The Relationship between Surfaces Coating and Biological, Mechanical and Clinical Behaviour

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Coatings for Biomedicine and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 January 2022) | Viewed by 21914

Special Issue Editors

Department of Reconstructive Dentistry, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam, Netherlands
Interests: dental implants; finite element analysis; biomechanics; bond strength; fatigue; partial restorations; intraradicular retainer
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dental materials are a wide family that include many different materials with different surface characteristics and coatings, developed and produced with many differents processes and scopes.

All of these materials need to perform well in an unfriendly enviroment, such as the oral cavity, and could be in contact with different tissues, and should thus be resistant and compatible with biological substrates that have different behaviours.

These materials can undergo mechanical, thermal, chemical, and electrochemical stresses that can modify their properties and biological behaviour over the time.

Moreover, different manufacturing methods, in particular the additive/subtractive production techniques available nowadays, could lead to the production of different material coatings with different surface morphologies, which could modifiy the characteristics of the dental materials.

When in contact with biological tissues, these material and their coatings need to possess properties like cytocompatibility and bioactive properties.

The scope of this Special Issue is to investigate the dental materials, evaluating how different clinical/laboratorial parameters can influence the mechanical and biological characteristics of these materials.

Potential research topics could include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Theoretical and experimental research, knowledge, and new ideas on the evaluation of the modification of dental materials surfaces over time
  • Recent developments in multi-functional organic, inorganic, and hybrid coatings
  • Surface modifications produced by different processes, including, but not limiting to, additive and subtractive manufacturing processes, sandblasting, etching, thermal spray, laser and plasma processing, plating, etc.
  • Mechanical evaluation of the surface’s coating modification through dynamic loading and corrosion
  • Biological and mechanical tests considering the interplay between the biological mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical interactions, and the ability to predict performance and/or reliability
  • Analysis of the cytocompatibility and bioactive properties of different coating materials and coating morphology
  • Computer modeling and simulation to predict coating properties, performance, durability, and reliability over time.

Dr. Roberto Lo Giudice
Dr. João Paulo Mandes Tribst
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • dental materials
  • mechanical characteristics
  • biological behaviour
  • coating modification

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 179 KiB  
Editorial
Dental Materials Coatings: Effect on the Clinical Behavior
Coatings 2020, 10(12), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10121229 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1373

Research

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13 pages, 5361 KiB  
Article
Influence of Optional Crystallization Firing on the Adhesion of Zirconia-Reinforced Lithium Silicate before and after Aging
Coatings 2022, 12(12), 1904; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12121904 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
This study proposed to evaluate the influence of the crystallization firing process and the hydrothermal degradation on the bond strength between different reinforced glass-ceramics and resin cement. Material and Methods: zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) and lithium disilicate (LD) were divided into six groups [...] Read more.
This study proposed to evaluate the influence of the crystallization firing process and the hydrothermal degradation on the bond strength between different reinforced glass-ceramics and resin cement. Material and Methods: zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) and lithium disilicate (LD) were divided into six groups according to aging simulation (baseline or after thermocycling) and restorative approach (ZLS without firing; ZLS with firing; LD with firing). ZLS and LD surfaces were etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid for 30 s and 20 s, respectively, and then received a layer of silane coupling agent (Monobond-N). Then, cylinders of resin cement (1 mm diameter × 2 mm height) were bonded onto their surfaces. The baseline samples were immersed in distilled water for 24 h before the microshear bond strength (µSBS) test, while half of the specimens were tested after 6000 cycles of thermocycling aging. The types of failures were analyzed through stereomicroscopic and scanning electron microscope. The failure modes were classified as adhesive, predominantly adhesive, cohesive in ceramic, or cohesive in cement. The µSBS data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. A restorative approach (p = 0.000) and aging (p = 0.000) affected the bond strength. The highest bond-strength values were observed in the ZLS without the optional crystallization firing. The most frequent failures were adhesive and predominantly adhesive. The cementation of zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate without the optional crystallization firing process leads to high bond-strength values with resin cement. Full article
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11 pages, 4776 KiB  
Article
Bond Strength between Different Zirconia-Based Ceramics and Resin Cement before and after Aging
Coatings 2022, 12(10), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12101601 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1494 | Correction
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different stabilized zirconias with resin cement and evaluate the susceptibility to thermal aging of the adhesive interface. Zirconia discs (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany) were obtained: 3Y-TZP first generation (translucent), 3Y-TZP [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different stabilized zirconias with resin cement and evaluate the susceptibility to thermal aging of the adhesive interface. Zirconia discs (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany) were obtained: 3Y-TZP first generation (translucent), 3Y-TZP third generation (high-translucent), 4Y-PSZ (super-translucent), and 5Y-PSZ (extra-translucent). Each disc had its surface polished with a standardized protocol. The specimens were cleaned and sintered according to the manufacturer’s recommendation (conventionally: ~12 h). However, 3Y-TZP groups were subdivided into subgroups and sintered following the speed sintering process (~80 min). After their sintering shrinkage, the dimensions of the final discs were 12 mm × 2 mm. The specimens were blasted with 50 μm aluminum oxide (1 cm distance, 2 bar pressure, and 2 s/cm²), cleaned, and silanized with an MDP primer. After the surface treatment, a resin cement cylinder was built on the ceramic surface (Ø = 1 mm; h = 2 mm). Half of the specimens of each group were subjected to a microshear bond strength test in a universal testing machine after 24 h of cementation, while the other half were subjected to thermocycling prior to the bond strength test (6000 cycles; 5 °C–55 °C, 30 s for each bath). Bond strength data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (95%), as well as Weibull analysis, to determine adhesive reliability. Bond strength was statistically different among the materials, and only 3Y-TZP third generation and 4Y-PSZ were not affected by thermal aging. The speed sintering method was statistically similar to the conventional process for 3Y-TZP first generation. However, 3Y-TZP third generation showed higher immediate bond strength when speed sintered. The Weibull modulus was superior for conventional 3Y-TZP third generation and 4Y-PSZ. In this study, thermal aging caused a degradation of the adhesive interfaces of 3Y-TZP first generation and 5Y-PSZ with the resin cement; however, it did not affect the interfaces of 3Y-TZP third generation and 4Y-PSZ. The speed sintering method did not affect the long-term bond strength with the resin cement. Adhesive reliability was superior for 3Y-TZP third generation and 4Y-PSZ. Full article
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13 pages, 4685 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Zirconia and High Performance Polymer Abutment Surface Roughness and Stress Concentration for Implant-Supported Fixed Dental Prostheses
Coatings 2022, 12(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12020238 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2504
Abstract
Background: The High Performance Polymer is a based polymer biomaterial that was introduced as dental material to manufacture dentures superstructure and dental implants abutments. However, its surface characteristics and stress state still need to be properly described. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Background: The High Performance Polymer is a based polymer biomaterial that was introduced as dental material to manufacture dentures superstructure and dental implants abutments. However, its surface characteristics and stress state still need to be properly described. The aim of this study was to compare the surface characteristics of a High Performance Polymer (Bio-HPP, Bredent, Senden, Germany) for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) milling and a Zirconia (Zirkonzahn, Steger, Ahrntal, Italy). Methods: The abutments surface roughness (Ra) was evaluated for each abutment material (N = 12) using a confocal laser microscope. Data were evaluated using One-Way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). In addition, a finite element analysis software was used to present stress measurement data as stress maps with 100 N loading. Results were generated according to Von-mises stress criteria and stress peaks were recorded from each structure. Results: Results showed a mean Ra of 0.221 ± 0.09 μm for Bio-HPP and 1.075 ± 0.24 μm for Zirconia. Both surface profiles presented a smooth characteristic regardless the measurement axis. The stress peaks from implant fixture and screw were not affected by the abutment material, however the high performance polymer showed the highest stress magnitude for the abutment region. Conclusions: Comparing the present results with the literature it is suggested that the CAD/CAM High Performance Polymer abutments present an adequate surface roughness with acceptable values of stress. Full article
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9 pages, 1385 KiB  
Article
Effect of Conventional and Electronic Cigarettes Smoking on the Color Stability and Translucency of Tooth Colored Restorative Materials: An In Vitro Analysis
Coatings 2021, 11(12), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11121568 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3050
Abstract
This in vitro study compared the effects of conventional and electronic cigarettes on the aesthetics (color stability and translucency) of two types of composite resins: micro and nano-hybrid. Methods: A total of 120 specimens from two different composite materials Filtek Z250 XT (Nano-hybrid, [...] Read more.
This in vitro study compared the effects of conventional and electronic cigarettes on the aesthetics (color stability and translucency) of two types of composite resins: micro and nano-hybrid. Methods: A total of 120 specimens from two different composite materials Filtek Z250 XT (Nano-hybrid, 3M) and Filtek Z250 (Micro-hybrid, 3M) were divided into four groups (n = 30); shade A2 was used. The samples were exposed to conventional and electronic cigarette smoke via a custom made chamber device. The color values and measurements were recorded using a spectrophotometer before and after the exposure. The color and translucency were evaluated using the three-dimensional CIE Lab. Results: There was a significant change in the color (ΔE) and the translucency parameter (TP) in all of the specimens exposed to electronic cigarettes and conventional cigarettes. The results showed that the highest ΔE mean is for the nano-hybrid composite exposed to conventional cigarettes with 1.74 ΔE while the same material is 0.64 under the electronic cigarettes and the difference is significant with (p < 0.05). The micro-hybrid composite data showed less changes in color under both exposures with 0.85 ΔE mean under the conventional cigarette smoke and 0.48 under the electronic cigarette smoke with (p < 0.004). Conclusions: The conventional cigarette smoke has more effect on the color stability of the composite resins than electronic cigarettes. From a clinical point of view, the effect of smoke exposure on the tested specimens’ color, for the time duration to which the specimens were exposed, were moderate (ΔE < 2). The micro-hybrid composites showed better color stability as compared to the nano-hybrid composites. Full article
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16 pages, 8838 KiB  
Article
Influence of Alternative and Conventional Surface Treatments on the Bonding Mechanism between PEEK and Veneering Resin for Dental Application
Coatings 2021, 11(6), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11060719 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
This study evaluated the influence of conventional and alternative surface treatments on wettability and the bond strength between polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and veneering resin. PEEK samples were randomly divided into five groups: sandblasting, tribochemical silica coating, etching with 98% sulfuric acid for [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the influence of conventional and alternative surface treatments on wettability and the bond strength between polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and veneering resin. PEEK samples were randomly divided into five groups: sandblasting, tribochemical silica coating, etching with 98% sulfuric acid for 5 s, etching with 98% sulfuric acid for 30 s, and tribochemical silica coating plus heated silane. One of them was subjected to analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and ten were analyzed by goniometry (n = 5) and scanning electron microscopy (n = 5). Shear bond strength (SBS) was tested, and failure types were assessed. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey and Duncan tests (all, α = 5%). Treatment with sandblasting and silica coating had the lowest SBS means (4.2 MPa and 4.4 MPa respectively), while sulfuric acid for 5 s showed the highest mean value (12.6 MPa), followed by sulfuric acid for 30 s and tribochemical + heated silane. All failures were classified as adhesive. The lowest mean contact angle was found for the polished (control) and etched group with 98% sulfuric acid for 30 s (83.9°). Etching with 98% sulfuric acid for 5 s increased the SBS between resin and PEEK. Full article
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9 pages, 5840 KiB  
Article
The Importance of MDP Priming, Silica Blasting or Glazing on the Retention Force of Y-TZP Copings to Varying Geometry Tooth Abutments
Coatings 2021, 11(3), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11030315 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1571
Abstract
To evaluate the influence of the convergence angle of tooth preparations and abutments height and several surface treatments for zirconia copings through the tensile retention test. 120 crown preparations were made in Nema G10 with the maxillary first molar anatomy. In total, 60 [...] Read more.
To evaluate the influence of the convergence angle of tooth preparations and abutments height and several surface treatments for zirconia copings through the tensile retention test. 120 crown preparations were made in Nema G10 with the maxillary first molar anatomy. In total, 60 abutments of 5 mm height were divided into two groups of 6° and 20° convergence angles of tooth preparations, and 60 abutments with a convergence angle of tooth preparations of 12° were divided into groups of 4 and 6 mm heights. Three surface treatments used were MDP-primer (10-Methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate), glazing or silica blasting. The abutments were scanned to make zirconia copings (3Y-TZP–Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystals, Vita In-Ceram YZ). After cementation, the mechanical cycling (2 × 106 cycles, 3 Hz, 100 N) was performed to aging. After cycling, the copings were tested in tensile (1 kN load cell; 0.5 mm/s speed). Both abutments support base and copings were embedded in acrylic resin with the aid of a device that maintained the long axis perpendicular to the horizontal plane. Data were analyzed with the two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (95%). ANOVA revealed that the convergence angle influenced the tensile retention (p = 0.0232), but the abutments height showed no statistically significant difference (p = 0.086). The MDP-primer and silica blasting showed higher retention forces in the specimens with height variations. For bonded zirconia crowns, the retention force provided by high convergence angle preparation is critical and cannot be improved by surface treatments. For short and long crown preparations, MDP-based Primers or Silica blasting are advisable to aid restoration longevity. Full article
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13 pages, 8772 KiB  
Article
Toothbrushing Wear Resistance of Stained CAD/CAM Ceramics
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020224 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2303
Abstract
Aim: To investigate the effect of toothbrushing on different stained Computerd Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing CAD/CAM ceramics. Materials and Methods: Fifty specimens (high translucency zirconia, YZHT; zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate, ZLS; feldspathic, FDL; hybrid ceramic, HC; all from Vita Zahnfabrik) were divided into five [...] Read more.
Aim: To investigate the effect of toothbrushing on different stained Computerd Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing CAD/CAM ceramics. Materials and Methods: Fifty specimens (high translucency zirconia, YZHT; zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate, ZLS; feldspathic, FDL; hybrid ceramic, HC; all from Vita Zahnfabrik) were divided into five groups according to their staining technique. ZLS allowed the composition of two groups: ZLS1 with crystallization and staining together; ZLS2, with the stain firing after the crystallization. YZHT received a stain firing after the sintering process, and FDL received stain firing directly. The HC was stained with acrylic staining, and was light-cured on its surface. The specimens were brushed in total for 150,000 cycles at 2.45 N with 180 strokes/min. Surface measurements to obtain Rz were performed after 50,000, 100,000 and 150,000 cycles, with five evaluation lines (5 mm) per specimen orthogonal to the brushing direction, covering brushed and unbrushed areas. The wear was analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 5%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to access the surface profile. The wear was affected by material (p < 0.001) and time (p = 0.139). Superior wear (µm) was observed for HC (6.6 ± 4.4; 6.8 ± 4.0; 9.2 ± 3.5) compared to ZLS2 (1.0 ± 0.3; 1.2 ± 2.2; 1.3 ± 0.3), YZHT (1.0 ± 0.1; 1.2 ± 0.3; 1.2 ± 0.3), ZLS1 (0.9 ± 0.1; 1.1 ± 0.5; 1.2 ± 0.3) and FDL (0.9 ± 0.1; 0.9 ± 0.1; 1.0 ± 0.2) after 5, 10 and 15 years of simulation, respectively. SEM showed different wear patters for HC with the removal of the glaze layer. HC showed a higher staining wear rate compared to the glass-based and polycrystalline ceramics after 15 years. The extrinsic characterization of feldspathic ceramic showed its superior longevity compared to the evaluated high-translucency zirconia, zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate, and hybrid ceramic. Full article
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13 pages, 7207 KiB  
Article
Suitability of a Progenitor Cell-Enriching Device for In Vitro Applications
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020146 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2079
Abstract
Rigenera® is a novel class-1 medical device that produces micro-grafts enriched of progenitors cells without ex vivo manipulation of donor tissues. The manufacturer’s protocol has been supported for a wide variety of clinical uses in the field of regenerative medicine. This study [...] Read more.
Rigenera® is a novel class-1 medical device that produces micro-grafts enriched of progenitors cells without ex vivo manipulation of donor tissues. The manufacturer’s protocol has been supported for a wide variety of clinical uses in the field of regenerative medicine. This study aimed to evaluate its potential use for in vitro cell models. Human primary oral fibroblasts were cultured under standard conditions and processed through Rigenera® over a time course of up to 5 min. Cell viability was assessed using a Trypan Blue exclusion test. It is possible to process fibroblasts through Rigenera® although an initial reduction of cell viability was observed. Additionally, debris was evident in the cell suspension of the processed samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microanalysis of the debris and electron energy-loss spectroscopy confirmed the presence of metal wear possibly due to the processing conditions used in this study. Interestingly, pore sizes within Rigeneracons® grids were found to range between 250–400 μm. This is the first report assessing the suitability of Rigenera® and Rigeneracons® for in vitro applications. Whilst Rigenera® workflow was found to be amenable to laboratory uses, our results strongly suggest that further research and development is necessary to support the utilization of this technology for enrichment of micro-graft derived cells and cell sorting in vitro. Full article
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Other

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4 pages, 179 KiB  
Reply
Reply to Astarita et al. Comment on “Celentano et al. Suitability of a Progenitor Cell-Enriching Device for In Vitro Applications. Coatings 2021, 11, 146”
Coatings 2021, 11(7), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11070741 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1248
Abstract
We would like to thank HBW representatives for their comments [...] Full article
6 pages, 194 KiB  
Comment
Comment on Celentano et al. Suitability of a Progenitor Cell-Enriching Device for In Vitro Applications. Coatings 2021, 11, 146
Coatings 2021, 11(6), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11060636 - 26 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
The intent of this letter is to comment on an article entitled “Suitability of a Progenitor Cell-Enriching Device for In Vitro Applications” [...] Full article
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