Mycotoxins in the Dairy Industry

A special issue of Dairy (ISSN 2624-862X). This special issue belongs to the section "Metabolomics and Foodomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2023) | Viewed by 7317

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering (FZEA), University of São Paulo (USP), Pirassununga 13635-900, SP, Brazil
Interests: quantification and removal of mycotoxins; aflatoxin decontamination in food commodities; removal/degradation of different toxins in food commodities
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering (FZEA), University of São Paulo (USP), Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga 13635-900, SP, Brazil
Interests: mycotoxins; dairy products; prevention/removal/degradation of different mycotoxins in food commodities; ruminant nutrition; feed additives
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced as secondary metabolites by certain groups of fungi during their development, especially in cereals, which can produce several toxic effects in animals and humans. The most important fungi genera that produce mycotoxins are Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium, and the main classes of mycotoxins produced by these genera are the aflatoxins (AF), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone (ZEN). When dairy animals ingest these toxins, in addition to their toxic effects, their metabolites or unmetabolized compounds may be transferred to their milk. In particular, dairy cows may shed mycotoxins and their respective biotransformation products in milk and milk products, leading to an additional exposure route for dietary mycotoxins in humans. Thus, this Special Issue addresses the challenge of mycotoxin contamination in the dairy industry, and welcomes studies that: report mycotoxin occurrence data in milk and dairy products; perform toxicity studies in dairy animals exposed to dietary mycotoxins; clarify biotransformation patterns of mycotoxins in lactating animals and their potential contribution for human exposure through the consumption of dairy products; and describe new analytical methodologies to determine mycotoxins in dairy food matrices. Critical reviews on the impacts of mycotoxins on dairy production systems and regulatory issues are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Carlos Augusto Fernandes De Oliveira
Dr. Carlos Humberto Corassin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Aflatoxins
  • Ochratoxin A
  • Zearalenone
  • Milk quality
  • Dairy products
  • Occurrence
  • Decontamination
  • Dairy animals
  • Toxicity

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 204 KiB  
Editorial
Mycotoxins in the Dairy Industry
by Carlos Humberto Corassin and Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira
Dairy 2023, 4(2), 392-394; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4020025 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Dairy animals’ diets may be naturally and simultaneously contaminated by several fungi that are able to produce different secondary toxic metabolites, known as mycotoxins [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in the Dairy Industry)

Research

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10 pages, 441 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Study of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Cow Milk on the Retail Dairy Market in Gorgan, Iran
by Hadi Rahimzadeh Barzoki, Hossein Faraji, Somayeh Beirami, Fatemeh Zahra Keramati, Gulzar Ahmad Nayik, Zahra Izadi Yazdanaabadi and Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad
Dairy 2023, 4(4), 571-580; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4040039 - 20 Oct 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Milk and milk products are the main nutritional foods for all age groups, especially for infants and children. Milk may be dangerous to consume due to the presence of a harmful substance called Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The objective of this study was to [...] Read more.
Milk and milk products are the main nutritional foods for all age groups, especially for infants and children. Milk may be dangerous to consume due to the presence of a harmful substance called Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The objective of this study was to assess the levels of AFM1 in milk, particularly those that exceed the standards set by the European Union (50 ng/L), the Food and Drug Administration (500 ng/L), and the Iranian National Standards Organization (100 ng/L). The study included one hundred and eighty samples of raw cow’s milk from various retail dairy markets in Gorgan, with 45 samples collected during each season. The level of Aflatoxin M1 in the samples was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. AFM1 was detected in 139 (72.2%) raw cow milk samples with a range of 3.5–357 ng/L. All of the samples collected had Aflatoxin M1 concentration levels that were below the maximum limit of 500 ng/L set by the FDA. However, 41 samples (22.7%) exceeded the EU’s limit of 50 ng/L, and 26 samples (14.4%) exceeded the INSO’s limit of 100 ng/L for Aflatoxin M1 in raw cow’s milk. The lowest and highest AFM1 levels of contamination were detected in the summer and winter seasons, which constituted 32 (71.1%) and 38 (84.4%) samples, respectively. The consumption of raw cow milk can lead to health risks for individuals from various age groups because regulatory limits are not being followed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in the Dairy Industry)
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7 pages, 297 KiB  
Article
Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk and Dairy Products Traded in São Paulo, Brazil: An Update
by Carlos Humberto Corassin, Aline Borowsky, Sher Ali, Roice Eliana Rosim and Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira
Dairy 2022, 3(4), 842-848; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3040057 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
The aim of this study was to conduct an up-to-date investigation on the occurrence levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in samples of raw milk (n = 40), pasteurized milk (n = 44), ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk (n [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to conduct an up-to-date investigation on the occurrence levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in samples of raw milk (n = 40), pasteurized milk (n = 44), ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk (n = 27), Minas cheese (n = 57), and yogurt (n = 44) traded in São Paulo state, Brazil. AFM1 was extracted from fluid milks and dairy products using immunoaffinity columns and determined by high performance liquid chromatography. AFM1 was detected at the mean level of 0.080 ± 0.071 µg/L or kg in 72 samples (34.0%) evaluated in the study (n = 212). Detectable levels of AFM1 were observed in five samples of raw milk (12.5%), 16 samples of pasteurized milk (36.4%), 13 samples of UHT milk (48.1%), 27 samples of cheese (47.4%), and 11 samples of yogurt (25.0%), although none of them had concentrations above the maximum permitted levels (MPL) for AFM1 adopted in Brazil. However, 11.7% (n = 13) of samples of raw, pasteurized, and UHT milks would have AFM1 concentrations above the MPL of 0.05 μg/L adopted in the EU. The maximum level was detected in one cheese sample containing 0.695 µg/kg. Although none of the samples exceeded the Brazilian MPL, the high frequencies of AFM1 in Brazilian milk products warrant concern about their contribution to the human exposure to aflatoxins. Because aflatoxins are among the most potent carcinogens known, the results of this trial stress the need for stringent measures in the milk production system to avoid AFM1 in milk and derived products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in the Dairy Industry)
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10 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Incidence of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk and Milk Products from Punjab, Pakistan, and Estimation of Dietary Intake
by Shahzad Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas and Sidra Latif
Dairy 2022, 3(3), 577-586; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3030041 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2092
Abstract
In the present study, 124 samples of milk and milk products were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), which were purchased from the central cities of Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography, which [...] Read more.
In the present study, 124 samples of milk and milk products were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), which were purchased from the central cities of Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography, which was equipped with a fluorescence detector. The results showed that 66 samples (53.8%) of raw milk and milk products were found to be contaminated with detectable levels of AFM1 above ≤50 ng/L, and 24.2% of the samples had levels of AFM1 higher than the permissible limit of the European Union (EU; 50 ng/kg). In total, 53.6% of the raw milk, 57.8% of the UHT (ultra-heat-temperature) milk, 45% of the powdered milk, 57.1% of the yogurt, 55.5% of the cheese, and 50% of the buttermilk samples had levels higher than the LOD, i.e., 4 ng/L. The highest mean of 82.4 ± 7.8 ng/kg of AFM1 was present in the positive samples of raw milk. The highest dietary intake of AFM1 was found in infants’ milk (5.35 ng/kg/day), UHT milk (1.80 ng/kg/day), powdered milk (5.25 ng/kg/day), and yogurt (1.11 ng/kg/day). However, no dietary intake was detected in the cheese and butter milk samples used for infants. The results from the undertaken work are beneficial for establishing rigorous limits for AFB1 in animal feed, especially considering the high prevalence rate of hepatitis cases in the central cities of Punjab, Pakistan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in the Dairy Industry)
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