Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Corrosion, Wear and Erosion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 36011

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Rzeszow University of Technology, Powstancow Warszawy 8 Street, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: tribology; friction; wear; surface engineering; surface metrology; manufacturing processes
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript to the forthcoming Special Issue “Tribological Behavior of Functional Surfaces: Models and Experiments” in Coatings (Open Access Materials Science Journal; Impact Factor 2.33).

Surfaces of solid bodies contain characteristic features, affecting the functional properties of machine elements. Surface topography restricting the contact area to a very small ratio of the nominal area is one of the fundamental features of significant importance for contact mechanics, friction wear, and lubrication. Surface engineering improves tribological performance. Surface texturing is a method used in surface engineering to improve the sliding properties of assemblies by creating dimples on surfaces. Tribological processes can lead to increased chemical reactivity. Understanding of surface processes at the nanoscale is very important.

The aim of this Special Issue is to collect high-quality research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on the tribological behavior of functional surfaces. Contributions involving modeling and/or experimental approaches are particularly welcome.

Should you need any further information about this Special Issue, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Prof. Dr. Pawel Pawlus
Dr. Andrzej Dzierwa
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Tribology
  • Contact mechanics
  • Surface engineering
  • Surface texturing
  • Surface chemistry
  • Nanoscale tribology

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 161 KiB  
Editorial
Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods
by Pawel Pawlus and Andrzej Dzierwa
Coatings 2021, 11(3), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11030333 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1182
Abstract
Surfaces of solid bodies contain characteristic features, affecting the functional properties of machine elements [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods)

Research

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16 pages, 6564 KiB  
Article
Tribocorrosion Performance of Cr/CrN Hybrid Layer as a Coating for Machine Components Used in a Chloride Ions Environment
by Marcin Kowalski and Arkadiusz Stachowiak
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020242 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2227
Abstract
The aim of the article was to identify the effect of material hardness on the tribocorrosion process by comparing two material solutions. The analysis concerned the assessment of the process intensity and the identification of the mechanisms responsible for material loss. Possible mechanisms [...] Read more.
The aim of the article was to identify the effect of material hardness on the tribocorrosion process by comparing two material solutions. The analysis concerned the assessment of the process intensity and the identification of the mechanisms responsible for material loss. Possible mechanisms of tribocorrosion common for materials of high hardness were determined. Two classic material solutions (based on AISI 1045 steel) ensuring high hardness of the subsurface layers were tested: nitriding with an additional oxidation and impregnation process, and Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) coating. In order to better identify the impact of hardness on the tribocorrosion process in each individual test, the pressures in the contact zone were increased. The tribocorrosion tests were carried out in 3.5% NaCl with free corrosion potential (OCP) for the ball-on-plate system. The results of the tribocorrosion tests presented in the article indicate that the synergy effect of friction and corrosion can be generated by the same mechanisms of material removal in both the material solutions tested. The intensity of these mechanisms is determined by material hardness. The likely mechanism of generating the synergy effect may be related to the formation of local pits along the friction path. The corrosion processes that are initiated by the cracking of the hard surface layer create local cavities, which most probably intensify frictional wear in successive time intervals. The area around the cavities facilitates plastic deformation, the initiation of cracking of the cyclically deformed layer and the tearing of larger pieces of material (especially at higher unit pressures in the frictional contact zone). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods)
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13 pages, 30016 KiB  
Article
Structural Features and Tribological Properties of Detonation Gun Sprayed Ti–Si–C Coating
by Bauyrzhan Rakhadilov, Dastan Buitkenov, Zhuldyz Sagdoldina, Bekbolat Seitov, Sherzod Kurbanbekov and Meruyert Adilkanova
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020141 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2050
Abstract
The paper considers the research results of structural-phase state and tribological characteristics of detonation coatings based on Ti–Si–C, obtained at different filling volumes of the explosive gas mixture barrel of a detonation gun. The results analysis indicates that the phase composition and properties [...] Read more.
The paper considers the research results of structural-phase state and tribological characteristics of detonation coatings based on Ti–Si–C, obtained at different filling volumes of the explosive gas mixture barrel of a detonation gun. The results analysis indicates that the phase composition and properties of detonation coatings strongly depend on the technological parameters of spraying. With an increase of the explosive mixture in the filling volume of the detonation barrel up to 70% of the coatings consist mainly of the TiC phase, because high temperature leads to a strong decomposition of Ti3SiC2 powders. Thus, the XRD results confirm that at 70% of the explosive gas mixture’s filling volume, partial decomposition and disintegration of the powders occurs after detonation spraying. We established that detonation coatings based on titanium carbosilicide obtained at the explosive gas mixture’s filling volume at 60% are characterized by high wear resistance and adhesive strength. Thermal annealing was performed after spraying in the temperature range of 700–900 °C for 1 h to reduce microstructural defects and improve the Ti–Si–C coating characteristics. As a result of the heat treatment in the Ti–Si–C system at 800 °C, we observed that an increase in the volume fraction of the Ti3SiC2 and TiO2 phases led to a 2-fold increase in microhardness. This means that the after-heat-treatment can provide a sufficient reaction time for the incomplete reaction of the Ti–Si–C (TSC) coating during the detonation gun spraying. Thus, annealing can provide an equal distribution of elements in the coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods)
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12 pages, 5931 KiB  
Article
Improvement of the Tribological Properties and Corrosion Resistance of Epoxy–PTFE Composite Coating by Nanoparticle Modification
by Lixia Ying, Yunlong Wu, Chongyang Nie, Chunxi Wu and Guixiang Wang
Coatings 2021, 11(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11010010 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2496
Abstract
In order to meet the requirements of high corrosion resistance, wear resistance, and self-lubrication of composite coatings for marine applications, epoxy matrix composite coatings containing PTFE and TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared on the steel substrate. With silane coupling agent KH570 (CH2 [...] Read more.
In order to meet the requirements of high corrosion resistance, wear resistance, and self-lubrication of composite coatings for marine applications, epoxy matrix composite coatings containing PTFE and TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared on the steel substrate. With silane coupling agent KH570 (CH2=C(CH3)COOC3H6Si(OCH3)3), titanium dioxide nanoparticles were modified, and organic functional groups were grafted on their surface to improve their dispersion and interface compatibility in the epoxy matrix. Then, the section morphology, tribological, and anticorrosion properties of prepared coatings, including pure epoxy, epoxy–PTFE, and the composite coating with unmodified and modified TiO2, respectively, were fully characterized by scanning electron microscopy, friction–abrasion testing machine, and an electrochemical workstation. The analytical results show that the modified TiO2 nanoparticles are able to improve the epoxy–PTFE composite coating’s mechanical properties of epoxy–PTFE composite coating including section toughness, hardness, and binding force. With the synergistic action of the friction reduction of PTFE and dispersion enhancement of TiO2 nanoparticles, the dry friction coefficient decreases by more than 73%. Simultaneously, modified titanium dioxide will not have much influence on the water contact angles of the coating. A larger water contact angle and uniform and compact microstructure make the composite coating incorporated modified TiO2 nanoparticles show excellent anti-corrosion ability, which has the minimum corrosion current density of 1.688 × 10−7 A·cm−2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods)
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22 pages, 10769 KiB  
Article
Additional Tribological Effect of Laser Surface Texturing and Diamond-Like Carbon Coating for Medium Carbon Steel at Near Room Temperature
by Yanhu Zhang, Hao Fu, Xinwei Wang, Hongyu Liang, Julius Caesar Puoza, Jinghu Ji, Xijun Hua, Xiaojing Xu and Yonghong Fu
Coatings 2020, 10(10), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10100929 - 28 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2356
Abstract
Texture surface containing both micro-pits and a thin carbon coating was produced using laser surface texturing and magnetic-control vacuum sputtering. Tribological properties of the laser-textured surface coated with thin carbon were experimentally investigated at low-temperature (8–10 °C) under starved and lubricated conditions with [...] Read more.
Texture surface containing both micro-pits and a thin carbon coating was produced using laser surface texturing and magnetic-control vacuum sputtering. Tribological properties of the laser-textured surface coated with thin carbon were experimentally investigated at low-temperature (8–10 °C) under starved and lubricated conditions with a ring-on-ring test rig. The results indicated that the laser-textured surface combined with carbon coating (textured + coating) exhibited low wear intensity and friction coefficient under lubricated conditions, while moderate wear was observed under starved lubrication conditions as compared with the smooth, textured, and carbon-coated surfaces. The wear mechanisms of the lubricated, textured, coated surface under three working conditions (10 N and 1.25 m/s, 16 N and 0.25 m/s, and 50 N and 0.05 m/s) revealed plowing effect, corrosion, and adhesive wear, while oxidative and adhesive wears were observed under starved lubrication. Finally, the textured, coated surface was freely adaptable to different working conditions and exhibited additional effects for better tribological applications at low-temperature as compared with the smooth, laser-textured, and carbon-coated surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods)
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16 pages, 7661 KiB  
Article
Friction Reduction in Unidirectional Lubricated Sliding Due to Disc Surface Texturing
by Slawomir Wos, Waldemar Koszela, Andrzej Dzierwa and Pawel Pawlus
Coatings 2020, 10(3), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10030221 - 29 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2534
Abstract
Surface texturing is an option of surface engineering resulting in reduction of friction due to the creation of isolated dimples or grooves on sliding surfaces. The purpose of this work is to find the effect of the groove bottom profiles on the reduction [...] Read more.
Surface texturing is an option of surface engineering resulting in reduction of friction due to the creation of isolated dimples or grooves on sliding surfaces. The purpose of this work is to find the effect of the groove bottom profiles on the reduction of the friction force. Investigations were conducted using an Optimol SRV5 tribotester equipped with a pin-on-disc module. A disc made of 42CrMo4 steel, with a 100 mm diameter acted as a sample. A counter-sample was made of the same material, however, its diameter was 20 mm. The sliding conditions were selected to be similar to those of a sliding crankpin bearing pad operating in a high-performance internal combustion engine. Surface texturing was found to be beneficial for a reduction in the friction coefficient up to 55% in comparison to the untextured disc. Tribological performances of discs with spiral groove patterns were better than those with a radial layout. In most cases the convergent profile of the groove bottom was superior to the dam shape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods)
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12 pages, 6595 KiB  
Article
Lubricating Properties of Cyano-Based Ionic Liquids against Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon Film
by Shouhei Kawada, Hikaru Okubo, Seiya Watanabe, Chiharu Tadokoro, Ryo Tsuboi, Shinya Sasaki and Masaaki Miyatake
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020153 - 08 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2216
Abstract
Ionic liquids have unique characteristics, which render them ideal candidates as new base oils or additives. In particular, there are great expectations from the combination of diamond-like carbon and cyano-based ionic liquids. Lubricating properties of cyano-based ionic liquids have been studied on specific [...] Read more.
Ionic liquids have unique characteristics, which render them ideal candidates as new base oils or additives. In particular, there are great expectations from the combination of diamond-like carbon and cyano-based ionic liquids. Lubricating properties of cyano-based ionic liquids have been studied on specific tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films. After lubrication, ta-C film/ta-C film contact interface exhibits exceedingly low friction. Therefore, it is necessary to understand this low friction phenomenon. The current study evaluated the lubricating mechanism of cyano-based ionic liquids against ta-C films. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ((BMIM)(DCN)) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethane ((BMIM)(TCC)) were used as lubricants, with the latter exhibiting low friction coefficient of 0.03. Steel cylinders and disks with ta-C films were used as test specimens. Raman spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) helped us understand the mechanism of low friction induced by (BMIM)(TCC). Graphitization of the ta-C film at high temperatures might have caused the reduction in friction between the films. Similarly, anion adsorption on the worn surface at high temperatures also led to reduced friction. However, the TGA result showed a different trend than that of the sliding test. Our results indicate that the cyano-based ionic liquids underwent tribo-decomposition at low temperatures. Further, a minimum temperature was required for the adsorption of anions onto the sliding surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods)
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13 pages, 5614 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Disc Surface Topography after Vapor Blasting on Wear of Sliding Pairs under Dry Sliding Conditions
by Andrzej Dzierwa, Pawel Pawlus and Wieslaw Zelasko
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020102 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2414
Abstract
Wear tests were performed using a ball-on-disc tribological tester. In this study, 42CrMo4 steel disc of hardness 40 HRC co-acted with 100Cr6 steel ball with hardness of 60 HRC. Disc surfaces were created using vapor blasting to obtain values of the Sq parameter [...] Read more.
Wear tests were performed using a ball-on-disc tribological tester. In this study, 42CrMo4 steel disc of hardness 40 HRC co-acted with 100Cr6 steel ball with hardness of 60 HRC. Disc surfaces were created using vapor blasting to obtain values of the Sq parameter close to 5 µm. However, other disc surface topography parameters varied. Dry friction tests were carried out. Wear levels of discs and balls were measured using a white light interferometer Talysurf CCI Lite. It was found that the surface topography had a significant impact on tribological properties under dry sliding conditions. The research also allowed to identify significant dependencies between surface topography parameters and wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods)
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23 pages, 6092 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity Analysis of Rotor/Stator Interactions Accounting for Wear and Thermal Effects within Low- and High-Pressure Compressor Stages
by Florence Nyssen and Alain Batailly
Coatings 2020, 10(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10010074 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
In the current design of turbomachines, engine performance is improved by reducing the clearances between the rotating components and the stator, which allows for loss decrease. Due to these clearance reductions, contact events may occur between the rotor and the stator. An abradable [...] Read more.
In the current design of turbomachines, engine performance is improved by reducing the clearances between the rotating components and the stator, which allows for loss decrease. Due to these clearance reductions, contact events may occur between the rotor and the stator. An abradable coating is deposited along the stator circumference as a sacrificial material to lower the contact severity. However, experiments highlighted the occurrence of rotor/stator interactions with high wear depth on the abradable coating as well as high temperature increases within the abradable coating following contacts. This work focuses on the sensitivity analysis of rotor/stator interactions with respect to the rotor angular speed and the initial clearances between the rotor and the stator, taking into account thermal effects within the abradable coating. Convergence analyses are first conducted to validate the numerical model. Then, after a calibration of the thermal model of the abradable coating based on two experimental test cases, the numerical model is used to investigate the cross effects of the angular speed and the initial clearances on the obtained rotor/stator interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods)
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12 pages, 4408 KiB  
Article
Corrosion and Wear Resistance of Fe-Based Amorphous Coatings
by Guang Li, Youyi Gan, Chenheng Liu, Yu Shi, Yanchun Zhao and Shengzhong Kou
Coatings 2020, 10(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10010073 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4068
Abstract
Fe-based amorphous coatings were prepared on the surface of 45 steel substrates via supersonic plasma spraying and laser cladding. The corrosion and wear behavior of the two different coatings were investigated. Compared with supersonic plasma spraying, laser cladding resulted in coatings with a [...] Read more.
Fe-based amorphous coatings were prepared on the surface of 45 steel substrates via supersonic plasma spraying and laser cladding. The corrosion and wear behavior of the two different coatings were investigated. Compared with supersonic plasma spraying, laser cladding resulted in coatings with a relatively denser structure, lower porosity, less cracks, and a good metallurgical bond with the substrate. Thanks to these properties, coatings produced by laser cladding exhibit a higher ability to resist uniform corrosion and better friction and wear performance than plasma-sprayed coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods)
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14 pages, 6518 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Integrity of 3D Rough Surfaces during Contact
by Maxence Bigerelle, Franck Plouraboue, Frederic Robache, Abdeljalil Jourani and Agnes Fabre
Coatings 2020, 10(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10010015 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2816
Abstract
Rough surfaces are in contact locally by the peaks of roughness. At this local scale, the pressure of contact can be sharply superior to the macroscopic pressure. If the roughness is assumed to be a random morphology, a well-established observation in many practical [...] Read more.
Rough surfaces are in contact locally by the peaks of roughness. At this local scale, the pressure of contact can be sharply superior to the macroscopic pressure. If the roughness is assumed to be a random morphology, a well-established observation in many practical cases, mechanical indicators built from the contact zone are then also random variables. Consequently, the probability density function (PDF) of any mechanical random variable obviously depends upon the morphological structure of the surface. The contact pressure PDF, or the probability of damage of this surface can be determined for example when plastic deformation occurs. In this study, the contact pressure PDF is modeled using a particular probability density function, the generalized Lambda distributions (GLD). The GLD are generic and polymorphic. They approach a large number of known distributions (Weibull, Normal, and Lognormal). The later were successfully used to model damage in materials. A semi-analytical model of elastic contact which takes into account the morphology of real surfaces is used to compute the contact pressure. In a first step, surfaces are simulated by Weierstrass functions which have been previously used to model a wide range of surfaces met in tribology. The Lambda distributions adequacy is qualified to model contact pressure. Using these functions, a statistical analysis allows us to extract the probability density of the maximal pressure. It turns out that this density can be described by a GLD. It is then possible to determine the probability that the contact pressure generates plastic deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods)
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16 pages, 9389 KiB  
Article
On Friction Reduction by Surface Modifications in the TEHL Cam/Tappet-Contact-Experimental and Numerical Studies
by Max Marian, Tim Weikert and Stephan Tremmel
Coatings 2019, 9(12), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9120843 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 5154
Abstract
The overall energy efficiency of machine elements and engine components could be improved by using new technologies such as surface modifications. In the literature, surface engineering approaches like micro-texturing and the application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were frequently studied separately, with focus [...] Read more.
The overall energy efficiency of machine elements and engine components could be improved by using new technologies such as surface modifications. In the literature, surface engineering approaches like micro-texturing and the application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were frequently studied separately, with focus on a specific model contact and lubrication conditions. The contribution of the current study is to elucidate and compare the underlying friction reduction mechanisms of the aforementioned surface modifications in an application-orientated manner. The study applied the operating conditions of the thermo-elastohydrodynamically lubricated (TEHL) cam/tappet-contact of the valve train. Therefore, tribological cam/bucket tappet component Stribeck tests were used to determine the friction behavior of ultrashort pulse laser fabricated microtextures and PVD/PECVD deposited silicon-doped amorphous carbon coatings. Moreover, advanced surface characterization methods, as well as numerical TEHL tribo-simulations, were utilized to explore the mechanisms responsible for the observed tribological effects. The results showed that the DLC-coating could reduce the solid and fluid friction force in a wide range of lubrication regimes. Conversely, micro-texturing may reduce solid friction while increasing the fraction of fluid friction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods)
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21 pages, 7745 KiB  
Article
Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) Layers from Silicate/Phosphate Baths on Ti-6Al-4V for Biomedical Components: Influence of Deposition Conditions and Surface Finishing on Dry Sliding Behaviour
by Chiara Bertuccioli, Andrea Garzoni, Carla Martini, Alessandro Morri and Gianni Rondelli
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100614 - 26 Sep 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2881
Abstract
Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) layers were produced on Ti-6Al-4V in different conditions, so as to assess the influence of layer structure, current mode, duty cycle and surface finishing on microstructural features and tribological behaviour. In DC regime, the double-layer structure (silicate bath followed [...] Read more.
Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) layers were produced on Ti-6Al-4V in different conditions, so as to assess the influence of layer structure, current mode, duty cycle and surface finishing on microstructural features and tribological behaviour. In DC regime, the double-layer structure (silicate bath followed by phosphate bath) beneficially affected wear resistance. In unipolar pulsed DC (phosphate bath), the wear resistance of single layers improved with increasing duty cycle, due to improved microstructure and adhesion: high duty cycle single layers can be considered an alternative to double-layer deposition. Surface finishing by abrasive blasting with spheroidal glass beads leads to surface roughness decrease and hence to decreased friction and improved wear resistance. The best-performing PEO layers showed promising results in the comparison with reference materials such as CoCrMo (both uncoated and (Ti,Nb)N PVD-coated) and PVD-coated Ti-6Al-4V up to 30 N normal load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Functional Surface: Models and Methods)
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