Structures in Fire: Focus on Steel and Composite Structures

A special issue of Fire (ISSN 2571-6255). This special issue belongs to the section "Fire Risk Assessment and Safety Management in Buildings and Urban Spaces".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 9213

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA
Interests: structural engineering innovation and research for extreme events including seismic, fire, impactive, and impulsive loading
Department of Engineering, School of Science Technology, City, University of London, London EC1V 0HB, UK
Interests: fire; blast; progressive collapse; tall buildings

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Structural fire design has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional prescriptive fire-resistant designs, particularly when the focus is on: (i) new and innovative structural members, components, or systems and (ii) new and innovative construction materials, both with particular emphasis on the resilience and sustainability of the built infrastructure. Applications include the design of tall buildings, signature structures, bridges, industrial structures, etc., where the use of fire protection materials can be optimized for economy and sustainability while achieving thermal and structural performance goals, leading to life safety and collapse prevention.

We are pleased to invite you to submit your original manuscript for review and potential publication.

This Special Issue will focus on highlighting new and innovative research methods being used to investigate the fundamental and specific behaviors of steel and steel-concrete composite members, components, and systems subjected to realistic fire scenarios. Both experimental and computational research highlighting new and innovative testing methods, numerical modeling approaches, and computational techniques will be emphasized. The validation of numerical models and approaches using experimental results and parametric studies conducted using validated models will also be a focus of this Special Issue. It will also highlight papers that present the fundamental behavior, failure modes, and limit states of steel and composite structures exposed to realistic and/or standard fire scenarios.

Thus, in summary, this Special Issue aims to showcase original research articles on Structures in Fire: Focus on Steel and Composite Structures using experimental methods, computational approaches, and performance or behavior-based design methods.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Amit H. Varma
Dr. Feng Fu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fire is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • structural fire design
  • thermal
  • structural
  • fire resistance
  • fire protection
  • buildings
  • bridges

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

21 pages, 1108 KiB  
Article
Reliability Assessment Approach for Fire Resistance Performance of Prestressed Steel–Concrete Box Girder Bridges
by Maojun Duan, Jianbao Miao, Jiahong Wu and Fenghui Dong
Fire 2023, 6(12), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6120472 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1324
Abstract
This paper employs probability methods to evaluate the fire safety performance of prestressed steel–concrete beam bridges based on simulation experimental research. Firstly, fire simulation experimental sample analysis was conducted on actual small box girder bridges to assess the structural response of prestressed steel–concrete [...] Read more.
This paper employs probability methods to evaluate the fire safety performance of prestressed steel–concrete beam bridges based on simulation experimental research. Firstly, fire simulation experimental sample analysis was conducted on actual small box girder bridges to assess the structural response of prestressed steel–concrete structures to fire, as is in line with engineering practice. Next, we constructed a reliability analysis model to investigate the fire resistance performance of prestressed steel–concrete beam bridges. Combining reliability theory with the finite element method, we established a reliability analysis method for the fire resistance performance of prestressed steel–concrete beam bridges. Subsequently, we proposed a safety factor evaluation model for the fire resistance performance of prestressed steel–concrete beam bridges and then established a safety factor evaluation method for the fire resistance performance of prestressed steel–concrete beam bridges based on reliability back analysis. Finally, based on the analysis of the post-fire structural response in the specific case of a steel–concrete continuous beam bridge project moving from conditions of being simply supported to continuously prestressed, a structural resistance sample of the prestressed steel–concrete beam bridge was generated via the uniform design method, and statistical analysis was conducted. Subsequently, probability methods were used to evaluate the safety of the prestressed steel–concrete beam bridge after a fire. Through analysis, we concluded that the duration of the fire had a significant impact on the structural performance of prestressed steel–concrete beam bridges and that the randomness of parameters had a significant impact on the safety reserve of prestressed steel–concrete beam bridges following the fire. Going forward, it is necessary to pay attention to this factor in specific engineering practices and strengthen the monitoring and statistical analysis of structural random characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structures in Fire: Focus on Steel and Composite Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 37207 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Steel-Fiber-Reinforced Scoria Aggregate Concrete Subjected to Freeze-Thaw Cycles and Then Exposure to Elevated Temperatures
by Bin Cai, Shengda Wang, Feng Fu, Wenfeng Duan and Lin Wang
Fire 2023, 6(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6030119 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Steel-fiber-reinforced scoria aggregate concrete (SFSAC), which contains scoria aggregate and steel fiber, was developed to reduce the environmental impacts and improve the energy efficiency of buildings. Experimental studies were performed. The test variables included steel fiber volume contents (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%), [...] Read more.
Steel-fiber-reinforced scoria aggregate concrete (SFSAC), which contains scoria aggregate and steel fiber, was developed to reduce the environmental impacts and improve the energy efficiency of buildings. Experimental studies were performed. The test variables included steel fiber volume contents (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%), freeze-thaw cycles (0 and 25 times), and temperature (20 °C, 200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C, and 800 °C). Mass loss, relative dynamic elastic modulus, mechanical properties, and the variation pattern of the complete stress–strain curves were analyzed through rapid freeze-thaw, high-temperature, and mechanical tests. The test results showed that after 25 freeze-thaw cycles and then exposure to high temperatures, the surfaces of SFSAC specimens showed aggregate spalling accompanied by dense cracks. Moreover, the residual mechanical properties of steel-fiber-reinforced natural aggregate concrete (SFNAC) were better than those of natural aggregate concrete (NAC). Although the incorporation of steel fiber cannot significantly improve the anti-freezing performance of SFSAC, it can improve the residual mechanical properties of SFSAC, and the optimal amount of incorporation is 1%, considering the economic cost factors. The stress–strain curves of both SFSAC and SFNAC showed the same trend after freeze-thaw cycles and then high temperatures, i.e., the peak stress decreased, the peak strain increased, and the descending section tended to level off. Finally, based on the concrete damage mechanics theory, considering the role of steel fibers in the uniaxial compression process of scoria aggregate concrete (SAC) and the effect of freeze-thaw and high-temperature tests on the SFSAC, the mechanical damage model and the uniaxial compression stress–strain constitutive model were proposed as being able to highly accurately reflect the overall process damage characteristics of SFSAC after freeze-thaw and then high-temperature tests, and also provided a theoretical basis for the high-temperature resistance assessment of SFSAC structures in cold regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structures in Fire: Focus on Steel and Composite Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 4786 KiB  
Article
Behavior and Capacity of Moment-Frame Members and Connections during Fire
by Supriya N. Chinivar and Kadir C. Sener
Fire 2023, 6(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020078 - 19 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1495
Abstract
This paper focuses on investigating the structural behavior of members and connections that are part of moment frames under the combined effect of bending moment and thermally induced axial force during a compartment-fire event. The finite-element analysis method was employed to conduct this [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on investigating the structural behavior of members and connections that are part of moment frames under the combined effect of bending moment and thermally induced axial force during a compartment-fire event. The finite-element analysis method was employed to conduct this study using models benchmarked against experimental data from several past studies while utilizing temperature-dependent material models. A numerical parametric study on typical floor beams with slender elements for compression were conducted under combined bending and axial loading to develop interaction-capacity curves at temperatures representing fire events. The results were compared against the member-strength equations provided in the AISC Specification. The analysis results demonstrated that the AISC beam-column strength equations including the combined effects of axial-load and bending moment provided reasonable estimates for member-slenderness ratios greater than 60, but overestimated the strength of beams with slender elements for low member-slenderness ratios. Combined-load-strength studies were also conducted on a typical connection used in moment frames. The moment-connection behavior was governed by failure modes exhibited at the ends of floor beams. Therefore, the interaction equations available for beam columns resulted in conservative estimates and are recommended for calculating moment-connection capacity during compartment-fire scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structures in Fire: Focus on Steel and Composite Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 8735 KiB  
Article
Flexural Capacity of Fire-Affected Concrete Members with Recycled Glass Aggregate and Glass Pozzolan
by Enrique Gonzalez Tapia and Nur Yazdani
Fire 2022, 5(6), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire5060207 - 04 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Adding recycled glass components to concrete mixes is a novel and sustainable option. Prior studies have recommended replacement ratios of 30% glass aggregates and 20% ground glass pozzolan as optimum substitutions in concrete mixes. The compressive strength of glass concrete has been shown [...] Read more.
Adding recycled glass components to concrete mixes is a novel and sustainable option. Prior studies have recommended replacement ratios of 30% glass aggregates and 20% ground glass pozzolan as optimum substitutions in concrete mixes. The compressive strength of glass concrete has been shown to increase when glass components are used with these proportions. Less information is available on the flexural strength of such concrete, and no previous research has been conducted on the flexural capacity of glass concrete exposed to high temperatures. To bridge this knowledge gap, cured concrete cylinders and beam samples using various glass coarse aggregate and ground glass pozzolan replacement ratios were heat-treated in a furnace. The heat-affected samples were then tested for their compressive and flexural capacities. It was found that glass pozzolan increased the mix workability, while glass aggregates reduced it. The compressive strengths were modesty increased and the flexural capacities were drastically reduced (up to 93%) after heat exposure. Therefore, recycled sustainable glass concrete may be efficiently used in concrete compressive members and in properly designed flexural members. It can also be used efficiently in architectural non-load-bearing members for insulating and aesthetic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structures in Fire: Focus on Steel and Composite Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3894 KiB  
Article
Simulation-Based Investigations of the Load-Bearing Behavior of Concrete Hollow Sphere Slabs Exposed to Fire
by Olga Miller, Oliver Gericke, David Nigl, Daria Kovaleva and Lucio Blandini
Fire 2022, 5(6), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire5060197 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
This paper concerns the investigations of the flexural capacity of concrete slabs with integrated concrete hollow spheres that are subjected to fire and their mass saving potential compared to solid slabs. (1) Background: The overuse of concrete in construction contributes considerably to global [...] Read more.
This paper concerns the investigations of the flexural capacity of concrete slabs with integrated concrete hollow spheres that are subjected to fire and their mass saving potential compared to solid slabs. (1) Background: The overuse of concrete in construction contributes considerably to global CO2 emissions; therefore, the potential for mass reduction in structural components must be fully exploited. However, the design regulations for weight-minimized components, particularly slabs with internal voids, are often not explicitly covered by standards, such as the fire design standard relevant to this paper. (2) Methods: Based on the design guidelines for statically determinate structures in Eurocode 2-2 and DIN 4102-4, a solid slab and a concrete slab with concrete hollow spheres are designed and evaluated with regard to their weight and flexural capacity when subjected to fire. The temperature profiles within the slab cross-section exposed to fire are simulated using ABAQUS finite element software, considering the physically nonlinear, temperature-dependent material behavior of concrete and steel. Using these results, the strain distribution corresponding to the maximum flexural moment is iteratively determined at the weakest cross-section, which exhibits the largest void. (3) Results: All components show sufficient flexural capacity for the target fire duration of 90 min. (4) Conclusion: In the context of this study, the design guidelines according to Eurocode 2-2 and DIN 4102-4 are proven to be fully applicable also for concrete hollow sphere slabs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structures in Fire: Focus on Steel and Composite Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

14 pages, 11462 KiB  
Technical Note
FEM Analysis of 3D Timber Connections Subjected to Fire: The Effect of Using Different Densities of Wood Combined with Steel
by Elza M. M. Fonseca and Carlos Gomes
Fire 2023, 6(5), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6050193 - 07 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1533
Abstract
This work aims to present a study approach for double-shear connections of wood under fire with dowel pins and plates in steel material, using different types of glulam. The simplified Eurocode equations for ambient temperature were used to determine the dimensions and the [...] Read more.
This work aims to present a study approach for double-shear connections of wood under fire with dowel pins and plates in steel material, using different types of glulam. The simplified Eurocode equations for ambient temperature were used to determine the dimensions and the number of dowel pins that each studied connection needs in order to resist an applied tensile load. Following this methodology, the finite element method was used to assess the thermal analysis of the studied connections under fire. The study aims to increase the information on these connections, where the wood material represents a complicated behavior in fire circumstances, with the addition of the steel material. The heat conducted by the dowel pin inside the connection, and the steel plate and its effect on the wood were analyzed. According to the results, it can be assumed that the temperature evolution is due to the geometry of the connection, the dowel pin or plate position, and the glulam density. Inside the wood element, the temperature remains lower, and externally a charred depth is developed when the target temperature of 300 °C is reached, and, in the vicinity of the dowel pin or the steel plate, a burned wood depth is indirectly formed. The rate of the charred layer is not constant throughout the entire fire exposure. Steel-to-timber connections with an internal steel plate with high glulam density have greater fire resistance due to the lower temperatures obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structures in Fire: Focus on Steel and Composite Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop