Next Issue
Volume 7, June
Previous Issue
Volume 7, April
 
 

Fire, Volume 7, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 19 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
26 pages, 5004 KiB  
Article
The Dynamics of Fire Activity in the Brazilian Pantanal: A Log–Gaussian Cox Process-Based Structural Decomposition
by Fernanda Valente and Márcio Laurini
Fire 2024, 7(5), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050170 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 130
Abstract
We present a novel statistical methodology for analyzing shifts in spatio-temporal fire occurrence patterns within the Brazilian Pantanal, utilizing remote sensing data. Our approach employs a Log-Gaussian Cox Process to model the spatiotemporal dynamics of fire occurrence, deconstructing the intensity function into components [...] Read more.
We present a novel statistical methodology for analyzing shifts in spatio-temporal fire occurrence patterns within the Brazilian Pantanal, utilizing remote sensing data. Our approach employs a Log-Gaussian Cox Process to model the spatiotemporal dynamics of fire occurrence, deconstructing the intensity function into components of trend, seasonality, cycle, covariates, and time-varying spatial effects components. The results indicate a negative correlation between rainfall and fire intensity, with lower precipitation associated with heightened fire intensity. Forest formations exhibit a positive effect on fire intensity, whereas agricultural land use shows no significant impact. Savannas and grasslands, typical fire-dependent ecosystems, demonstrate a positive relationship with fire intensity. Human-induced fires, often used for agricultural purposes, contribute to an increase in both fire frequency and intensity, particularly in grassland areas. Trend analysis reveals fluctuating fire activity over time, with notable peaks in 2018–2021. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetation Fires, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change)
19 pages, 1775 KiB  
Article
Modelling Context Effects in Exit Choice for Building Evacuations
by Dongli Gao, Xuanwen Liang, Qian Chen, Hongpeng Qiu and Eric Wai Ming Lee
Fire 2024, 7(5), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050169 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Understanding exit choice behaviour is essential for optimising safety management strategies in building evacuations. Previous research focused on contextual attributes, such as spatial information, influencing exit choice, often using utility models based on monotonic functions of attributes. However, during emergencies, evacuees typically make [...] Read more.
Understanding exit choice behaviour is essential for optimising safety management strategies in building evacuations. Previous research focused on contextual attributes, such as spatial information, influencing exit choice, often using utility models based on monotonic functions of attributes. However, during emergencies, evacuees typically make rapid, less calculated decisions. The choice of context can significantly impact the evaluation of attributes, leading to preference reversals within the same choice set but under varying context conditions. This cognitive psychological phenomenon, known as context effects, encompasses the compromise effect, the similarity effect, and the attraction effect. While researchers have long recognised the pivotal role of context effects in human decision making, their incorporation into computer-aided evacuation management remains limited. To address this gap, we introduce context effects (CE) in a social force (SF) model, CE-SF. Evaluating CE-SF’s performance against the UF-SF model, which considers only the utility function (UF), we find that CE-SF better replicates exit choice behaviour across urgency levels, highlighting its potential to enhance evacuation strategies. Notably, our study identifies three distinct context effects during evacuations, emphasising their importance in advancing safety measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire Safety and Emergency Evacuation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 5366 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Carbon Monoxide and Ethylene Generation in Mine’s Closed Fire Zone and Their Influence on Methane Explosion Limits
by Dong Ma, Leilin Zhang, Tingfeng Zhu and Zhenfang Shi
Fire 2024, 7(5), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050168 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 248
Abstract
Methane explosions often occur during the closure process of mine fire zones, during which the concentration of combustible gases such as monoxide and ethylene produced by coal combustion dynamically changes, which changes the risk of methane explosion. Therefore, studying the gas concentration distribution [...] Read more.
Methane explosions often occur during the closure process of mine fire zones, during which the concentration of combustible gases such as monoxide and ethylene produced by coal combustion dynamically changes, which changes the risk of methane explosion. Therefore, studying the gas concentration distribution and methane explosion limits during the process of mine closure is of great significance for disaster prevention and control. In this paper, a three-dimensional physical model of gob was built, and the distribution of monoxide and ethylene in the process of fire zone closure was investigated. Further, the explosion limits of methane enriched with CO and C2H4 in the closed fire zone of gob were analyzed. The results indicate that CO and C2H4 would form a small-scale accumulation phenomenon near the fire zone after the closure of the fire zone, and when the fire zone is closed for more than 15 min, the mixed combustible gases in the environment lose their explosiveness. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 1218 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Local Dynamics on Exit Choice Behaviour in Evacuation Model
by Sensen Xing, Cheng Wang, Dongli Gao, Wei Wang, Anthony Chun Yin Yuen, Eric Wai Ming Lee, Guan Heng Yeoh and Qing Nian Chan
Fire 2024, 7(5), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050167 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 336
Abstract
This study investigated the interplay between exit selection models and local pedestrian movement patterns within floor field frameworks. Specifically, this investigation analysed the performance of a multinomial logit exit choice model, incorporating both expected utility theory and cumulative prospect theory frameworks when coupled [...] Read more.
This study investigated the interplay between exit selection models and local pedestrian movement patterns within floor field frameworks. Specifically, this investigation analysed the performance of a multinomial logit exit choice model, incorporating both expected utility theory and cumulative prospect theory frameworks when coupled with three distinct local-level pedestrian movement models (FF-Von Neumann, FF-Moore, and NSFF). The expected utility theory framework considers the deterministic component as a linear relationship, while the cumulative prospect theory framework further considers the decision-maker’s risky attitudes by transforming objective terms into subjective terms using a power value function. The core objective was to comprehend how local movement dynamics, as represented by the floor field models, influence decision-making during exit selection. Comparative analyses revealed intriguing variations between the three local models, despite their shared expected utility theory-based exit choice framework. These discrepancies stemmed from the diverse pedestrian trajectory behaviours generated by each model. Consequently, these local dynamics impacted the decision-maker’s assessment of critical factors, such as the number of evacuees close to the decision-maker (NCDM) and the number of evacuees close to an exit (NCE), which the exit choice model incorporates. These assessments, in turn, significantly affected higher-level decision-making. The integration of the three models with the multinomial logit exit choice model, using either cumulative prospect theory and expected utility theory frameworks, further strengthened the observed bilateral relationship. While the specific nature of this relationship varied depending on the chosen framework and its implementation details, these consistent findings demonstrate the robustness of the results. This reinforced the influence of local-level pedestrian dynamics on higher-level exit selection, highlighting the importance of accurate crowd dynamics modelling, especially when advanced exit choice models consider local movement factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ensuring Safety against Fires in Overcrowded Urban Areas)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 5728 KiB  
Article
Slate–Cork Laminate Enhanced with Silicone for Habitat Industry Application
by Juana Abenojar, Sara López de Armentia and Miguel Angel Martínez
Fire 2024, 7(5), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050166 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 495
Abstract
This study investigates the feasibility of using a composite material comprising slate reinforced with cork sheets for architectural purposes like facades and wall coverings. The research involves the comprehensive characterisation of both slate and cork materials along with the evaluation of the silicone [...] Read more.
This study investigates the feasibility of using a composite material comprising slate reinforced with cork sheets for architectural purposes like facades and wall coverings. The research involves the comprehensive characterisation of both slate and cork materials along with the evaluation of the silicone adhesive used in their bonding process, specifically Sikasil® HT from SIKA®. It was found that both slate and cork exhibited low wettability, which was enhanced through cold plasma treatment. Subsequently, a composite sandwich structure was fabricated and subjected to impact testing in a drop tower, along with fire resistance evaluations. The fire tests revealed that when subjected to a flame of 900 °C for 15 min, the slate alone heated rapidly, reaching 500 °C within 3 min on the side opposite to the flame. However, the sandwich structure reached 260 °C on the cork side (opposite to the flame) at 7.5 min, maintaining this temperature until the deterioration or detachment of the cork between 11 and 12 min. This provided insulation and delayed ignition. The sandwich structure maintained its fire resistance due to the insulating properties of cork and the superior thermal resistance of silicone compared to other adhesives up to 260 °C. Overall, the results suggest the potential suitability of this sandwich structure for architectural applications. Its favourable adhesion properties and acceptable fire resistance indicate that it could serve as a viable alternative for construction materials in architectural contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Building Fire Safety Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

35 pages, 3308 KiB  
Article
Application of Model-Free and Model-Based Kinetic Methods in Evaluation of Reactions Complexity during Thermo-Oxidative Degradation Process: Case Study of [4-(Hydroxymethyl)phenoxymethyl] Polystyrene Resin
by Bojan Janković, Vladimir Dodevski, Filip Veljković, Marija Janković and Nebojša Manić
Fire 2024, 7(5), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050165 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 378
Abstract
This work examined the possibilities and limitations of model-free and model-based methods related to decrypting the kinetic complexity of multi-step thermo-oxidative degradation processes (as a testing system, a [4-(hydroxymethyl)phenoxymethyl] polystyrene resin was used), monitored by thermal analysis (TGA-DTG-DTA) techniques. It was found that [...] Read more.
This work examined the possibilities and limitations of model-free and model-based methods related to decrypting the kinetic complexity of multi-step thermo-oxidative degradation processes (as a testing system, a [4-(hydroxymethyl)phenoxymethyl] polystyrene resin was used), monitored by thermal analysis (TGA-DTG-DTA) techniques. It was found that isoconversional methods could successfully determine the correct number of process stages and presence of multiple reactions based on derived Ea(α) profiles and identify the negative dependence of the rate constant on the temperature. These methods could not overcome the problem that arose due to mass transfer limitations. The model-based method overcame more successfully the problem associated with mass transfer because its calculation machinery had capabilities for the correct solution of the total mass balance equation. However, a perfect fit with the experimental data was not achieved due to the dependence on the thermal history of the contribution (ctb.) of a given reaction step inside a fitting procedure cycle. On the other hand, through this approach, it was possible to estimate the rate-controlling steps of the process regarding the influence of the heating rate. It was found that for consecutive reaction mechanisms, the production of benzaldehyde and gases in high yields was controlled by the heating rate, where low heating rates were strongly recommended (≤10 K/min). Also, it was shown that the transport phenomenon may be also the rate-determining step (within the set of “intrinsic” kinetic parameters). It was also established that external heat transfer controls the overall rate, where the “pure” kinetic control regime had not been reached but was approached when lowering the temperature and size of the resin particles. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 8382 KiB  
Article
Study on the Effect of Pore Evolution on the Coal Spontaneous Combustion Characteristics in Goaf
by Jinglei Li, Hao Xu and Genshui Wu
Fire 2024, 7(5), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050164 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Understanding the characteristics of coal spontaneous combustion (CSC) in goaf under different porosities is crucial for comprehending the mechanism of CSC and its prevention and control. In this paper, a multi-field coupled model of CSC in the goaf, considering porosity variation, is developed [...] Read more.
Understanding the characteristics of coal spontaneous combustion (CSC) in goaf under different porosities is crucial for comprehending the mechanism of CSC and its prevention and control. In this paper, a multi-field coupled model of CSC in the goaf, considering porosity variation, is developed to investigate the effect of porosity on the CSC characteristics in the goaf. The results indicate that, as the goaf depth increases, both porosity and permeability decrease. When the highest goaf porosity is 25%, the average airflow velocity is between 0.00134 and 0.00139 m/s. In contrast, the average airflow velocity in the goaf with a porosity of 40% is approximately six times greater than that of the goaf with a porosity of 25%. As the goaf porosity increases, the overall oxygen concentration, temperature, and oxidized zone area also rise. Moreover, the oxidation zone area can be quantified and visualized, thereby enabling more effective prediction of the CSC risk in the goaf. The findings of the study have a positive significance in guiding the prevention and control of coal fires. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 5519 KiB  
Review
Current Status of Research on Wildland Fire Impacts on Soil Environment and Soil Organisms and Hotspots Visualization Analysis
by Zhichao Cheng, Song Wu, Dan Wei, Hong Pan, Xiaoyu Fu, Xinming Lu and Libin Yang
Fire 2024, 7(5), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050163 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 380
Abstract
Ecosystems are frequently disturbed by fires that have an important impact on the soil environment and the composition of soil organisms. In order to provide a baseline for the current research and identify trends on the effects of wildland fire on soil environment [...] Read more.
Ecosystems are frequently disturbed by fires that have an important impact on the soil environment and the composition of soil organisms. In order to provide a baseline for the current research and identify trends on the effects of wildland fire on soil environment and biological changes, the available literature was identified from the Web of Science database, covering the period from 1998/1998/1999 (the year of the earliest publication in this field) to 2023. A bibliometric analysis was performed and the data were visually displayed for the number of publications, countries, authors, research institutions, and keywords representing research hotspots. Specifically, the effects of wildland fire on the soil environment, on soil microorganisms and on soil fauna were analyzed. The results show that the annual number of publications describing effects of wildland fire on the soil environment and on soil microorganisms are increasing over time, while those describing effects on soil fauna are fewer and their number remains constant. The largest number of papers originate from the United States, with the United States Department of Agriculture as the research institution with the largest output. The three authors with the largest number of publications are Stefan H. Doerr, Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja and Jan Jacob Keizer. The research hotspots, as identified by keywords, are highly concentrated on wildfire, fire, organic matter, and biodiversity, amongst others. This study comprehensively analyzes the current situation of the research on the effects of wildland fire on changes in the soil environment and organisms, and provides reference for relevant scientific researchers in this trend and future research hotspots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Fires on Forest Ecosystems)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 3566 KiB  
Article
Effect of Climate Evolution on the Dynamics of the Wildfires in Greece
by Nikolaos Iliopoulos, Iasonas Aliferis and Michail Chalaris
Fire 2024, 7(5), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050162 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Understanding the potential effects of climate change on forest fire behavior and the resulting release of combustion products is critical for effective mitigation strategies in Greece. This study utilizes data from the MAGICC 2.4 (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse Gas-Induced Climate Change) [...] Read more.
Understanding the potential effects of climate change on forest fire behavior and the resulting release of combustion products is critical for effective mitigation strategies in Greece. This study utilizes data from the MAGICC 2.4 (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse Gas-Induced Climate Change) climate model and the SCENGEN 2.4 (SCENarioGENerator) database to assess these impacts. By manipulating various model parameters such as climate sensitivity, scenario, time period, and global climate models (GCMs) within the SCENGEN 2.4 database, we analyzed climatic trends affecting forest fire generation and evolution. The results reveal complex and nuanced findings, indicating a need for further investigation. Case studies are conducted using the FARSITE 4 (Fire Area Simulator) model, incorporating meteorological changes derived from climate trends. Simulations of two fires in East Attica, accounting for different fuel and meteorological conditions, demonstrate an increase in the rate of combustion product release. This underscores the influence of changing meteorological parameters on forest fire dynamics and highlights the importance of proactive measures to mitigate future risks. Our findings emphasize the urgency of addressing climate change impacts on wildfire behavior to safeguard environmental and public health in Greece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Fire Danger)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 989 KiB  
Review
A Focused Review on Wildfire Evacuation and Infrastructure Resilience in Canada: Trends and Insights (2013–2023)
by Nima Karimi
Fire 2024, 7(5), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050161 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 519
Abstract
This review paper investigates the landscape of wildfire-related studies with a focus on infrastructure and evacuations across Canadian provinces, revealing a predominant focus on Alberta, particularly after the 2016 Fort McMurray wildfire. The aftermath of this event has heightened attention to the unique [...] Read more.
This review paper investigates the landscape of wildfire-related studies with a focus on infrastructure and evacuations across Canadian provinces, revealing a predominant focus on Alberta, particularly after the 2016 Fort McMurray wildfire. The aftermath of this event has heightened attention to the unique challenges faced during evacuations, emphasizing the urgent need for heightened awareness and preparedness, especially in the vulnerable northern communities of Alberta. Studies beyond Alberta contribute to understanding Canadian wildfire dynamics. However, a noticeable research gap in British Columbia raises concerns about research prioritization and resource allocation despite heightened wildfire activity. The fact that some provinces are contributing less than 4.2%, such as Quebec, Saskatchewan, Ontario, Northwest Territories, Yukon, and the Prairies, might be attributed to regional variations influenced by historical wildfire frequency and population density. Thematic analysis categorizing studies into “community support/resilience”, “evacuation efficiency”, and “infrastructure protection/raising awareness” provides nuanced insights. The dominance of the “community support/resilience” category, comprising over 40% of studies, signifies a societal shift towards proactive community engagement. Balanced representation in the “evacuation efficiency” and “infrastructure protection/raising awareness” categories, each contributing over 29%, reflects a collective effort to glean lessons from past evacuations and enhance community preparedness. Temporal trends and thematic analyses spotlight a commitment to continuous improvement, adaptability to emerging challenges, and a growing recognition of the multifaceted aspects of wildfire management. The evolving emphasis on community involvement, responsiveness to changing evacuation dynamics, and heightened awareness of infrastructure protection underscores the proactive stance of the research community, providing insights for shaping future research priorities, policy frameworks, and community resilience strategies in the face of evolving wildfire threats in Canada. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1343 KiB  
Article
Medium-Term Comparative Effects of Prescribed Burning and Mechanical Shredding on Soil Characteristics in Heathland and Shrubland Habitats: Insights from a Protected Natural Area
by Rosa M. Cadenas, Fernando Castedo-Dorado and Luz Valbuena
Fire 2024, 7(5), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050160 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Parts of the Cantabrian Mountains (N Spain) have been colonized by woody species in the past six or seven decades as a result of a decline in livestock activity and changes in the fire regime. Various management strategies have been used to prevent [...] Read more.
Parts of the Cantabrian Mountains (N Spain) have been colonized by woody species in the past six or seven decades as a result of a decline in livestock activity and changes in the fire regime. Various management strategies have been used to prevent the expansion of shrubs and recover grassland ecosystems for grazing activities. However, it is not clear how different vegetation treatments affect soils, which are crucial in supporting life and providing nutrients in these ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to compare the dynamics of the physicochemical and biological soil properties after two vegetation treatments: prescribed burning and shredding. Samples were obtained from plots representing alkaline and acidic soils dominated by gorse shrub (Genista hispanica subsp. occidentalis) and heath (Calluna vulgaris) plant communities, respectively. The soil samples were collected immediately before and after the treatments and one and two years later. The level of available P varied depending on the soil pH, and it only increased after the treatments in the acidic soils in the heathland community. The total N and available P concentrations were higher after the prescribed burning, and the enzymatic activity tended to be higher after the shredding treatment. Despite the significant effects on some soil variables, prescribed burning and shredding did not have important short- and medium-term effects on the chemical and soil enzymatic properties. These treatments can therefore be considered sustainable vegetation management tools, at least in the medium term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Fires on Forest Ecosystems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3314 KiB  
Article
Exploring Spontaneous Combustion Characteristics and Structural Disparities of Coal Induced by Igneous Rock Erosion
by Mingqian Zhang, Zongxiang Li, Zhifeng Chen, Lun Gao, Yun Qi and Haifeng Hu
Fire 2024, 7(5), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050159 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 456
Abstract
The erosion of igneous rocks affects the structural and spontaneous combustion characteristics of coal. A series of tests were conducted, including programmed heating, thermogravimetric analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, and pressed mercury experiments on samples from primary coal and coal eroded by [...] Read more.
The erosion of igneous rocks affects the structural and spontaneous combustion characteristics of coal. A series of tests were conducted, including programmed heating, thermogravimetric analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, and pressed mercury experiments on samples from primary coal and coal eroded by igneous rocks from the Tashan Mine and Xiaonan Mine within the same coal seam. Based on these experiments, we analyzed various properties of coal, such as the oxidation characteristics, spontaneous combustion limit, active functional group content, chemical structure, and pore structure, from both macroscopic and microscopic perspectives. The results indicated significant trends after the erosion of igneous rocks: (1) there were increases in the oxygen consumption rate, as well as the CO and CO2 release rates; (2) the upper limit of air leakage intensity increased, the minimum thickness of floating coal decreased, and the lower limit of oxygen volume fraction decreased; (3) there was a decrease in the activation energy required for coal ignition; (4) there was a decrease in the active functional group content while improving the structural stability; and (5) there were the alterations in the pore structure of coal. These promoted the oxidation reactions between oxygen and the active groups within the coal matrix, increasing the propensity for spontaneous combustion, particularly in the igneous rocks with low oxidation activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Fire Safety Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 8319 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Confined Space Size on the Temperature Distribution Characteristics of Internal Window Plume from Well-Ventilated Compartment Fires
by Qiwei Dong, Yanfeng Li, Junmei Li, Fei Xie, Desheng Xu and Zhihe Su
Fire 2024, 7(5), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050158 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 574
Abstract
In this research, the influence of confined space size on the temperature distribution characteristics of internal window plumes from well-ventilated compartment fires was studied. Theoretical analysis was firstly used to establish a mathematical model for the smoke after ejecting from the window in [...] Read more.
In this research, the influence of confined space size on the temperature distribution characteristics of internal window plumes from well-ventilated compartment fires was studied. Theoretical analysis was firstly used to establish a mathematical model for the smoke after ejecting from the window in the space. The study considered fire heat release rate and vertical height as dependent variables. Numerical simulations and experimental methods were carried out to study the temperature variations. A critical distance L2 was obtained. Results show that when the space D between the vertical retaining wall and the building façade is greater than L2, the variation of D has little influence on radial temperature. Once D is less than L2, the radial temperature distribution inside the confined space will tend to be consistent, and the temperature in the confined space sharply increases as D decreases. In addition, a dimensionless model was derived to quantify the relationship between temperature rise and vertical height. The experimental and numerical simulation results were processed, which are in good agreement with the model. The study can provide a framework for managing building safety. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2134 KiB  
Article
Mental Health and Traumatic Occupational Exposure in Wildland Fire Dispatchers
by Robin Verble, Rachel Granberg, Seth Pearson, Charlene Rogers and Roman Watson
Fire 2024, 7(5), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050157 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Wildland fire dispatchers play a key role in wildland fire management and response organization; however, to date, wildland fire studies have largely focused on the physical hazards and, to a lesser extent, mental health hazards of wildland firefighting operational personnel, and dispatcher studies [...] Read more.
Wildland fire dispatchers play a key role in wildland fire management and response organization; however, to date, wildland fire studies have largely focused on the physical hazards and, to a lesser extent, mental health hazards of wildland firefighting operational personnel, and dispatcher studies have primarily focused on 911 and police dispatchers. Studies of other dispatchers have provided some limited insight into potential strains impacting this workforce, including work-related fatigue, burnout, and traumatic exposure. However, the specific job hazards that are faced by wildland fire dispatchers are poorly understood. In 2023, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 510 wildland fire dispatchers with questions about their occupational health, general health, and well-being. We used validated screening instruments to measure the rates of anxiety, depression, PTSD, and suicidal thoughts and ideation. Here, we also present the results of mental health and trauma exposure questions that were asked as part of a larger survey. We found that demographic factors were significant indicators of anxiety, depression, and binge/restrictive eating. Our data indicate that rates of anxiety, depression, PTSD, and suicidal thoughts and ideation are significantly higher for both the wildland fire dispatching workforce and other emergency responder populations than those of the general United States population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fire Social Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 1236 KiB  
Article
Associations between Recognition and Behaviors Regarding the Use, Washing and Management of Firefighting Protection Suits and Public Health Awareness of Occupational Exposure Risks among Firefighters
by Soo Jin Kim and Seunghon Ham
Fire 2024, 7(5), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050156 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 749
Abstract
The firefighting protective suits (FPSs) of firefighters at fire scenes affect their health and safety. However, the association between firefighters’ health awareness of occupational exposure risks and the FPS use, washing and management remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the association [...] Read more.
The firefighting protective suits (FPSs) of firefighters at fire scenes affect their health and safety. However, the association between firefighters’ health awareness of occupational exposure risks and the FPS use, washing and management remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the association between firefighters’ health awareness of occupational exposure risks and their recognition, behaviors regarding the use, washing and management of FPSs. This study design is a cross-sectional study and used a web-based survey of the Seoul Metropolitan Government’s electronic survey system. The survey was conducted on metropolitan firefighters performing shift work in charge of fire and rescue work for 21 days from 1 to 22 April 2019, with 1097 (40.3%) respondents. Characteristics of FPS use, washing and management and the association between thoughts and behaviors thereof and health awareness of occupational exposure risks were evaluated. Data of 1097 firefighters were analyzed using the SAS 9.4 statistical package, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Firefighters’ fire scene awareness rate of possible carcinogens was 94.4%. There was an association between public health thinking of occupational exposure risks and the correct use of an FPS for one’s own safety (AOR 1.97. 95% CI 1.02–3.80). However, no association was shown between correct FPS use (AOR 1.49, 95% CI 0.48–4.59), washing (AOR 2.50, 95% CI 0.93–6.68) and management (AOR 1.38, 95% CI 0.75–2.50) behaviors. This study analyzed the relationship between the use, washing and management of personal protective equipment called firefighting clothing and firefighters perceived occupational exposure risks. This study found an association between the health awareness of occupational exposure risks and recognition of the correct use of FPSs at fire scenes but not between using, washing and managing behaviors of FPSs. This study is the first to analyze the relationship between firefighting clothing and occupational health awareness level. The results confirm that future interventions are required to help firefighters practice desirable behaviors toward FPSs and provided evidenced data for preventing occupational diseases among firefighters. Therefore, this study can be used to develop a firefighter occupational health curriculum and establish health and safety plans from mid- to long-term perspectives for firefighters’ safety against occupational exposure risks. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4518 KiB  
Article
Experimental Evaluation of Methanol/Jet-A Blends as Sustainable Aviation Fuels for Turbo-Engines: Performance and Environmental Impact Analysis
by Grigore Cican, Radu Mirea and Gimi Rimbu
Fire 2024, 7(5), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050155 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 575
Abstract
This study offers a comprehensive examination, both theoretically and experimentally, of the potential of methanol (M) as a sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) assessed in combination with kerosene (Ke—Jet-A aviation fuel + 5% Aeroshell oil). Different blends of methanol and kerosene (10%, 20%, and [...] Read more.
This study offers a comprehensive examination, both theoretically and experimentally, of the potential of methanol (M) as a sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) assessed in combination with kerosene (Ke—Jet-A aviation fuel + 5% Aeroshell oil). Different blends of methanol and kerosene (10%, 20%, and 30% vol. of (M) was added to Ke) were tested in an aviation micro turbo-engine under various operating regimes, such as idle, cruise, and maximum. Key engine parameters, including combustion temperature, fuel consumption, and thrust, were closely monitored during these trials. Essential performance indicators such as combustion efficiency, thermal efficiency, and specific consumption for all fuel blends under maximum operating conditions are also presented. Physical and chemical characteristics, such as viscosity, density, calorific value and flash point, were determined for each blend. Moreover, elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy were utilized to evaluate the chemical composition of the fuels. This study further investigated the air requirements for stoichiometric combustion and computed the resulting CO2 and H2O emissions. Experimental tests were conducted on the Jet Cat P80® micro turbo-engine, covering assessments of starting procedures, acceleration, deceleration, and pollutant emissions (CO and SO2) during various engine operating conditions. The results suggest that the examined fuel blends demonstrate stable engine performance at concentrations of 10% and 20% methanol. However, observations indicate that with an increase in methanol concentration, particularly at 30%, the stability of the engine at idle and, notably, at maximum speed decreases significantly. Specifically, at a 30% methanol concentration, the engine no longer operates stably, exhibiting significant rpm fluctuations, leading to the decision not to explore higher concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jet Fuel Combustion)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 7329 KiB  
Article
Integrating Real-Time Meteorological Conditions into a Novel Fire Spread Model for Grasslands
by Yakun Zhang, Huimin Yu, Wenjiang Huang, Tiecheng Huang, Meng Fan and Kun Wang
Fire 2024, 7(5), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050154 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Accurate comprehension of grassland fires is imperative for maintaining ecological stability. In this study, we propose a novel fire model that incorporates real-time meteorological conditions. Our methodology integrates key meteorological factors including relative humidity, temperature, degree of solidification of combustible materials, and wind [...] Read more.
Accurate comprehension of grassland fires is imperative for maintaining ecological stability. In this study, we propose a novel fire model that incorporates real-time meteorological conditions. Our methodology integrates key meteorological factors including relative humidity, temperature, degree of solidification of combustible materials, and wind speed. These factors are embedded into a comprehensive function that determines both the downwind and upwind spreading speeds of the fire. Additionally, the model accommodates fire spread in the absence of wind by incorporating the direction perpendicular to the wind, with wind speed set to zero. By precisely determining wind speed, the model enables real-time calculation of fire spread speeds in all directions. Under stable wind conditions, the fire spread area typically adopts an elliptical shape. Leveraging ellipse properties, we define the aspect ratio as a function related to wind speed. Consequently, with knowledge of the fire duration, the model accurately estimates the area of fire spread. Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of this model in predicting and evaluating fires in the Hulunbuir Grassland. The model offers an innovative method for quantifying grassland fires, contributing significantly to the understanding and management of grassland ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire Numerical Simulation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4000 KiB  
Article
Predicting Wildfire Ember Hot-Spots on Gable Roofs via Deep Learning
by Mohammad Khaled Al-Bashiti, Dac Nguyen, M. Z. Naser and Nigel B. Kaye
Fire 2024, 7(5), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050153 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Ember accumulation on and around homes can lead to spot fires and home ignition. Post wildland fire assessments suggest that this mechanism is one of the leading causes of home destruction in wildland urban interface (WUI) fires. However, the process of ember deposition [...] Read more.
Ember accumulation on and around homes can lead to spot fires and home ignition. Post wildland fire assessments suggest that this mechanism is one of the leading causes of home destruction in wildland urban interface (WUI) fires. However, the process of ember deposition and accumulation on and around houses remains poorly understood. Herein, we develop a deep learning (DL) model to analyze data from a series of ember-related wind tunnel experiments for a range of wind conditions and roof slopes. The developed model is designed to identify building roof regions where embers will remain in contact with the rooftop. Our results show that the DL model is capable of accurately predicting the position and fraction of the roof on which embers remain in place as a function of the wind speed, wind direction, roof slope, and location on the windward and leeward faces of the rooftop. The DL model was augmented with explainable AI (XAI) measures to examine the extent of the influence of these parameters on the rooftop ember coverage and potential ignition. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 5398 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Ceiling Gas Temperature in a Branched Tunnel Fire with a Sloped Mainline Region under Natural Ventilation
by Ning Lu, Xiaolin Yao, Jinming Yang and Youbo Huang
Fire 2024, 7(5), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7050152 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 547
Abstract
The effect of the mainline slope on the ceiling temperature profile in a branched tunnel has not been clarified nor included in existing models. Thus, in this paper, the numerical code was employed to investigate the induced airflow velocity and gas temperature beneath [...] Read more.
The effect of the mainline slope on the ceiling temperature profile in a branched tunnel has not been clarified nor included in existing models. Thus, in this paper, the numerical code was employed to investigate the induced airflow velocity and gas temperature beneath the ceiling in a branch tunnel with a sloped upstream mainline. The mainline slope varied from 1% to 7%, with an interval of 1%. Five fire power of 3 MW, 5 MW, 10 MW, 15 MW, and 20 MW are employed on each slope. The airflow velocity and the longitudinal temperature in the mainline tunnel are measured and analyzed. Results show that the stack effect obviously occurred, which caused longitudinal velocity to prevent the smoke reverse flow in the mainline. The induced airflow velocity in the upstream inclined mainline is higher with increasing slope, and the dimensionless velocity is normalized well by the proposed expression. The maximum ceiling temperature is independent of the mainline slope and correlated well by Q*2/3, but the effect of the mainline slope on temperature longitudinal decay is worth considering. Finally, a normalized expression for longitudinal temperature decay in an inclined mainline is proposed by taking the fire power and mainline slope into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Tunnel Fire Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop