Carbon Fibers from Sustainable Precursors

A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 20734

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National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICSI Energy, 240050 Ramnicu Valcea, Romania
Interests: inorganic chemistry; nanotechnology; materials chemistry
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Dear Colleagues,

The large-scale industry of carbon fiber has evolved in recent years in more and more fields, such as aerospace, military, medical, automobile, supporting goods and so on. This huge interest arises from their extraordinary properties like, good mechanical strength, good electrical and thermal conductivities, great chemical stability, etc. In recent years, the use of these fibers has become increasingly attractive in the energy field as they are raw materials for the production of windmill blades, for the storage of natural gas and fuel cells for transport. Nowadays, the main source of these fibers production is represented by the electrospinning process of polyacrylonitrile (PAN). With this in mind, it will be very interesting to direct fiber production to sustainable precursors. The most widespread renewable resource in the world is the biomass. Consequently, there are considerable volumes of sustainable biomass (meaning low costs production) which can lead to the obtaining of carbon fiber.

Dr. Andrei Radu Dorin
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Carbon fibers
  • Sustainable precursors
  • Biomass
  • Carbonization
  • Applications

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 4939 KiB  
Article
Application of Transformed Cross-Section Method for Analytical Analysis of Laminated Veneer Lumber Beams Strengthened with Composite Materials
by Michał Marcin Bakalarz and Paweł Grzegorz Kossakowski
Fibers 2023, 11(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11030024 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
Due to the high cost of laboratory testing, many researchers are considering developing methods to predict the behavior of unreinforced and reinforced wood beams. This work aims to create either numerical or analytical models useful for extrapolating already conducted tests to other schemes/materials [...] Read more.
Due to the high cost of laboratory testing, many researchers are considering developing methods to predict the behavior of unreinforced and reinforced wood beams. This work aims to create either numerical or analytical models useful for extrapolating already conducted tests to other schemes/materials used as reinforcement. In the case of timber structures, due to the complexity of timber, this task is difficult. The first part of the article presents an analysis of the suitability of using a simplified mathematical model based on the equivalent cross-section method to describe the behavior of unreinforced and reinforced with carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite full-size laminated veneer lumber (LVL) beams. The theoretical results were compared with the results of conducted experimental tests. The scope of the analysis includes the estimation of modulus of rupture, bending stiffness, and determination of the neutral axis position. The equivalent cross-section method showed good agreement in determining the bending stiffness and neutral axis position of the strengthened sections. However, the suitability of using the equivalent cross-section method to estimate the load-carrying capacity of a cross-section reinforced with fiber composites still needs to be confirmed, which, according to the authors, is due to the differences between the assumed (linear) and actual (nonlinear) strain distribution in the compression zone. The second part uses the equivalent cross-section method to estimate the predicted bending stiffness of LVL beams strengthened with aramid-fibre-reinforced polymer (AFRP), glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP), and ultra-high modulus carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP UHM) sheets. The proposed method can be used for preliminary evaluation of strengthening effectiveness of LVL beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers from Sustainable Precursors)
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19 pages, 3843 KiB  
Article
Carbon Fibers from Wet-Spun Cellulose-Lignin Precursors Using the Cold Alkali Process
by Andreas Bengtsson, Alice Landmér, Lars Norberg, Shun Yu, Monica Ek, Elisabet Brännvall and Maria Sedin
Fibers 2022, 10(12), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib10120108 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3124
Abstract
In recent years, there has been extensive research into the development of cheaper and more sustainable carbon fiber (CF) precursors, and air-gap-spun cellulose-lignin precursors have gained considerable attention where ionic liquids have been used for the co-dissolution of cellulose and lignin. However, ionic [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been extensive research into the development of cheaper and more sustainable carbon fiber (CF) precursors, and air-gap-spun cellulose-lignin precursors have gained considerable attention where ionic liquids have been used for the co-dissolution of cellulose and lignin. However, ionic liquids are expensive and difficult to recycle. In the present work, an aqueous solvent system, cold alkali, was used to prepare cellulose-lignin CF precursors by wet spinning solutions containing co-dissolved dissolving-grade kraft pulp and softwood kraft lignin. Precursors containing up to 30 wt% lignin were successfully spun using two different coagulation bath compositions, where one of them introduced a flame retardant into the precursor to increase the CF conversion yield. The precursors were converted to CFs via batchwise and continuous conversion. The precursor and conversion conditions had a significant effect on the conversion yield (12–44 wt%), the Young’s modulus (33–77 GPa), and the tensile strength (0.48–1.17 GPa), while the precursor morphology was preserved. Structural characterization of the precursors and CFs showed that a more oriented and crystalline precursor gave a more ordered CF structure with higher tensile properties. The continuous conversion trials highlighted the importance of tension control to increase the mechanical properties of the CFs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers from Sustainable Precursors)
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12 pages, 3022 KiB  
Article
Laboratory Investigation of Sand-Geosynthetic Interface Friction Parameters Using Cost-Effective Vertical Pullout Apparatus
by Malik Rizwan, Hassan Mujtaba, Khalid Farooq, Zia Ur Rehman, Syed Zishan Ashiq, Syed Minhaj Saleem Kazmi and Muhammad Junaid Munir
Fibers 2022, 10(10), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib10100084 - 30 Sep 2022
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Abstract
The current research has been carried out to investigate the interactive behaviour of soil-geosynthetic interfaces. A cost-effective vertical pullout test (VPT) apparatus was designed for this purpose. A series of laboratory direct shear tests (DSTs) and vertical pullout tests (VPT) were carried out [...] Read more.
The current research has been carried out to investigate the interactive behaviour of soil-geosynthetic interfaces. A cost-effective vertical pullout test (VPT) apparatus was designed for this purpose. A series of laboratory direct shear tests (DSTs) and vertical pullout tests (VPT) were carried out using three types of sands and four different types of geosynthetics. All three sandy samples used in this research were classified as poorly graded sand (SP) as per the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) with median grain size ranging between 0.39~0.2 mm. The geosynthetics used were three woven and one non-woven with a tensile force of 3.3 kN/m~103.8 kN/m. The direct shear test revealed that geometric properties of geosynthetics have an influence on interface shear resistance. Interface friction angle varies between 29.2~38.3. Vertical pullout (VPT) test results show that the pullout force is in the range of 23.9~31.4. The interface friction angle by both direct and vertical pullout tests is more for coarse-grained soils than for fine-grained soils. Interface friction angles from pullout tests were around 19% smaller than direct shear tests. The interface efficiency ranged from 0.69 to 0.97 for all soils; meanwhile, for non-woven geotextiles, the efficiency values are up to 22% higher as compared to woven geotextiles due to theirtexture. The present research indicates that interface friction parameters can be efficiently determined through the interface of a cost-effective VPT which is also comparable with DST. The reliable values of interface efficiency can be obtained for soil-geosynthetic interfaces which can optimize the design and omits the need forassumed conservative values of friction parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers from Sustainable Precursors)
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15 pages, 8391 KiB  
Article
Simple Synthesis of Fe3O4@-Activated Carbon from Wastepaper for Dispersive Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Their UHPLC–PDA Determination in Human Plasma
by Vincenzo Ferrone, Pantaleone Bruni, Valentino Canale, Leonardo Sbrascini, Francesco Nobili, Giuseppe Carlucci and Stefania Ferrari
Fibers 2022, 10(7), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib10070058 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2869
Abstract
In the present society, the recycling and reuse of valuable substances are of utmost importance for economic and environmental purposes. At the same time, there is a pressing need to develop new methods to protect the ecosystem from many human activities, including those [...] Read more.
In the present society, the recycling and reuse of valuable substances are of utmost importance for economic and environmental purposes. At the same time, there is a pressing need to develop new methods to protect the ecosystem from many human activities, including those that have contributed to an ever-increasing presence of pharmaceutical pollutants. In this study, a straightforward approach that applies a magnetic carbon composite for the effective removal of NSAIDs from biological fluids is reported. The composite was produced by recycling wasted handkerchiefs, to provide cellulose to the reactive system and then transformed into carbon via calcination at high temperature. The morphological and structural features of the prepared “Fe3O4@-activated carbon” samples were investigated via thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Magnetic solid-state extraction was carried out to reveal the adsorption capabilities of the magnetic carbon composite and then combined with UHPLC–PDA for the determination and quantification of five NSAIDs (furprofen, indoprofen, ketoprofen, flurbiprofen, and indomethacin). The method developed herein proved to be fast and accurate. The adsorbent could be reused for up to 10 cycles, without any decrease in performance; thus, it contributes to an intelligent and sustainable economic strategy projected toward minimal waste generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers from Sustainable Precursors)
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19 pages, 4276 KiB  
Article
Application of Activated Carbon Adsorbents Prepared from Prickly Pear Fruit Seeds and a Conductive Polymer Matrix to Remove Congo Red from Aqueous Solutions
by Saadia Lahreche, Imane Moulefera, Abdelkader El Kebir, Lilia Sabantina, M’hamed Kaid and Abdelghani Benyoucef
Fibers 2022, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib10010007 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3686
Abstract
The present work was aimed to evaluate the adsorption properties of activated carbons based on prickly pear seeds (PPS) and conductive polymer matrix based on polyaniline (PANI) for the removal of anionic Congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was prepared [...] Read more.
The present work was aimed to evaluate the adsorption properties of activated carbons based on prickly pear seeds (PPS) and conductive polymer matrix based on polyaniline (PANI) for the removal of anionic Congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was prepared by polymerization of aniline in the presence of activated PPS by phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) methods. The adsorption kinetics were studied using UV-visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy. The characterization data suggest that the adsorption of the Congo red dye is enhanced because PANI chain molecules, which are especially accountable for removal through π–π interaction and H–bonding with the CR, are adsorbed/tethered onto the acid-activated PPS (PPSH), and thus surmount the mass transfer limitation by being best exposed to the CR-adsorbed molecule. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second order process. The correlation coefficients (R2) for Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin showed that the adsorption values obey Freundlich and Tempkin isotherm models. Moreover, the isotherm was most accurately described by the Freundlich model, and the maximum removal percentage was calculated to be 91.14% under optimized conditions of pH 6.6, 1 g/L of adsorbent dosage, and an initial CR dye concentration of 20 mg·L−1. Importantly, the hybrid adsorbent exhibited the highest adsorption capacity (80.15%) after five cycles of the adsorption–desorption process. Thermodynamic parameters, such as entropy changes, enthalpy changes and Gibbs free energy, were also evaluated. These results indicated that the PANI matrix can generally be better utilized for the removal of Congo red dye when appropriately dispersed on the surface of suitable support materials. These results provide a new direction to promote the separable adsorbents with increasing performance for adsorption of dye impurities from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers from Sustainable Precursors)
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9 pages, 32592 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Structure Morphology on the Mechanical Properties of Crumpled Graphene Fiber
by Julia Baimova, Polina Polyakova and Stepan Shcherbinin
Fibers 2021, 9(12), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9120085 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2418
Abstract
Crumpled graphene fiber is a promising structure to be a graphene precursor to enhance the production and mechanical properties of various carbon fibers. The primary goal of the present work is to study the crumpled graphene of different morphologies using molecular dynamics simulations [...] Read more.
Crumpled graphene fiber is a promising structure to be a graphene precursor to enhance the production and mechanical properties of various carbon fibers. The primary goal of the present work is to study the crumpled graphene of different morphologies using molecular dynamics simulations to find the effect of the structural peculiarities on the mechanical properties, such as the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and deformation characteristics. Mono- and poly-disperse structures are considered under uniaxial tension along two different axes. As it is found, both structures are isotropic and stress–strain curves for tension along different directions are very similar. Young’s modulus of crumpled graphene is close, about 50 and 80 GPa; however, the strength of the polydisperse structure is bigger at the elastic regime. While a monodisperse structure can in-elastically deform until high tensile strength of 90 GPa, structure analysis showed that polydisperse crumpled graphene fiber pores appeared two times faster than the monodisperse ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers from Sustainable Precursors)
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Review

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17 pages, 26870 KiB  
Review
Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Geopolymer Composites: A Review
by Vojtěch Růžek, Ardak Mukhamedievna Dostayeva, Janusz Walter, Thomas Grab and Kinga Korniejenko
Fibers 2023, 11(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11020017 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3659
Abstract
The article summarizes the state of the art in carbon-reinforced geopolymers. It takes into consideration various types of matrices and types of carbon fibers (CFs). The article shows the growing importance of this composite in the investigation conducted in recent years. Today, it [...] Read more.
The article summarizes the state of the art in carbon-reinforced geopolymers. It takes into consideration various types of matrices and types of carbon fibers (CFs). The article shows the growing importance of this composite in the investigation conducted in recent years. Today, it is one of the most promising modern research areas, taking into account the decrease in the prices of CFs and their appearance on the market waste-based CFs, as well as research on new methods of producing CFs from sustainable precursors. The research methods applied in the article are critical analyses of the literature. The results of the literature analysis are discussed in a comparative context, including production methods and the influence of CFs on geopolymer properties. The potential applications for carbon fiber-reinforced geopolymer composites are shown. Additionally, the current research challenges for geopolymer composites reinforced by CFs are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers from Sustainable Precursors)
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