Advanced Electroceramics for Energy Conversion, Storage and Harvesting

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials for Energy Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021) | Viewed by 14527

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Instrumentation Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, China
Interests: ferroelectric; piezoelectric; dielectric; electroceramics; MLCC; LTCC
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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
Interests: piezoelectrics; ferroelectrics; capacitors; MLCCs; lead-free
School of Engineering and the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, Merchistion Campus, Edinburgh EH10 5DT, UK
Interests: thermoelectrics; electrical conductivity; ferroelectrics; capacitors
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Guest Editor
The Pennsylvania State University, PA 16801, United States
Interests: Piezoelectrics; Ferroelectrics; TEM; Relaxor

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Guest Editor
University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, United States
Interests: Magnetic memory; multiferroics; magnetic properties; heterostructures

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Departamento Ciencias de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorganica, Universidad de Cadiz, 11003 Cadiz, Spain
Interests: transmission electron microscopy (S)TEM methods; semiconductors (SiC, III-N, others); OAD films (oxides, metals); ceramics thermo-chemical treatments

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Institute of Solid State Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, 142432 Moscow, Russia
Interests: nanostructured materials; ceramics; ceramic engineering; sintering; coating; material characterization; grain boundaries; XPS; X-ray diffraction; X-ray absorption spectroscopy; SEM analysis; differential thermal analysis; solid oxide fuel cells; membranes
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advanced electroceramics have attracted a large amount of attention and been studied extensively by both academic and industrial researchers due to their unique and diverse functional properties. These inorganic crystalline materials, including but not limited to piezoelectrics, ferroelectrics, energy storage, energy harvesting, microwaves, ionic conductors, and thermoelectrics, are capable of energy conversion in different aspects, e.g., electricity, mechanical load, heat, and so on.

The concept of “processing–structure–property” has played a dominant role in the optimization of functional performance for advanced electroceramics. The crystal structure of inorganic materials can be modified through the appropriate chemical dopants, intrinsically influencing electrical or mechanical performance. Meanwhile, advanced processing techniques with precise control involved during fabrication of electroceramic materials and devices are equally important to deliver a promising performance.

This Special Issue aims to cover all the relevant aspects of advanced electroceramics for piezoelectric, ferroelectric, energy storage, energy harvesting, microwave, ionic conductor, and thermoelectric materials. Additionally,, advanced processing techniques, for example, cold sintering, spark plasma sintering and tape casting, coupled with advanced structural characterizations, for example, synchrotron x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, will also be covered.

Therefore, the issue welcomes original research and review manuscripts on the following main aspects:

Piezoelectric ceramics

Ferroelectric ceramics

Energy storage dielectric ceramics

Energy harvesting ceramics

Microwave dielectric ceramics

Ionic conductors

Thermoelectric ceramics

Synchrotron X-ray diffraction

Transmission electron microscopy

Tape casting

Cold sintering

Spark plasma sintering

Theoretical study with DFT and first principle calculations

Dr. Dawei Wang
Dr. Ge Wang
Dr. Zhilun Lu
Dr. Zhongming Fan
Dr. Weigang Yang
Prof. Dr. Francisco M. Morales
Dr. Vladislav V. Kharton
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Piezoelectrics
  • Ferroelectrics
  • Energy storage
  • Energy harvesting Microwaves
  • Ionic conductors
  • Thermoelectrics
  • Advanced processing techniques
  • Advanced structural characterizations

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

9 pages, 7030 KiB  
Article
Temperature Stable, High-Quality Factor Li2TiO3-Li4NbO4F Microwave Dielectric Ceramics
by Shangrui Xu, Juan Jiang, Zelai Cheng, Xiangyi Chen, Shikuan Sun, Dawei Wang and Tianjin Zhang
Crystals 2021, 11(7), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11070741 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
In this work, (1-x)Li2TiO3-xLi4NbO4F ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid-state ceramic route. With the increase of Li4NbO4F content, the phase structure transformed from ordered monoclinic to disordered cubic. By increasing [...] Read more.
In this work, (1-x)Li2TiO3-xLi4NbO4F ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid-state ceramic route. With the increase of Li4NbO4F content, the phase structure transformed from ordered monoclinic to disordered cubic. By increasing Li3NbO4F content, the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) was successfully adjusted closer to zero, while the dielectric constant (εr) and microwave quality factor (Qf) decreased to some degree. Outstanding microwave dielectric properties with a εr = 18.7, Qf = 61,388 GHz (6.264 GHz), and τf = 0.9 ppm/°C were obtained for 0.9Li2TiO3-0.1Li4NbO4F ceramics sintered at 1050 °C for 2 h, which indicated that these ceramics are suitable for practical applications in the field of microwave substrates and components. Full article
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11 pages, 6039 KiB  
Article
Core-Shell Structure and Dielectric Properties of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3@ Fe2O3 Ceramics Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method
by Zhuo Li, Chenbo Wang, Zixuan Wang, Dandan Zhang, Yangxiao Qin, Qiangbin Yang, Zhuo Wang, Peng Zhao, Xinshuai Ma, Minghan Li, Tao Ai, Xin Yan, Yanhui Niu, Biaolin Peng, Shikuan Sun and Dawei Wang
Crystals 2021, 11(6), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11060623 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) ceramic materials have been widely used in the field of multilayer ceramic capacitors. Surface modification through the surface coating to form a heterogeneous layer could effectively improve the dielectric properties. In this work, BST powders were [...] Read more.
Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) ceramic materials have been widely used in the field of multilayer ceramic capacitors. Surface modification through the surface coating to form a heterogeneous layer could effectively improve the dielectric properties. In this work, BST powders were prepared by a co-precipitation method. The effects of reaction conditions on the microstructure of the BST powder were investigated. The reaction temperatures significantly affected the morphology of BST powder, and the rhombic-type particles were obtained with the reaction temperature around 80 °C. Meanwhile, the BST@Fe2O3 was prepared by the chemical precipitation method using BST powders with rhombic-type microstructure as “core”, and the so-called “core-shell” microstructure was confirmed in the BST@Fe2O3 powder. Then, BST@x wt%Fe2O3 (x = 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10, denoting the different content of Fe2O3) ceramics were further prepared, and the influence of “core-shell” structure on the phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric properties was investigated. With the increasing of Fe2O3 content, the ferroelectric–paraelectric phase transition temperature shifts toward lower temperatures, and dielectric peaks gradually become broad and frequency-dependent, which may be due to inconsistent chemical composition from core to shell. Full article
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12 pages, 4993 KiB  
Article
Influence of Synthesis-Related Microstructural Features on the Electrocaloric Effect for 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.1PbTiO3 Ceramics
by Hana Uršič, Marko Vrabelj, Mojca Otoničar, Lovro Fulanović, Brigita Rožič, Zdravko Kutnjak, Vid Bobnar and Barbara Malič
Crystals 2021, 11(4), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11040372 - 3 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
Despite having a very similar electrocaloric (EC) coefficient, i.e., the EC temperature change divided by the applied electric field, the 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.1PbTiO3 (PMN-10PT) ceramic prepared by mechanochemical synthesis exhibits a much higher EC temperature change than the [...] Read more.
Despite having a very similar electrocaloric (EC) coefficient, i.e., the EC temperature change divided by the applied electric field, the 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.1PbTiO3 (PMN-10PT) ceramic prepared by mechanochemical synthesis exhibits a much higher EC temperature change than the columbite-derived version, i.e., 2.37 °C at 107 °C and 115 kV/cm. The difference is due to the almost two-times-higher breakdown field of the former material, 115 kV/cm, as opposed to 57 kV/cm in the latter. While both ceramic materials have similarly high relative densities and grain sizes (>96%, ≈5 μm) and an almost correct perovskite stoichiometry, the mechanochemical synthesis contributes to a lower level of compositional deviation. The peak permittivity and saturated polarization are slightly higher and the domain structure is finer in the mechanochemically derived ceramic. The secondary phases that result from each synthesis are identified and related to different interactions of the individual materials with the electric field: an intergranular lead-silicate-based phase in the columbite-derived PMN-10PT and MgO inclusions in the mechanochemically derived ceramic. Full article
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8 pages, 1993 KiB  
Article
The Effects of MnO2 Addition on the Physical Properties of Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-Pb(Mg1/2W1/2)O3-BiFeO3 Ceramics
by Juhyun Yoo and Jonghyun Lee
Crystals 2021, 11(3), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030269 - 9 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
In this paper, for the application to multi-layer piezoelectric devices capable of being used in piezoelectric speakers, Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-BiFeO3 ceramics substituted with Pb(Mg1/2W1/2)O3 were manufactured according to MnO2 addition, [...] Read more.
In this paper, for the application to multi-layer piezoelectric devices capable of being used in piezoelectric speakers, Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-BiFeO3 ceramics substituted with Pb(Mg1/2W1/2)O3 were manufactured according to MnO2 addition, and their physical properties were studied. At non-doped MnO2 added specimen, the maximum values of piezoelectric properties were shown, respectively: the εr of 2182, d33 of 513 pC/N, and kp of 0.634. When taking into consideration the low dielectric constant and high d33 in case of increasing the numbers of multilayer in ceramics, the x = 0.2 composition ceramics was suitable for the device application such as speaker using low-temperature sintering multilayer piezoelectric actuators. Full article
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11 pages, 3889 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of ZnO Hollow Microspheres and Analysis of Their Gas Sensing Properties for n-Butanol
by Shichao Wang, Gaoqun Qiao, Xiaoyan Chen, Xinzhen Wang and Hongzhi Cui
Crystals 2020, 10(11), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10111010 - 6 Nov 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
ZnO hollow microspheres with a diameter of approximately 1.4 μm were successfully synthesized by a facile one-step chemical precipitation method using trisodium citrate dihydrate as a morphology control agent. The ZnO hollow microspheres consisted of nanoplates and had good dispersibility. Control experiments revealed [...] Read more.
ZnO hollow microspheres with a diameter of approximately 1.4 μm were successfully synthesized by a facile one-step chemical precipitation method using trisodium citrate dihydrate as a morphology control agent. The ZnO hollow microspheres consisted of nanoplates and had good dispersibility. Control experiments revealed that trisodium citrate dihydrate played an important role in regulating the morphologies of ZnO products. The morphology of the ZnO product evolved from nanowires to hollow microspheres with the addition of trisodium citrate dihydrate. The sensor response of ZnO hollow microspheres toward 100 ppm n-butanol reached 86.6 at the optimum operating temperature of 340 °C, which was approximately three times higher than that of ZnO nanowires. In addition, the ZnO hollow microspheres also displayed good selectivity and long-term work stability toward n-butanol. The excellent gas sensing performance of ZnO hollow microspheres may be ascribed to the unique hollow sphere structure with high exposed polar crystal surface. Full article
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9 pages, 4156 KiB  
Article
Soft and Hard Piezoelectric Ceramics for Vibration Energy Harvesting
by Xiaodong Yan, Mupeng Zheng, Mankang Zhu and Yudong Hou
Crystals 2020, 10(10), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10100907 - 7 Oct 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4004
Abstract
The question as to which piezoelectric composition is favorable for energy harvesting has been addressed in the past few years. However, discussion on this topic continues. In this work, an answer is provided through a feasible method which can be used in selecting [...] Read more.
The question as to which piezoelectric composition is favorable for energy harvesting has been addressed in the past few years. However, discussion on this topic continues. In this work, an answer is provided through a feasible method which can be used in selecting piezoelectric material. The energy harvesting behavior of hard (P4 and P8) and soft (P5 and P5H) lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics was investigated. The results show that the maximum piezoelectric voltage coefficient g33 and transduction coefficient d33 × g33 were obtained in P5 ceramic. Meanwhile, the power generation characteristics at low frequencies were compared by the vibration energy harvester with a cantilever beam structure. The results indicate that the energy harvester fabricated by the P5 ceramic with the maximum d33 × g33 values also demonstrated the best power generation characteristics. The results unambiguously demonstrate that the power density and energy conversion efficiency of the energy harvesting devices are dominated by the d33 × g33 value of the piezoelectric materials. Full article
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