Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 45524

Special Issue Editor

Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 2301 Erwin Rd, Durham, NC, USA
Interests: transplantation; surgical oncology; Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary (HPB) surgery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce a Special Issue entitled “Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022”, which will be the New Year Special Issue Series of Cancers.

For this Special Issue, we are seeking the submission of comprehensive review papers from all oncology-related fields from our editorial board members, societies, authors, and reviewers. The papers in this Special Issue will be published via our open-access platform after a thorough peer review.

We look forward to receiving your excellent work.

Dr. Dimitrios Moris
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cancer
  • tumor
  • carcinoma
  • carcinogen
  • oncology

Published Papers (18 papers)

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31 pages, 2847 KiB  
Review
Understanding the Epitranscriptome for Avant-Garde Brain Tumour Diagnostics
Cancers 2023, 15(4), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15041232 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
RNA modifications are diverse, dynamic, and reversible transcript alterations rapidly gaining attention due to their newly defined RNA regulatory roles in cellular pathways and pathogenic mechanisms. The exciting emerging field of ‘epitranscriptomics’ is predominantly centred on studying the most abundant mRNA modification, N6-methyladenine [...] Read more.
RNA modifications are diverse, dynamic, and reversible transcript alterations rapidly gaining attention due to their newly defined RNA regulatory roles in cellular pathways and pathogenic mechanisms. The exciting emerging field of ‘epitranscriptomics’ is predominantly centred on studying the most abundant mRNA modification, N6-methyladenine (m6A). The m6A mark, similar to many other RNA modifications, is strictly regulated by so-called ‘writer’, ‘reader’, and ‘eraser’ protein species. The abundance of genes coding for the expression of these regulator proteins and m6A levels shows great potential as diagnostic and predictive tools across several cancer fields. This review explores our current understanding of RNA modifications in glioma biology and the potential of epitranscriptomics to develop new diagnostic and predictive classification tools that can stratify these highly complex and heterogeneous brain tumours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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17 pages, 1467 KiB  
Review
Challenges and Therapeutic Opportunities in the dMMR/MSI-H Colorectal Cancer Landscape
Cancers 2023, 15(4), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15041022 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3864
Abstract
About 5 to 15% of all colorectal cancers harbor mismatch repair deficient/microsatellite instability–high status (dMMR/MSI-H) that associates with high tumor mutation burden and increased immunogenicity. As a result, and in contrast to other colorectal cancer phenotypes, a significant subset of dMMR/MSI-H cancer patients [...] Read more.
About 5 to 15% of all colorectal cancers harbor mismatch repair deficient/microsatellite instability–high status (dMMR/MSI-H) that associates with high tumor mutation burden and increased immunogenicity. As a result, and in contrast to other colorectal cancer phenotypes, a significant subset of dMMR/MSI-H cancer patients strongly benefit from immunotherapy. Yet, a large proportion of these tumors remain unresponsive to any immuno-modulating treatment. For this reason, current efforts are focused on the characterization of resistance mechanisms and the identification of predictive biomarkers to guide therapeutic decision-making. Here, we provide an overview on the new advances related to the diagnosis and definition of dMMR/MSI-H status and focus on the distinct clinical, functional, and molecular cues that associate with dMMR/MSI-H colorectal cancer. We review the development of novel predictive factors of response or resistance to immunotherapy and their potential application in the clinical setting. Finally, we discuss current and emerging strategies applied to the treatment of localized and metastatic dMMR/MSI-H colorectal tumors in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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18 pages, 676 KiB  
Review
Risk of Cancer in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Keys for Patient Management
Cancers 2023, 15(3), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15030871 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
Chronic inflammation in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) leads to an increased risk of colorectal cancer, small bowel cancer, intestinal lymphoma and cholangiocarcinoma. However, treatments for IBD have also been associated with an increased risk of neoplasms. Patients receiving Thiopurines (TPs) have [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammation in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) leads to an increased risk of colorectal cancer, small bowel cancer, intestinal lymphoma and cholangiocarcinoma. However, treatments for IBD have also been associated with an increased risk of neoplasms. Patients receiving Thiopurines (TPs) have an increased risk of hematologic malignancies, non-melanoma skin cancer, urinary tract neoplasms and cervical cancer. Anti-TNFs have been associated with a higher risk of neoplasms, mainly lymphomas and melanomas; however, the data are controversial, and some recent studies do not confirm the association. Nevertheless, other biologic agents, such as ustekinumab and vedolizumab, have not shown an increased risk of any neoplasm to date. The risk of malignancies with tofacitinib exists, but its magnitude and relationship with previous treatment with TPs is not defined, so more studies from daily clinical practice are needed. Although biologic therapy seems to be safe for patients with current cancer or a prior history of cancer, as has been demonstrated in other chronic inflammatory conditions, prospective studies in this specific population are needed. Until that time, it is crucial to manage such conditions via the combined clinical expertise of the gastroenterologist and oncologist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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24 pages, 3470 KiB  
Review
Childhood Brain Tumors: A Review of Strategies to Translate CNS Drug Delivery to Clinical Trials
Cancers 2023, 15(3), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15030857 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4273
Abstract
Brain and spinal tumors affect 1 in 1000 people by 25 years of age, and have diverse histological, biological, anatomical and dissemination characteristics. A mortality of 30–40% means the majority are cured, although two-thirds have life-long disability, linked to accumulated brain injury that [...] Read more.
Brain and spinal tumors affect 1 in 1000 people by 25 years of age, and have diverse histological, biological, anatomical and dissemination characteristics. A mortality of 30–40% means the majority are cured, although two-thirds have life-long disability, linked to accumulated brain injury that is acquired prior to diagnosis, and after surgery or chemo-radiotherapy. Only four drugs have been licensed globally for brain tumors in 40 years and only one for children. Most new cancer drugs in clinical trials do not cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Techniques to enhance brain tumor drug delivery are explored in this review, and cover those that augment penetration of the BBB, and those that bypass the BBB. Developing appropriate delivery techniques could improve patient outcomes by ensuring efficacious drug exposure to tumors (including those that are drug-resistant), reducing systemic toxicities and targeting leptomeningeal metastases. Together, this drug delivery strategy seeks to enhance the efficacy of new drugs and enable re-evaluation of existing drugs that might have previously failed because of inadequate delivery. A literature review of repurposed drugs is reported, and a range of preclinical brain tumor models available for translational development are explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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13 pages, 1272 KiB  
Review
Central Compartment Neck Dissection in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Clinical Considerations
Cancers 2023, 15(3), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15030804 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
Metastatic lymph node involvement represents the most relevant prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), invariably affecting overall survival, disease-specific survival, and relapse-free survival. Among HNSCCs, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers are known to be at highest risk to metastasize to [...] Read more.
Metastatic lymph node involvement represents the most relevant prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), invariably affecting overall survival, disease-specific survival, and relapse-free survival. Among HNSCCs, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers are known to be at highest risk to metastasize to the central neck compartment (CNC). However, prevalence and prognostic implications related to the CNC involvement are not well defined yet, and controversies still exist regarding the occult metastasis rate. Guidelines for the management of CNC in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers are vague, resulting in highly variable selection criteria for the central neck dissection among different surgeons and institutions. With this review, the authors intend to reappraise the existing data related to the involvement of CNC in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal malignancies, in the attempt to define the principles of management while highlighting the debated aspects that are lacking in evidence and consensus. Furthermore, as definition and boundaries of the CNC have changed over the years, an up-to-date anatomical–surgical description of the CNC is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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11 pages, 967 KiB  
Review
The Quality of Life in Surgically Treated Head and Neck Basal Cell Carcinoma Patients: A Comprehensive Review
Cancers 2023, 15(3), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15030801 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
In this review, we examine current literature analyzing the impact of surgical treatment on the QoL in patients with head and neck BCC. A comprehensive literature review was performed using the main databases. As many as six out of 322 articles were selected [...] Read more.
In this review, we examine current literature analyzing the impact of surgical treatment on the QoL in patients with head and neck BCC. A comprehensive literature review was performed using the main databases. As many as six out of 322 articles were selected for the final analysis. The selected articles were published in the period between 2004 and 2021, most published within the last two years. All analyzed studies were prospective. Five out of six studies evaluated NMSC consisting of both BCC and SCC, and only one study selectively evaluated the impact of surgical treatment on QoL in patients with craniofacial BCC. Authors of the selected studies reported that QoL improves following the surgery; however, the effect on QoL varies. Patients’ age, gender, marital status, education level, and employment status had a stronger correlation with QoL postoperatively, especially during the late follow-up period. Younger patients were more bothered by appearance-related issues. One study concluded that elderly patients did not experience a statistically significant improvement in QoL. This literature review demonstrated that there is no clear consensus on the use of a single disease-specific QoL measurement tool. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies assessing the impact of surgical treatment on QoL exclusively in patients with head and neck BCC and studies analyzing the multivariate correlation between QoL and tumor type, size, anatomic site, and treatment outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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24 pages, 918 KiB  
Review
Unusual Suspects: Bone and Cartilage ECM Proteins as Carcinoma Facilitators
Cancers 2023, 15(3), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15030791 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1683
Abstract
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the complex three-dimensional network of fibrous proteins and proteoglycans that constitutes an essential part of every tissue to provide support for normal tissue homeostasis. Tissue specificity of the ECM in its topology and structure supports unique biochemical and [...] Read more.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the complex three-dimensional network of fibrous proteins and proteoglycans that constitutes an essential part of every tissue to provide support for normal tissue homeostasis. Tissue specificity of the ECM in its topology and structure supports unique biochemical and mechanical properties of each organ. Cancers, like normal tissues, require the ECM to maintain multiple processes governing tumor development, progression and spread. A large body of experimental and clinical evidence has now accumulated to demonstrate essential roles of numerous ECM components in all cancer types. Latest findings also suggest that multiple tumor types express, and use to their advantage, atypical ECM components that are not found in the cancer tissue of origin. However, the understanding of cancer-specific expression patterns of these ECM proteins and their exact roles in selected tumor types is still sketchy. In this review, we summarize the latest data on the aberrant expression of bone and cartilage ECM proteins in epithelial cancers and their specific functions in the pathogenesis of carcinomas and discuss future directions in exploring the utility of this selective group of ECM components as future drug targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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12 pages, 889 KiB  
Review
Duration of Immunotherapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Survivors: A Lifelong Commitment?
Cancers 2023, 15(3), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15030689 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
Lung cancer is one of the most common human malignancies and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Novel therapeutic approaches, like targeted therapies against specific molecular alterations and immunotherapy, have revolutionized in the last decade the oncological outcomes in patients affected by [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is one of the most common human malignancies and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Novel therapeutic approaches, like targeted therapies against specific molecular alterations and immunotherapy, have revolutionized in the last decade the oncological outcomes in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The advent of immunotherapy for the treatment of NSCLC has significantly improved overall and progression-free survival, as well as the patient’s quality of life in comparison to traditional chemotherapy. Currently, it is estimated that long-term survival can be achieved in more than 15% of NSCLC patients treated with immunotherapy. Therefore, the optimal duration of immunotherapy in long survivors needs to be established to avoid overtreatment, side effects, and high costs and at the same time, protect them from potential disease relapse or progression. We performed a narrative review to discuss all the aspects related to the optimal duration of immunotherapy in long survivors with NSCLC. Data regarding the duration of immunotherapy in the most impacting clinical trials were collected, along with data regarding the impact of toxicities, side effects, and costs for healthcare providers. In addition, the two-year immunotherapy scheme in patients who benefit from first-line or subsequent treatment lines are examined, and the need for biomarkers that can predict outcomes during and after immunotherapy cessation in patients affected by NSCLC are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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25 pages, 1476 KiB  
Review
Hallmarks of Cancer Affected by the MIF Cytokine Family
Cancers 2023, 15(2), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15020395 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2337
Abstract
New diagnostic methods and treatments have significantly decreased the mortality rates of cancer patients, but further improvements are warranted based on the identification of novel tumor-promoting molecules that can serve as therapeutic targets. The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) family of cytokines, comprising [...] Read more.
New diagnostic methods and treatments have significantly decreased the mortality rates of cancer patients, but further improvements are warranted based on the identification of novel tumor-promoting molecules that can serve as therapeutic targets. The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) family of cytokines, comprising MIF and DDT (also known as MIF2), are overexpressed in almost all cancer types, and their high expressions are related to a worse prognosis for the patients. MIF is involved in 9 of the 10 hallmarks of cancer, and its inhibition by antibodies, nanobodies, or small synthetic molecules has shown promising results. Even though DDT is also proposed to be involved in several of the hallmarks of cancer, the available information about its pro-tumoral role and mechanism of action is more limited. Here, we provide an overview of the involvement of both MIF and DDT in cancer, and we propose that blocking both cytokines is needed to obtain the maximum anti-tumor response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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22 pages, 2013 KiB  
Review
Management of Appendix Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Insights on the Current Guidelines
Cancers 2023, 15(1), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15010295 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4602
Abstract
Appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms (ANENs) usually present as incidental findings at the time of appendectomy for acute appendicitis. They are rare, accounting for only 0.5–1% of intestinal neoplasms; they are found in 0.3–0.9% of all appendectomy specimens. They are usually sporadic tumors. There are [...] Read more.
Appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms (ANENs) usually present as incidental findings at the time of appendectomy for acute appendicitis. They are rare, accounting for only 0.5–1% of intestinal neoplasms; they are found in 0.3–0.9% of all appendectomy specimens. They are usually sporadic tumors. There are several histological types including well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), and mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNENs). Histologic differentiation and the grade of well-differentiated NETs correlate with clinical behavior and prognosis. Management varies based on differentiation, aggressiveness, and metastatic potential. There is debate about the optimal surgical management for localized appendiceal NETs that are impacted by many factors including the tumor size, the extent of mesoappendiceal spread, lymphovascular invasion and perineural involvement. In addition, the data to guide therapy in metastatic disease are limited due to the paucity of these tumors. Here, we review the current advances in the management of ANENs within the context of a multidisciplinary approach to these tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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17 pages, 1452 KiB  
Review
Anti-Androgenic Therapies Targeting the Luminal Androgen Receptor of a Typical Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Cancers 2023, 15(1), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15010233 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
Triple-negative tumors are progressively delineating their existence over the extended spectrum of breast cancers, marked by intricate molecular heterogeneity, a low overall survival rate, and an unexplored therapeutic approach. Although the basal subtype transcends the group and contributes approximately 80% to triple-negative breast [...] Read more.
Triple-negative tumors are progressively delineating their existence over the extended spectrum of breast cancers, marked by intricate molecular heterogeneity, a low overall survival rate, and an unexplored therapeutic approach. Although the basal subtype transcends the group and contributes approximately 80% to triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cases, the exceptionally appearing mesenchymal and luminal androgen receptor (LAR) subtypes portray an unfathomable clinical course. LAR with a distinct generic profile frequently metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and bones. This subtype is minimally affected by chemotherapy and shows the lowest pathologic complete response. The androgen receptor is the only sex steroid receptor that plays a cardinal role in the progression of breast cancers and is typically overexpressed in LAR. The partial AR antagonist bicalutamide and the next-generation AR inhibitor enzalutamide are being assessed in standard protocols for the mitigation of TNBC. There arises an inevitable need to probe into the strategies that could neutralize these androgen receptors and alleviate the trajectory of concerning cancer. This paper thus focuses on reviewing literature that provides insights into the anti-androgenic elements against LAR typical TNBC that could pave the way for clinical advancements in this dynamic sphere of oncology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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11 pages, 833 KiB  
Review
Tumor Microenvironment in Thymic Epithelial Tumors: A Narrative Review
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6082; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246082 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a complex and constantly changing entity. The TME consists of stromal cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and innate and adaptive immune cells. Cancer development and progression occurs through this interplay between the tumor and the adjacent stroma. Cancer cells [...] Read more.
The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a complex and constantly changing entity. The TME consists of stromal cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and innate and adaptive immune cells. Cancer development and progression occurs through this interplay between the tumor and the adjacent stroma. Cancer cells are capable of modifying their microenvironment by secreting various message-carrying molecules, such as cytokines, chemokines, and other factors. This action causes a reprogramming of the neighboring cells, which are enabled to play a crucial role in tumor survival and progression. The study of TME has many clinical implications in terms of cancer therapeutics because many new drugs, such as antibodies, kinase inhibitors, and liposome formulations that can encapsulate anti-cancer drugs, can be developed. Although chemotherapy is considered the standard of treatment for advanced disease, recent research has brought to light immunotherapy as a possible systemic alternative. However, the complex structure and function of the thymus hinders its routine use in clinical practice. The aim of this review paper is to discuss the recent advances in the investigation of the unique characteristics of the TME of thymic epithelial tumors that could possibly lead to the development of novel promising therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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15 pages, 1350 KiB  
Review
NDRG1 in Cancer: A Suppressor, Promoter, or Both?
Cancers 2022, 14(23), 5739; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14235739 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2220
Abstract
N-myc downregulated gene-1 (NDRG1) has been variably reported as a metastasis suppressor, a biomarker of poor outcome, and a facilitator of disease progression in a range of different cancers. NDRG1 is poorly understood in cancer due to its context-dependent and pleiotropic functions. Within [...] Read more.
N-myc downregulated gene-1 (NDRG1) has been variably reported as a metastasis suppressor, a biomarker of poor outcome, and a facilitator of disease progression in a range of different cancers. NDRG1 is poorly understood in cancer due to its context-dependent and pleiotropic functions. Within breast cancer, NDRG1 is reported to be either a facilitator of, or an inhibitor of tumour progression and metastasis. The wide array of roles played by NDRG1 are dependent on post-translational modifications and subcellular localization, as well as the cellular context, for example, cancer type. We present an update on NDRG1, and its association with hallmarks of cancer such as hypoxia, its interaction with oncogenic proteins such as p53 as well its role in oncogenic and metastasis pathways in breast and other cancers. We further comment on its functional implications as a metastasis suppressor and promoter, its clinical relevance, and discuss its therapeutic targetability in different cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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13 pages, 9600 KiB  
Review
Diagnosis and Management of Porocarcinoma
Cancers 2022, 14(21), 5232; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14215232 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3088
Abstract
Eccrine porocarcinoma, also known as porocarcinoma (PC) and malignant eccrine poroma, is very rare and is known to arise from the cutaneous intraepidermal ducts of the sweat glands. Its etiology is not well understood; however, some studies suggest that PC tumors originate from [...] Read more.
Eccrine porocarcinoma, also known as porocarcinoma (PC) and malignant eccrine poroma, is very rare and is known to arise from the cutaneous intraepidermal ducts of the sweat glands. Its etiology is not well understood; however, some studies suggest that PC tumors originate from benign eccrine poroma. Recently, several gene alterations have been reported in PC that can reveal mechanisms of the oncogenic process. Since the clinical and histopathological findings of PC are variable, PC is difficult to diagnose precisely, especially when the histology resembles that of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma or poroma. Immunohistochemical staining with carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen may help to distinguish PC from other tumors. The standard treatment for local PC is wide local excision. The prognosis of patients with metastatic PC is poor, with mortality rates of approximately 60–70%. The efficacy of radiation and chemotherapy for metastatic PC is limited; however, immunotherapy with pembrolizumab, a programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor, could be a promising treatment. This review focuses on the history, pathogenesis, pathological features, diagnosis, and treatment of eccrine porocarcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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11 pages, 401 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Clinical Implications of Cachexia, Sarcopenia, and BMI in Patients with Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Receiving Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy
Cancers 2022, 14(12), 2853; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14122853 - 09 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1611
Abstract
Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is the dissemination of cancer throughout the peritoneal cavity. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is the surgical treatment of choice in highly selected patients. The aim of this narrative review was to assess the impact of cachexia, [...] Read more.
Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is the dissemination of cancer throughout the peritoneal cavity. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is the surgical treatment of choice in highly selected patients. The aim of this narrative review was to assess the impact of cachexia, sarcopenia, and body mass index (BMI) on patient outcomes for patients undergoing CRS and HIPEC for peritoneal carcinomatosis. A narrative review was performed and articles pertaining to cachexia, sarcopenia, BMI, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and CRS/HIPEC were reviewed and selected. In total, 3041 articles were screened and seven original studies met the inclusion criteria. In summary, obesity was found to not be a contraindication to surgery, but the impact of BMI was variable across the spectrum. Decreased skeletal muscle mass was found to be associated with poorer postoperative outcomes in three studies and with worse overall survival in two. With limited data, evaluating the impact of BMI, sarcopenia, and cachexia on patients with PC undergoing CRS and HIPEC was difficult as most studies included heterogeneous cancer patient populations; thus, postoperative outcomes and survival were inconsistent across studies. More research is needed to better understand its impact and to better generalize the results for each cancer subset treated with CRS and HIPEC across diverse patient populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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12 pages, 264 KiB  
Review
Current Status and Future Perspective on the Management of Lymph Node-Positive Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy
Cancers 2022, 14(11), 2696; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14112696 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2027
Abstract
Pathological lymph node involvement (pN1) after a pelvic lymph node dissection represents one of the most unfavorable prognostic factors for disease recurrence and cancer-specific mortality in prostate cancer. However, optimal management for pN1 patients remains unclear. Thus, the guideline from the European Association [...] Read more.
Pathological lymph node involvement (pN1) after a pelvic lymph node dissection represents one of the most unfavorable prognostic factors for disease recurrence and cancer-specific mortality in prostate cancer. However, optimal management for pN1 patients remains unclear. Thus, the guideline from the European Association of Urology recommends discussing three following management options with pN1 patients after an extended pelvic lymph node dissection, based on nodal involvement characteristics: (i) offer adjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy, (ii) offer adjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy with additional radiotherapy and (iii) offer observation (expectant management) to a patient with ≤2 nodes and a prostate-specific antigen <0.1 ng/mL. Treatment intensification may reduce risks of recurrence and cancer-specific mortality, but it may increase adverse events and impair quality of life. Few randomized control trials for pN1 are under investigation. In addition, there are limited reports on the quality of life and patient-reported outcomes in patients with pN1. Therefore, more research is needed to establish an optimal therapeutic strategy for patients with pN1. This review summarizes current evidence on the treatments available for men with pN1, summarizes randomized control trials that included pN1 prostate cancer, and discusses future perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)

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22 pages, 1840 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation in Combination with Locoregional Treatments for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Cancers 2023, 15(3), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15030926 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
Background: Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation has been linked with favorable outcomes in patients undergoing surgical or palliative treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To date, there has been no systematic review investigating the value of BCAA supplementation in HCC patients undergoing locoregional therapies. [...] Read more.
Background: Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation has been linked with favorable outcomes in patients undergoing surgical or palliative treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To date, there has been no systematic review investigating the value of BCAA supplementation in HCC patients undergoing locoregional therapies. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the literature was performed across five databases/registries using a detailed search algorithm according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. The search was conducted on March 23, 2022. Results: Sixteen studies with a total of 1594 patients were analyzed. Most patients were male (64.6%) with a mean age of 68.2 ± 4.1 years, Child–Pugh score A (67.9%) and stage II disease (40.0%). Locoregional therapy consisted of radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy. BCAA supplementation was in the form of BCAA granules or BCAA-enriched nutrient. Most studies reported improved albumin levels, non-protein respiratory quotient and quality of life in the BCAA group. Results pertaining to other outcomes including overall survival, recurrence rate, and Child–Pugh score were variable. Meta-analysis showed significantly higher levels of post-treatment serum albumin in the BCAA group (SMD = 0.54, 95% CI 0.20–0.87) but no significant differences in mortality rate (RR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.65–1.02) and AST (SMD = −0.13, 95% CI: −0.43–0.18). Conclusion: BCAA supplementation is associated with higher post-treatment albumin levels. There are currently not sufficient data to support additional benefits. Further studies are needed to elucidate their value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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18 pages, 12378 KiB  
Systematic Review
Liver Transplantation for Pediatric Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review
Cancers 2022, 14(5), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14051294 - 02 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2767
Abstract
Liver transplantation (LT) is the only potentially curative option for children with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed a systematic review of the MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases (end-of-search date: 31 July 2020). Our outcomes were overall survival (OS) [...] Read more.
Liver transplantation (LT) is the only potentially curative option for children with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed a systematic review of the MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases (end-of-search date: 31 July 2020). Our outcomes were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). We evaluated the effect of clinically relevant variables on outcomes using the Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test. Sixty-seven studies reporting on 245 children undergoing LT for HCC were included. DFS data were available for 150 patients and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS rates were 92.3%, 89.1%, and 84.5%, respectively. Sixty of the two hundred and thirty-eight patients (25.2%) died over a mean follow up of 46.8 ± 47.4 months. OS data were available for 222 patients and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 87.9%, 78.8%, and 74.3%, respectively. Although no difference was observed between children transplanted within vs. beyond Milan criteria (p = 0.15), superior OS was observed in children transplanted within vs. beyond UCSF criteria (p = 0.02). LT can yield favorable outcomes for pediatric HCC beyond Milan but not beyond UCSF criteria. Further research is required to determine appropriate LT selection criteria for pediatric HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Oncology in 2022)
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