Performance-Based Urban Design: Integrated Urban Analytics, Simulation and Climate-Responsive Design

A topical collection in Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This collection belongs to the section "Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate".

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Editors

College of Architecture & The Built Environment, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
Interests: quantification of environmental impacts of built environments; high performance/net zero buildings & cities; life-cycle analysis; assessment of social sustainability and wellness; tall building research and design

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
College of Arts and Architecture, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Interests: net-zero energy buildings; environmental life cycle assessment; sustainable high-performance buildings; energy efficiency in building; embodied carbon modeling; novel construction materials with energy generation and carbon absorption capabilities
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

More than one million people are expected to move to urban areas every week for the next several decades. These urban residents will be facing profound challenges related to extreme environmental challenges, climate change, and resource depletion for substantial part of their citizenship. Performance-based urban design is a particularly effective strategy in rethinking the future of urban form in cities. It is a goal-oriented design approach to develop sustainable neighbourhoods and cities using urban performance-based criteria including environmental performance (e.g., energy use, carbon emissions, daylight availability, and thermal comfort), social performance (e.g., quality of life, health, safety, and accessibility) and economic performance (cost, profit, and economic growth). At the heart of the performance-based urban design is the intent to create an open and collaborative urban design process that includes policy makers, urban planners, architects, engineers, and other specialists from the early stages of urban planning or urban design projects.

The current Topical Collection aims to collect cutting-edge studies related to the application of performance-based urban design in addressing the environmental and social challenges of the cities. In particular, it will carry the advancements in research and practice using urban analytics and simulation to examine the performance of cities with regard to energy use, carbon emissions, urban heat island, daylight availability, wind, outdoor thermal comfort, air quality, and other related indicators.

Submissions are encouraged to contribute to the following sub-themes, but not limited to:

  • Review of historical trends and literature in performance-based urban design
  • Novel methods and tools, integrated with urban analytics, simulation and other approaches, to examine the environmental and social performance of cities
  • Innovative research and case-studies of using performance-based interventions in neighbourhoods and cities based on criteria such as energy, carbon, urban heat island, and thermal comfort
  • Best practices, as well as successful or unsuccessful endeavours in performance-based urban design
  • Future directions in addressing environmental and social issues in cities using performance-based design

Dr. Peng Du
Dr. Rahman Azari
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • performance-based urban design
  • urban analytics
  • climate-responsive design
  • environmental performance
  • energy
  • sustainability

Published Papers (16 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022

25 pages, 11592 KiB  
Article
A Parametric Approach for Optimizing Design Solutions in Urban Regeneration and Reshaping: An Application to a District Block in Bologna, Italy
by Cecilia Mazzoli, Dimitra Papadaki and Annarita Ferrante
Buildings 2023, 13(12), 3123; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13123123 - 16 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
This paper addresses the deep renovation and enhancement of energy efficiency in existing urban areas, aiming to transform them into zero energy districts, utilizing renewable sources. This transformative process is essential to align with contemporary models for new buildings and to elevate existing [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the deep renovation and enhancement of energy efficiency in existing urban areas, aiming to transform them into zero energy districts, utilizing renewable sources. This transformative process is essential to align with contemporary models for new buildings and to elevate existing structures to meet environmental housing standards mandated by current regulations. The proposed densification strategy is motivated by the necessity to augment the real estate value and enhance the architectural and performance quality of the existing building stock, all while minimizing additional land occupation. Its efficacy has been rigorously tested and demonstrated within the European Horizon 2020 project “ABRACADABRA”. The key actions advocated for in this approach revolve around the incorporation of renewable energies, volumetric expansion, and completion volumes (urban infill), within the Positive Energy District. The validation of this process occurs on a district scale in a social housing urban block located in Bologna (Italy), with currently poor environmental performance. A multi-criteria analysis was employed to examine the architectural, climatic, and energy context. The meta-design phase successfully attained the energy and economic targets set by the project and by local and European regulations settings, offering an optimized design solutions for reshaping the built environment. Full article
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23 pages, 12244 KiB  
Article
A Sustainable Evaluation Study Based on Emergy–Geographic Information System (GIS) Methodology in Hangzhou City from 2010 to 2035
by Lan Liu, Runhui Cai and Junxue Zhang
Buildings 2023, 13(10), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13102445 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Sustainability studies are vital for the long-term development of ecological cities. For cities, single qualitative or quantitative evaluation studies cannot effectively illustrate the ecological and sustainable status of a city. This study employs the emergy–geographic information system (GIS) method to conduct a sustainability [...] Read more.
Sustainability studies are vital for the long-term development of ecological cities. For cities, single qualitative or quantitative evaluation studies cannot effectively illustrate the ecological and sustainable status of a city. This study employs the emergy–geographic information system (GIS) method to conduct a sustainability evaluation of a city, so as to effectively verify the evaluation results. The emergy method and GIS are both commonly used approaches to address urban issues, but their synergistic effect has rarely been considered, explored, and utilized in urban planning. This study aims to investigate this effect on Hangzhou city through comparative analysis. The results show that rain (geopotential energy) and rain (chemical potential energy) have the highest emergy values from 2000 to 2035, followed by solar emergy, wind emergy, and geothermal heat emergy. These findings are also supported by the GIS map that shows a similar pattern with renewable emergy. Using the five plots (cropland, woodland, grassland, water area, and built-up land) on the GIS map as examples, the accuracy of emergy calculation results for Hangzhou city can be verified, demonstrating the effectiveness of the emergy–GIS methodology. This research provides practical recommendations for city designers and professionals worldwide on urban sustainability. By incorporating both emergy and GIS methods, cities can make informed decisions toward achieving environmentally sustainable development. Full article
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24 pages, 24147 KiB  
Article
Research on the Correlations between Spatial Morphological Indices and Carbon Emission during the Operational Stage of Built Environments for Old Communities in Cold Regions
by Fei Zheng, Yuqing Wang, Zhicheng Shen and Yuetao Wang
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2222; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092222 - 31 Aug 2023
Viewed by 828
Abstract
The escalation of the urban population and energy demands has exacerbated the carbon emission intensity at the operational stage of urban old communities. The spatial elements of the built environments comprising building groups, roads and landscape, and the spatial morphology of these elements, [...] Read more.
The escalation of the urban population and energy demands has exacerbated the carbon emission intensity at the operational stage of urban old communities. The spatial elements of the built environments comprising building groups, roads and landscape, and the spatial morphology of these elements, are endowed not only with human activities but also impact local microclimates and overall carbon emissions. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the correlation mechanism between the spatial morphology of the urban built environments and carbon emissions. In this paper, the aim is to combine carbon emissions simulation and statistical analysis to find the correlation between the spatial morphological indices and carbon emissions and to bridge the gaps. Thus, guided by the principles of urban energy modeling, this research adopts a parametric process of “information model construction–carbon emission simulation–statistical analysis”. First, taking 60 typical samples of an old community in Jinan, China, as objects, morphological indices such as density, texture and layout are analyzed through regression analysis to highlight their impacts on carbon emissions. Then, a carbon emission prediction model based on spatial morphological indices is established and verified. The results show that the floor area ratio (FAR), building coverage ratio (BCR), enclosure degree (ED), shape factor (SF) and average road aspect ratio (AS) have significant impacts on carbon emissions during the operational stage. Among these indices, the FAR and the ED are identified as the pivotal influencers. The findings confirm the important role of spatial morphological design of old communities in cold regions in improving urban carbon reduction potential, and they provide theoretical underpinnings and empirical data as references for urban morphology design formulated within the context of low-carbon objectives. Full article
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28 pages, 40000 KiB  
Article
Research on the Industrial Heritage Community Retrofitting Design Based on Space Network Model of Carbon
by Yuetao Wang, Ruidong Zhu, Jinming Liu, Fei Zheng and Chengbin Wu
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2202; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092202 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1039
Abstract
The low-carbon retrofitting of industrial heritage communities is an important issue for reducing urban carbon emissions. Previous research on the judgment of heritage elements and carbon emission factors of industrial heritage communities lacked the construction of elements within the space, and the value [...] Read more.
The low-carbon retrofitting of industrial heritage communities is an important issue for reducing urban carbon emissions. Previous research on the judgment of heritage elements and carbon emission factors of industrial heritage communities lacked the construction of elements within the space, and the value judgment of conservation and the determination of low-carbon factors lacked a systematic network analysis. Carbon spatial networks as a systematic approach can systematically harmonize the contradictions between “conservation–transformation–low carbon” while considering the spatial and temporal carbon emissions of nodes. This research uses hierarchical analysis to analyze the value of heritage elements and locate them in space, then combine the elements that affect carbon activities in space to form carbon space nodes integrated with heritage conservation elements, and analyze the links between nodes to form a carbon space network. Then, this research uses a carbon spatial network to dissect the structure of carbon emissions, calculate the carbon activity at nodes, and reflect it into a parameterized platform to guide designers. After that, this research selected 16 industrial heritage communities in the severe cold region for the carbon activity measurement of carbon spatial network node elements in the operation stage and conducted a correlation analysis to obtain a correlation matrix model of node elements and carbon activities. Within the constraints of heritage element protection, the results show that the volume ratio, green area ratio, and building density of the carbon spatial network model have the greatest influence on its carbon performance, followed by porosity and road density. Through case simulation verification, the floor area ratio of industrial heritage communities should be controlled between 2.1–2.5, the number of residential building floors should be 7–14, the road network density should be 4.16–4.50%, the green space ratio should be 20–35%, and the porosity should be 35–45%. Taking the three major power road communities in Harbin as an example, retrofit measures were decided by reference to relevant parameter control intervals, resulting in a 21.1% reduction in energy consumption, an approximate 32.7% reduction in carbon emissions, and a 7.3% reduction in the annual percentage of hours in extreme hot and cold environments. Full article
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25 pages, 15358 KiB  
Article
Study on the Correlation Analysis between Urban Morphological Factors and Microclimate Based on Empirical Methods on a University Campus in a Hot-Summer–Cold-Winter Region
by Ruihan Wei, Chang Xu, Dexuan Song, Hui Tong and Zhengshu Chen
Buildings 2023, 13(8), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13081920 - 28 Jul 2023
Viewed by 982
Abstract
With the continuous progress of urbanization, contemporary scholars are increasingly focusing their attention on the study of urban microclimates. This research aims to investigate the relationship between urban morphology and microclimates in regions characterized by hot summers and cold winters. Environmental meteorological data, [...] Read more.
With the continuous progress of urbanization, contemporary scholars are increasingly focusing their attention on the study of urban microclimates. This research aims to investigate the relationship between urban morphology and microclimates in regions characterized by hot summers and cold winters. Environmental meteorological data, including temperature, solar radiation, and wind speed during the spring and summer seasons, were collected through on-site monitoring in a specific area of Shanghai. Various methods, such as on-site surveys and drone photography, were employed to obtain and analyze a range of urban morphological parameters, including floor area ratio (FAR) and greenery ratio (GnPR). The sky view factor (SVF) was determined using a fisheye lens technique. Subsequently, the collected datasets were analyzed to assess the varying impact of distinct urban morphological factors on microclimates. The findings indicate a significant correlation between different building morphology factors and temperature and solar radiation during spring, while their associations with wind speed become more prominent in summer. Notably, greenery and pavement demonstrate stronger correlations with temperature and radiation in summer, aligning with the seasonal growth patterns of plants. These research findings provide both a theoretical foundation and practical guidelines for the urban design of environmental microclimates. Full article
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19 pages, 6864 KiB  
Article
A 3D Spatial Diagnostic Framework of Sustainable Historic and Cultural District Preservation: A Case Study in Henan, China
by Man Zhang, Yaoxin Zhang, Xue Fang and Xiaoqi Wang
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051344 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1291
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) information technology has become an important technical support in digital heritage preservation practice. However, due to the lack of systematic quantitative research, it is difficult to form a comprehensive understanding of the historic and cultural districts, from macro to micro. Our [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) information technology has become an important technical support in digital heritage preservation practice. However, due to the lack of systematic quantitative research, it is difficult to form a comprehensive understanding of the historic and cultural districts, from macro to micro. Our study aimed to establish a systematic 3D spatial diagnostic framework combining 3D scanning and SPSS data descriptive analysis and regression analysis for historic and cultural districts to promote sustainable historic and cultural area preservation. Taking Zhongshan Street in Qi County as an example, data statistical analysis was carried out on morphological feature data from the macro level of the district, the meso level of architecture, and the micro level of elements. The research conclusion shows that at the macro level the street form continues the main features of a traditional alley spatial skyline, height–width ratio, and sectional symbol language. At the meso level, the architecture reveals various periods of style in terms of the facade width and mathematical relationship between traditional architectural facades. At the micro level, architectural detailing explains the main reasons for the recent new construction being inconsistent with the historic and cultural district appearance. This quantitative diagnostic method can accurately analyze the current characteristics of historic and cultural districts and easily provide effective suggestions for follow-up preservation methods. Full article
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19 pages, 12399 KiB  
Article
Urban Microclimate, Outdoor Thermal Comfort, and Socio-Economic Mapping: A Case Study of Philadelphia, PA
by Farzad Hashemi, Ute Poerschke, Lisa D. Iulo and Guangqing Chi
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041040 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3571
Abstract
Urban areas are often warmer than rural areas due to the phenomenon known as the “urban heat island” (UHI) effect, which can cause discomfort for those engaging in outdoor activities and can have a disproportionate impact on low-income communities, people of color, and [...] Read more.
Urban areas are often warmer than rural areas due to the phenomenon known as the “urban heat island” (UHI) effect, which can cause discomfort for those engaging in outdoor activities and can have a disproportionate impact on low-income communities, people of color, and the elderly. The intensity of the UHI effect is influenced by a variety of factors, including urban morphology, which can vary from one area to another. To investigate the relationship between outdoor thermal comfort and urban morphology in different urban blocks with varying social vulnerability status, this study developed a geographic information system (GIS)-based workflow that combined the “local climate zone” (LCZ) classification system and an urban microclimate assessment tool called ENVI-met. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology, the study selected two different urban blocks in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania–with high and low social vulnerability indices (SVI)–to compare their microclimate conditions in association with urban morphological characteristics such as green coverage area, sky view factor (SVF), albedo, and street height to width (H/W) ratio. The results of the study showed that there was a strong correlation between tree and grass coverage and outdoor air and mean radiant temperature during hot seasons and extremely hot days, which in turn affected simulated predicted mean vote (PMV). The effects of greenery were more significant in the block associated with a low SVI, where nearly 50% of the site was covered by trees and grass, compared to only 0.02% of the other block associated with a high SVI. Furthermore, the investigation discovered that reduced SVF, along with increased albedo and H/W ratio, had a beneficial impact on the microclimate at the pedestrian level within the two studied urban blocks. This study provided an effective and easy-to-implement method for tackling the inequity issue of outdoor thermal comfort and urban morphology at fine geographic scales. Full article
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26 pages, 7165 KiB  
Review
Development and Research Regarding Stormwater Runoff Management: Bibliometric Analysis from 2001 to 2021
by Weihao Hao, Dong-Wook Sohn and Da Wan
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13040901 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2071
Abstract
As a result of climate change and urbanization, human activities are placing increasing pressure on nature, including with regard to urban stormwater runoff; consequently, various concepts related to urban stormwater runoff management have been proposed to tackle this problem in multiple countries. In [...] Read more.
As a result of climate change and urbanization, human activities are placing increasing pressure on nature, including with regard to urban stormwater runoff; consequently, various concepts related to urban stormwater runoff management have been proposed to tackle this problem in multiple countries. In this study, the latest research and techniques related to stormwater runoff management are reviewed in detail. A bibliometric analysis of proposed stormwater runoff management concepts developed from 2001 to 2021 was conducted based on a screening of 1771 studies obtained from the Web of Science (WoS). Bibliometric analysis is a research method that can be used to quantitatively analyze academic literature. Visualization of the data obtained from the literature using CiteSpace software and subsequent analysis of patent data through S-curve prediction were performed. The United States, China, and Australia were the top three countries from which publications on this issue were sourced. Each country tends to study its own most relevant issues and has a particularly clear understanding of its own research landscape. The development of stormwater runoff management concepts was analyzed using reference emergence analysis. This was followed by keyword clustering and keyword emergence analysis to identify current research hotspots, trends, technological developments, and limitations. The limitations and emerging trends related to current stormwater runoff management concepts are discussed thoroughly, and suggestions for future studies are provided. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023

21 pages, 15488 KiB  
Article
Coastal Waterfront Vibrancy: An Exploration from the Perspective of Quantitative Urban Morphology
by Lung Shih Huang, Yun Han and Yu Ye
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1585; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101585 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2286
Abstract
Contemporary urban design, requiring a deep understanding of urban form and its performance, has recently shifted its focus on the vibrancy of waterfronts in coastal cities. Based on analytical methods of quantitative urban morphology, this study aims to explore the common morphological features [...] Read more.
Contemporary urban design, requiring a deep understanding of urban form and its performance, has recently shifted its focus on the vibrancy of waterfronts in coastal cities. Based on analytical methods of quantitative urban morphology, this study aims to explore the common morphological features of waterfronts with high urban vibrancy. We selected vibrant waterfront cases from different countries as the benchmark and collected the multi-sourced urban data. The quantitative analysis extracts the common morphological characteristics of vibrant waterfront by calculating the range of those indicators in different cases. The results indicate that those successful waterfronts comprise compact street networks and are mostly dominated by building types favorable for urban vibrancy. They possess high development intensity and mixed functions. Consequently, the compact urban form and dense-mixed land use are recommended for developing vital waterfronts. Moreover, considering the problematic waterfront area of the Jinshatan area in Yantai, quantitative urban morphology methods can be adopted to develop precise urban design guidance for vibrancy-oriented design practice. This study, thus, provides comprehensive insights for shaping the vibrancy of the waterfronts in coastal cities. Full article
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22 pages, 9838 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Optimisation of Urban Form: A Framework for Selecting the Optimal Solution
by Milad Showkatbakhsh and Mohammed Makki
Buildings 2022, 12(9), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12091473 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2652
Abstract
The complexity associated with the design of urban tissues is driven by the multitude of design goals that influence urban development and growth. This complexity is amplified by the design goals being inherently conflicting, necessitating preference-based decisions within the design process—an approach that [...] Read more.
The complexity associated with the design of urban tissues is driven by the multitude of design goals that influence urban development and growth. This complexity is amplified by the design goals being inherently conflicting, necessitating preference-based decisions within the design process—an approach that results in predetermined design solutions driven by personal biases. The utility of population-based optimisation algorithms addresses this by allowing for the examination of multiple conflicting objectives within the same design problem, negating the need for trade-off decisions between the design goals. The application of these algorithms is associated with three primary steps. The first is the formulation of the design problem, the second is the application of the algorithm, and the third is selecting the most optimal solution from the algorithm’s output. This paper examines the third step in this process, in which various methods are employed to facilitate data-driven selection mechanisms that are both objective as well as subjective in their formulation. The selection mechanisms are demonstrated on a speculative urban tissue that examines the potential of inhabiting interstitial spaces, through various morphological interventions, within the urban fabric. The results present a scalable and adaptable framework that assists designers employing multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) to select the optimal solution from their generated populations, a challenge commonly associated with the application of MOEAs in design. Full article
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24 pages, 4952 KiB  
Article
Comparative Urban Performance Evaluation of Sustainable Urbanization in Four Typical Megalopolises in China
by Xue Fang, Xinyu Shi, Tyson Keen Phillips and Weijun Gao
Buildings 2022, 12(9), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12091422 - 10 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
The essence of sustainable urbanization is to take a holistic approach to the harmonious development of economic, social, cultural and environmental protection. This paper applies the urban sustainability assessment system to analyze the characteristics of indicators related to the quality of the built [...] Read more.
The essence of sustainable urbanization is to take a holistic approach to the harmonious development of economic, social, cultural and environmental protection. This paper applies the urban sustainability assessment system to analyze the characteristics of indicators related to the quality of the built environment and environmental pressure of 91 cities in four major megalopolises in China from 2010 to 2018. It also combines statistical methods to summarize the general features of urban development through a comprehensive urban performance evaluation by comparative and classification analysis for the purpose of scientific guidance on sustainable urbanization. The comparative results showed that in terms of urban sustainability, the Yangtze River Delta performed best, followed by JingJinJi, Pearl River Delta and Shandong Peninsula. Of which, the quality of built environment in JingJinJi and the environment pressure in the Shandong Peninsula require particular attention to improve and decrease, respectively. Moreover, cities can be grouped into six development types through performance clustering including three positive and three negative types. The characteristics of all types are summarized, and the performance of the specific indicators are detailed compared to serve as a guiding basis for making generic recommendations of sustainable urbanization. Full article
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21 pages, 7754 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution and Accessibility Measurements for Elderly Day Care Centers in China’s Urban Built-up Area: The Case of Tianjin Nankai District
by Da Wan, Hui Liu, Jiaxing Guo, Lian Guo, Dongchen Qi, Sheng Zhang, Pengbo Li and Hiroatsu Fukuda
Buildings 2022, 12(9), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12091413 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
The elderly community day care model is an emergent solution to the aging problem influenced by the Eastern perspective of family in China. Due to the structural problem of spatial disorder in most of China’s urban built-up areas, the planning and construction of [...] Read more.
The elderly community day care model is an emergent solution to the aging problem influenced by the Eastern perspective of family in China. Due to the structural problem of spatial disorder in most of China’s urban built-up areas, the planning and construction of elderly day care centers (EDCCs) is facing great challenges. This study aims to comprehensively compare the spatial distribution and accessibility measurement methods for elderly residents and EDCCs in typical Chinese urban built-up areas based on the accessibility theory and spatial analysis methods from the community living circle perspective. The results show that different spatial distribution analysis methods have their own emphases and limitations, requiring comprehensive application in practice. The potential model method is most suitable for the accessibility measurement in this scenario. The threshold setting of service distance for the urban built-up areas public service facilities in the current Chinese standard needs to be further optimized. The existing EDCCs suffer from serious quantity deficiencies and misplaced supplies in the region. These findings can reveal the EDCCs distribution characteristics of typical Chinese urban built-up areas and provide new insights for urban planners and policy makers who are assessing the equity and efficiency of public service facilities. Full article
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25 pages, 13448 KiB  
Article
Transit-Oriented Development in New Towns: Identifying Its Association with Urban Function in Shanghai, China
by Lingzhu Zhang, Peng Hou and Dan Qiang
Buildings 2022, 12(9), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12091394 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2464
Abstract
Transit-oriented development (TOD) construction is considered critical for economic growth and the population’s daily well-being in suburban development. However, there are few empirical evaluations of TOD performance and typology in suburban areas of high-density cities. In this study, we selected 23 metro stations [...] Read more.
Transit-oriented development (TOD) construction is considered critical for economic growth and the population’s daily well-being in suburban development. However, there are few empirical evaluations of TOD performance and typology in suburban areas of high-density cities. In this study, we selected 23 metro stations in the five new towns in Shanghai as research objects to understand their TOD characteristics. By proposing a data-driven framework built on points of interest (PoIs) to characterize urban functions of metro stations in new towns, four thematic topic functions were extracted by implementing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling. Five types of stations were revealed through a hierarchical cluster analysis based on their main functions. Then, an extended “Node-Place” model with a third “design” dimension was applied to classify TOD typologies. After establishing an evaluation framework by calculating the results of 15 indicators, five TOD topologies were identified through hierarchical cluster analysis. In addition, results from the ANOVA analysis showed that the classification according to thematic topics changes according to the “place” dimension indicators. Ultimately, the identified urban thematic function types and TOD types provide a useful tool for planners and governors to diagnose common problems and design targeted strategies in new towns. Full article
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22 pages, 13556 KiB  
Article
Developing Urban Heat Mitigation Strategies for a Historic Area Using a High-Fidelity Parametric Numerical Simulation: A Case Study in Singapore
by Wei Zhu, Liqing Zhang, Shuo-Jun Mei and Chao Yuan
Buildings 2022, 12(9), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12091311 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
The coexistence of developed areas and historic buildings is an important topic in urban planning. Our study focuses on this topic from the perspective of urban microclimate. A multi-physics CFD simulation is applied to model urban microclimate with anthropogenic heat and buoyancy effects. [...] Read more.
The coexistence of developed areas and historic buildings is an important topic in urban planning. Our study focuses on this topic from the perspective of urban microclimate. A multi-physics CFD simulation is applied to model urban microclimate with anthropogenic heat and buoyancy effects. First, we clarified the impact of new development, i.e., high-rises on pedestrian-level air flow by comparing city structures in Case A (the past, 1960s) and Case B (the current, 2020s). The results showed an average wind speed decrease of 43% over time. Second, we assessed air temperature increments from anthropogenic heat emitted from Case C (high-rises), Case D (historic buildings), and Case E (both). We found that the mean air temperature increased by 0.16 °C for Case C, 0.52 °C for Case D, and 0.87 °C for Case E, respectively. Third, we developed heat mitigation strategies based on the assessment results in the previous steps. The integration of open spaces and building porosity, which create wind corridors together, can promote outdoor ventilation and heat dispersion in the study area. Compared with Case E, the three mitigation cases improve outdoor thermal environment, with mean temperature reductions of 33%, 25%, and 21%, respectively. Finally, we developed new mitigation strategies by considering the constraints in this special region, where modernity and history coexist. Our practical mitigation strategies will aid urban planning and support conservation efforts not only in Singapore, but also in other tropical and subtropical cities. Full article
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16 pages, 6166 KiB  
Article
A Grammar-Based Optimization Approach for Designing Urban Fabrics and Locating Amenities for 15-Minute Cities
by Fernando T. Lima, Nathan C. Brown and Jose P. Duarte
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081157 - 03 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2484
Abstract
Providing pedestrian accessibility to urban services is a big challenge and a key factor in creating more walkable urban areas. Moreover, it is a critical aspect of climate-resilient urban planning as it is broadly assumed that neighborhoods with greater walkability discourage automobile use [...] Read more.
Providing pedestrian accessibility to urban services is a big challenge and a key factor in creating more walkable urban areas. Moreover, it is a critical aspect of climate-resilient urban planning as it is broadly assumed that neighborhoods with greater walkability discourage automobile use and reduce CO2 emissions. The idea of 15-minute cities, defined as urban environments where most places that residents need to access are within a 15-minute walk, is gaining increasing attention worldwide. Because aspects of urban performance are increasingly quantifiable, generative, and data-driven design approaches can explore broader sets of potential solutions, while optimization can help identify designs with desired properties. This work demonstrates and tests a new approach that combines shape grammars, a formal method for shape generation that facilitates the elaboration of complex patterns and meaningful solutions, with multi-objective optimization. The goal was to optimize the design of urban fabric layouts and the location of amenities to provide 15-minute neighborhood configurations that minimize infrastructure cost (as estimated by cumulative street length) and the number of amenities, while maximizing pedestrian accessibility to urban services (as assessed by overall integration and the average distance from all plots to nearest amenities). Full article
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16 pages, 2760 KiB  
Article
Influence of Vegetation on Outdoor Thermal Comfort in a High-Altitude Tropical Megacity: Climate Change and Variability Scenarios
by Angélica María Bustamante-Zapata, Carlos Alfonso Zafra-Mejía and Hugo Alexander Rondón-Quintana
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050520 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to show a study on the influence of vegetation on the outdoor thermal comfort (OTC) of a high-altitude tropical megacity. The OTC is evaluated by the PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature) index and by establishing three simulation scenarios: [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to show a study on the influence of vegetation on the outdoor thermal comfort (OTC) of a high-altitude tropical megacity. The OTC is evaluated by the PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature) index and by establishing three simulation scenarios: (i) Current OTC, (ii) OTC under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway), and (iii) OTC under RCPs and ENSO (El Niño–Southern Oscillation). The results show that the hourly variation range of the current OTC in urban areas with vegetation is greater (+3.15 °C) compared to impermeable areas. Outdoor thermal stress due to cold in vegetated areas is 1.29 °C lower compared to impervious areas. The effect of vegetated coverage on the improvement of urban OTC increases as the phenomenon of global warming intensifies. On average, in the current, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios for each 10% increase in urban vegetation coverage, an increase of 0.22, 0.24, and 0.28 °C in OTC is obtained, respectively. The hourly variation range of the PET index increases during the ENSO scenario (vegetated areas: +16.7%; impervious areas: +22.7%). In the context of climate change and variability, this study provides a reference point for decision-makers to assess possible planning options for improving OTC in megacities. Full article
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