood-based fiberboard made of MDF residues, capable of storing thermal energy. Two types of PCMs (liquid and microencapsulated), two PCM ratios (2% and 6%), and two types of adhesives (urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde) were used to produce eight different types of panels. The vertical density profile, thickness swelling, water absorption, internal bond (IB), and static bending properties—modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR)—were determined for each panel type. The specific heat of the panels was also determined. The results show the panels’ densities were greater than 700 kg/m3. Thickness swelling in water improved by 23% compared to the reference value of the control panel PCMs after PCM incorporation. The highest IB value was 1.30 MPa, which is almost three times the minimum required by regulation standards. The incorporation of PCMs reduced the panels’ bending properties compared to the properties of the control panels. Even though the values obtained are sufficient to comply with the minimum values set out in ANSI standard A208.2 with an MOE value of 2072.4 MPa and the values obtained are sufficient to comply with the minimum standards with an MOE value of 2072.4 MPa and an MOR value of 16.4 MPa, when microencapsulated PCM is used, the specific heat of the panels is increased by more than 100% over that of the control panels. This study developed fiberboards with adequate physical and mechanical properties and capable of storing thermal energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials in the Forest Products Industry)
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17 pages, 4766 KiB  
Article
Visible Light-Induced Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Copper-Doped Carbon Dots One-Step Derived from CCA-Wood
by Dan Xing, Jingfa Zhang, Sara Magdouli, Yubo Tao, Peng Li, Hassine Bouafif and Ahmed Koubaa
Forests 2024, 15(4), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15040680 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Developing novel eco-friendly broad-spectrum visible light photocatalysts for dye removal is one of the urgent problems for water treatment. Here, copper-doped carbon dots (CDs) were reported to be directly fabricated from chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood waste for the photocatalytic degradation of the [...] Read more.
Developing novel eco-friendly broad-spectrum visible light photocatalysts for dye removal is one of the urgent problems for water treatment. Here, copper-doped carbon dots (CDs) were reported to be directly fabricated from chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood waste for the photocatalytic degradation of the methylene blue dye. The properties of the resulting CDs were thoroughly characterized and analyzed, preceding an investigation into the adsorption kinetics of dye degradation. The kinetic study showed that reactant concentration was the rate-limiting factor. The obtained CDs showed a 151 mg/g photocatalytic degradation capacity. Comparing pure CDs to CDs/TiO2 composites, the former demonstrated higher photodegradation efficiency. This superiority can be attributed to the synergistic action of adsorption and photocatalytic degradation working in tandem. This study prepared Cu doped CDs and elucidated the photocatalysis mechanism of methylene blue degradation by CDs. The photodegradation of organic dyes through CDs derived from waste CCA wood emerges as an eco-friendly, facile, and highly efficient method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials in the Forest Products Industry)
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16 pages, 2823 KiB  
Article
Dimensional Stability and Mechanical Properties of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Wood Thermally Modified through Open Reactor and Low-Pressure Closed Reactor Systems
by Samuel Oluyinka Olaniran and Holger Militz
Forests 2024, 15(3), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15030403 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 746
Abstract
This study focused on the thermal modification of Gmelina arborea Roxb. wood following processes using the open reactor and low-pressure closed reactor systems. The aim is to determine the optimum treatment conditions suitable for gmelina wood due to its poor drying characteristics using [...] Read more.
This study focused on the thermal modification of Gmelina arborea Roxb. wood following processes using the open reactor and low-pressure closed reactor systems. The aim is to determine the optimum treatment conditions suitable for gmelina wood due to its poor drying characteristics using the low-pressure closed reactor thermal modification. Subsequent to thermal modification under both processes, the dimensional stability and mechanical properties of gmelina wood were investigated. Effects of the thermal modifications under the open and low-pressure closed reactor systems on mechanical properties were additionally reported. The outcome of this investigation revealed that mass loss increased with increasing treatment temperatures, but minimal mass losses were observed for samples modified in the low-pressure closed reactor system. Due to the low-pressure regime used in the closed reactor system, a lesser improvement was found in volumetric shrinkage, fibre saturation point and tangential-to-radial swelling compared to the improvement in these properties in the open reactor system. Results further revealed that the mechanical properties of gmelina wood deteriorated more rapidly after modification in the open reactor system. Since the properties of modified gmelina wood are comparable at 180 °C under both systems, the closed reactor system will be investigated further to arrive at a suitable treatment condition under higher pressure variations. The thermal modification of gmelina wood with the closed reactor system is more promising in delivering a better quality of modified gmelina wood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials in the Forest Products Industry)
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12 pages, 8112 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Properties of Soft-/Hard-Switchable Transparent Wood with 0 °C as a Boundary
by Yang Liu, Yi Zhang, Jianhui Guo, Gaiping Guo and Cheng Li
Forests 2024, 15(2), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15020384 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 920
Abstract
Transparent wood has excellent optical and thermal properties and has great potential utilization value in energy-saving building materials, optoelectronic devices, and decorative materials. In this work, transparent wood with soft-/hard-switchable and shape recovery capabilities was prepared by introducing an epoxy-based polymer with a [...] Read more.
Transparent wood has excellent optical and thermal properties and has great potential utilization value in energy-saving building materials, optoelectronic devices, and decorative materials. In this work, transparent wood with soft-/hard-switchable and shape recovery capabilities was prepared by introducing an epoxy-based polymer with a glass transition temperature of about 0 °C into the delignified wood template. The epoxy resin was well filled in the pore structure of the delignified wood, and the as-prepared wood exhibited excellent transparency; the optical transmittance and haze of the transparent wood with a thickness of 2.0 mm were approximately 70% and 95%, respectively. Because the glass transition temperature of the epoxy-based polymer was about 0 °C, the prepared transparent wood was rigid below 0 °C and flexible above °C; meanwhile, the transparent wood exhibited shape change and shape recovery properties. Incorporating optical transparency and soft-/hard-switchable ability into the transparent wood opens a new avenue for developing advanced functional wood-based materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials in the Forest Products Industry)
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12 pages, 1882 KiB  
Article
Micro-Fibrillated Cellulose in Lignin–Phenol–Formaldehyde Adhesives for Plywood Production
by Sheikh Ali Ahmed, Reza Hosseinpourpia and Stergios Adamopoulos
Forests 2023, 14(11), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14112249 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 868
Abstract
Petrochemical-based phenol–formaldehyde (PF) adhesives are widely used in plywood production. To substitute phenol in the synthesis of PF adhesives, lignin can be added due to its structural similarity to phenol. Moreover, micro-fibrillated cellulose (MFC) can further enhance the bond performance, mechanical properties, and [...] Read more.
Petrochemical-based phenol–formaldehyde (PF) adhesives are widely used in plywood production. To substitute phenol in the synthesis of PF adhesives, lignin can be added due to its structural similarity to phenol. Moreover, micro-fibrillated cellulose (MFC) can further enhance the bond performance, mechanical properties, and toughness of adhesive systems. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the adhesion performance of lignin–PF (LPF) adhesives reinforced with MFC. In LPF formulations, three levels of MFC (0, 15, and 30 wt% based on the total solid content of adhesives) were added to the homogenous adhesive mixture. Three-layer plywood panels from birch (Betula pendula Roth.) veneers were assembled after hot pressing at 130 °C under two pressing durations, e.g., 60 and 75 s/mm. Tensile shear strength was measured at dry (20 °C and 65% RH) and wet conditions (water soaked at room temperature for 24 h). The results indicated that the addition of lignin reduced the strength of LPF adhesives in both dry and wet conditions compared to the control PF adhesive. However, MFC reinforcement enhanced the shear strength properties of the plywood. Furthermore, a longer pressing time of 75 s/mm slightly increased the shear strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials in the Forest Products Industry)
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