Sustainable Buildings in the Built Environment

A topical collection in Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This collection belongs to the section "Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems".

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Editors


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
School of Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2054, Australia
Interests: sustainable property; housing economics; housing submarkets; REITs; real estate finance and investment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
School of Built Environment, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW 1466, Australia
Interests: sustainability; energy efficiency; artificial intelligence; smart city; digital twin; applications of the internet of things; advanced GIS; LiDAR; BIM; digital technology in infrastructure; mixed reality applications; information and communication technology; spatial analysis and visualization; authentic education
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Interests: sustainable buildings and cities; energy efficiency; climate change adaptation and mitigation; smart cities; regenerative cities; decision-making model; building and urban information modelling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The sustainable development goals (SDGs) were introduced by the United Nations in 2015. The SDGs aim to improve health and education, minimise inequality, and boost economic growth by ending poverty and other deprivations, while also addressing issues related to climate change and the preservation of our oceans and forests. In other words, the SDGs cover a number of aspects, including environmental, social and economic issues.

A sustainable built environment industry plays a crucial role in balancing environmental, social and economic issues to create buildings that improve productivity, wellbeing and health of their occupants. Further, well-designed sustainable buildings should also promote a better social inclusion and sustainable economic development.

Despite many studies being devoted to examining sustainable development, the literature, arguably, has yet to fully address the challenges and opportunities of sustainability in the built environment from the environmental, social and economic perspectives. In this regard, the journal Buildings announces a call for papers for a Topical Collection devoted to “Sustainable Buildings in the Built Environment”. The Topical Collection seeks papers that expand upon the current literature and understanding of the environmentally sustainable built environment. Papers discussing how to move activities and design services or materials towards environmental sustainability are also welcome. Original research and review papers on the following topics are welcome:

  • Sustainable buildings and occupants’ productivity and wellbeing
  • Sustainable property development and investment
  • Affordable and sustainable housing
  • Digital construction of sustainable buildings
  • Social procurements and green infrastructure
  • Smart sustainable green cities
  • Sustainable architecture and green buildings
  • Structural and architectural design considering sustainability and low embodied energy and carbon emissions
  • Carbon management of sustainable construction and property firms
  • Building Information Modelling (BIM)-enabled structural design
  • Sustainability-based lifecycle management
  • Adoption of BIM/6D BIM and GIS for sustainability
  • Case studies of the implications of the sustainable development goals (SDGs)
  • Sustainability in education and training

Dr. Chyi Lin Lee
Dr. Samad Sepasgozar
Dr. Lan Ding
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • green buildings
  • sustainability
  • green architecture
  • sustainable property development
  • bim for sustainability
  • buildings and sdgs
  • sustainable firms
  • sustainable and affordable housing
  • low-carbon cities
  • social procurements

Published Papers (20 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021

14 pages, 1929 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Work Desk Shapes on the Utilisation of an Activity-Based-Working Environment
by Djordje Stojanovic, Milica Vujovic, Ozgur Gocer, Samin Marzban and Christhina Candido
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051401 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 403
Abstract
The design of Activity-Based Working (ABW) environments embraces workers’ continuous mobility enabled by technology and the mindset of seeking work zones that best support the task at hand. This paper focuses on aspects of workspace selection within a facility designed to support ABW, [...] Read more.
The design of Activity-Based Working (ABW) environments embraces workers’ continuous mobility enabled by technology and the mindset of seeking work zones that best support the task at hand. This paper focuses on aspects of workspace selection within a facility designed to support ABW, focusing on the overall occupancy dynamics, temporal context, and information capturing less-explored details of the physical environment. This study analyses the active use of a workspace in relation to work desk shapes, rectangular and trapezial. Drawing from a longitudinal dataset spanning 12 months from an ABW facility, capturing the active workstation usage of 964 occupants through individual computer logins, this study employs descriptive statistics to analyse the active use of workspace relative to total work hours over the year. Inferential statistical techniques are utilised to compare active use measurements between and within specific workspace areas, revealing significant differences and highlighting the importance of temporal and spatial contexts in workspace utilisation patterns. The presented results demonstrate both tendencies and statistically significant differences, confirming the relevance of the studied variables in examining workspace utilisation. The results show significant usage variations throughout the day across different zones of the observed workspace, with peak activity between 11:00 and 13:00 h for both work desk shapes. This study’s insights are relevant to improving the utilisation of facilities designed for ABW and contribute to a longstanding interest in designing and arranging workplaces to better fit the people who use them. Full article
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14 pages, 4133 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Embodied Carbon Footprint of a Mass Timber Building Structure with a Steel Equivalent
by Mahboobeh Hemmati, Tahar Messadi, Hongmei Gu, Jacob Seddelmeyer and Moein Hemmati
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051276 - 1 May 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 820
Abstract
The main purpose of this study is to quantify and compare the embodied carbon (EC) from the materials used or designed to build the Adohi Hall, a residence building located on the University of Arkansas campus in Fayetteville, AR. It has been constructed [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study is to quantify and compare the embodied carbon (EC) from the materials used or designed to build the Adohi Hall, a residence building located on the University of Arkansas campus in Fayetteville, AR. It has been constructed as a mass timber structure. It is compared to the same building design with a steel frame for this study. Based on the defined goal and scope of the project, all materials used in the building structure are compared for their global warming potential (GWP) impact by applying a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a cradle-to-construction site system boundary. This comparative building LCA comprises the product stage (including raw material extraction, processing, transporting, and manufacturing) plus transportation to the construction site (nodule A1–A4, according to standard EN 15804 definitions). In this study, GWP is primarily assessed with the exclusion of other environmental factors. Tally®, as one of the most popular LCA tools for buildings, is used in this comparative LCA analysis. In this study, the substitution of mass timber for a steel structure with a corrugated steel deck and concrete topping offers a promising opportunity to understand the GWP impact of each structure. Mass timber structures exhibit superior environmental attributes considering the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq). Emissions per square meter of gross floor area for mass timber stand at 198 kg, in stark contrast to the 243 kg CO2 eq recorded for steel structures. This means the mass timber building achieved a 19% reduction in carbon emissions compared to the functional equivalent steel structure within the building modules A1 to A4 studied. When considering carbon storage, about 2757 tonnes of CO2 eq are stored in the mass timber building, presenting further benefits of carbon emission delays for the life span of the structure. The substitution benefit from this construction case was studied through the displacement factor (DF) quantification following the standard process. A 0.28 DF was obtained when using mass timber over steel in the structure. This study provides insights into making more environmentally efficient decisions in buildings and helps in the move forward to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and address GWP mitigation. Full article
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20 pages, 49923 KiB  
Article
Architectural Typology and Its Influence on Authentic Living
by Mustapha El Moussaoui
Buildings 2024, 14(3), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14030754 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 936
Abstract
In this study, the transformative effects of architectural typologies on the community’s sense of belonging and relationship with their environment are examined. Through a range of investigative methodologies, the research highlights the shift from traditional architectural forms to contemporary designs, focusing on the [...] Read more.
In this study, the transformative effects of architectural typologies on the community’s sense of belonging and relationship with their environment are examined. Through a range of investigative methodologies, the research highlights the shift from traditional architectural forms to contemporary designs, focusing on the role of political decisions, and globalized construction materials. The research examines a notable conflict: the modern spaces built with little spatial knowledge and modern material do not resonate with the community’s historical experiences and customary living patterns. Furthermore, the rapid pace of these architectural shifts has led to a growing sense of disconnection among community members. The findings highlight a central aspect: the new architectural forms fail to reflect the historical sentiments embedded in the community’s fabric and its connection to the surrounding environment. Consequently, there emerges a subtle yet significant loss of the community’s identity and heritage. The study argues for the importance of making design decisions that are sustainable, utilizing local construction knowledge in a modern way, thereby preserving the intricate and enduring connections between architectural, historical, social, and environmental factors. By doing so, designers can create spaces that preserve socio-cultural dynamics, be environmentally sustainable, yet also progress with the contemporary construction demands. Full article
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35 pages, 1825 KiB  
Review
Spatial Modelling of Urban Wind Characteristics: Review of Contributions to Sustainable Urban Development
by Yi-Song Liu, Tan Yigitcanlar, Mirko Guaralda, Kenan Degirmenci and Aaron Liu
Buildings 2024, 14(3), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14030737 - 8 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Wind, a renewable resource with growing importance in the contemporary world, is considered a capable tool for addressing some of the problems linked with rapid urbanization, unsustainable development, and climate change. As such, understanding modelling approaches to wind characteristics in cities becomes crucial. [...] Read more.
Wind, a renewable resource with growing importance in the contemporary world, is considered a capable tool for addressing some of the problems linked with rapid urbanization, unsustainable development, and climate change. As such, understanding modelling approaches to wind characteristics in cities becomes crucial. While prior reviews delve into the advancements in reduced-scale models and computational fluid dynamics simulations, there is scant literature evaluating large-scale spatial modelling of urban wind environments. This paper aims to consolidate the understanding of spatial modelling approaches to wind characteristics in cities by conducting a systematic literature review with the PRISMA protocol to capture the contributions to sustainable urban development. The reviewed articles are categorized under two distinctive approaches: (a) studies adopting the wind morphometric approach, encompassing theoretical foundations, input factors, and computation methods and (b) studies adopting the urban climate mapping approach, centering on the amalgamation of wind with urban microclimate analysis. The findings suggest that wind morphometric methodologies hold considerable promise due to their straightforward calculations and interpretability. Nonetheless, issues related to data precision and accuracy challenge the validity of these models. This review also probes into the implications of these two distinctive approaches for urban planning and policymaking, advocating for more sustainable urban development. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021

38 pages, 5757 KiB  
Article
Digital-Twin-Based Fire Safety Management Framework for Smart Buildings
by Manea Almatared, Hexu Liu, Osama Abudayyeh, Obaidullah Hakim and Mohammed Sulaiman
Buildings 2024, 14(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14010004 - 19 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2074
Abstract
In recent years, the implementation of digital twin (DT) technology has gained significant attention in various industries. However, the fire safety management (FSM) sector has been relatively slow in adopting this technology compared to other major industries. Therefore, this study aims to explore [...] Read more.
In recent years, the implementation of digital twin (DT) technology has gained significant attention in various industries. However, the fire safety management (FSM) sector has been relatively slow in adopting this technology compared to other major industries. Therefore, this study aims to explore the limitations, opportunities, and challenges associated with adopting DT technology in the FSM sector and further develop a DT-based FSM framework towards smart facility management (FM). To achieve this objective, this research started by reviewing several promising DTs for FSM, including building information modeling (BIM), the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), and augmented reality (AR). On this basis, a conceptual framework was synthesized in consideration of the benefits of each technology. A questionnaire was conducted for FM professionals to evaluate the proposed framework and identify the challenges of adopting DT in the FSM sector. The survey results reveal that the proposed framework can assist decision makers in obtaining comprehensive information about facilities’ communication among stakeholders. The survey results validate the potential of the adoption of DTs toward smart FM practices in FSM. The survey results provide insights into the perception of DT technology among FM practitioners and identify the current state of DT technology in the FSM sector, its expected benefits, and its potential challenges. The main barriers to adopting DTs in FSM are a lack of knowledge about DTs, their initial costs, user acceptance, difficulties in systems integration, education training costs, a lack of competence, development complexity, difficulties in data management, and a lack of trust in data security. Full article
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22 pages, 2707 KiB  
Review
Looking through the Models: A Critical Review of Residential Satisfaction
by Mozammel Mridha
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051183 - 29 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1920
Abstract
The study of residential satisfaction has gained importance mainly for its recognition as an important constituent of quality of life. Several studies have investigated the cognitive and behavioural characteristics of inhabitants or the physical and social characteristics of residential environments to understand and [...] Read more.
The study of residential satisfaction has gained importance mainly for its recognition as an important constituent of quality of life. Several studies have investigated the cognitive and behavioural characteristics of inhabitants or the physical and social characteristics of residential environments to understand and evaluate residential satisfaction. However, only a small number of researchers have structured these variables into models to study and analyse the relationships among them. This paper reviews residential satisfaction through the primary models used to study residential satisfaction in order to critique their strengths and weaknesses. The majority of the models discussed in this paper employ subjective and objective attributes to evaluate residential satisfaction. The paper also points out that researchers should clearly define the physical limits of proposed models and the relationships between residents and their residential environments when developing a residential satisfaction model to avoid conceptual ambiguity. The findings of this paper could contribute to a conceptual and theoretical framework of current research on residential satisfaction, as well as providing suggestions for using models in practice and recommendations for future research. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021

19 pages, 3558 KiB  
Article
Is 24.9 °C Too Hot to Think? A Call to Raise Temperature Setpoints in Australian Offices
by Samin Marzban, Christhina Candido, Arianna Brambilla, Ozgur Gocer, Diksha Vijapur and Christopher Jensen
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2259; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122259 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2317
Abstract
The current +−0.5 PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) targets adopted by NABERS (National Australian Built Environment Rating System) is the practical range deemed acceptable for 90% acceptability for commercial buildings in Australia, however thermal comfort satisfaction scores measured in office buildings still show high [...] Read more.
The current +−0.5 PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) targets adopted by NABERS (National Australian Built Environment Rating System) is the practical range deemed acceptable for 90% acceptability for commercial buildings in Australia, however thermal comfort satisfaction scores measured in office buildings still show high percentages of dissatisfied occupants. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of curbing energy consumption from commercial buildings in Australia by increasing summer temperature set-points. A 10-year NABERS dataset, along with objective and subjective thermal comfort and air quality data from NABERS-certified offices are investigated in this study. Furthermore, different simulation scenarios are tested to investigate the discomfort hours and energy consumption for various summer temperature setpoints. Result analysis shows that occupants’ satisfaction in NABERS-certified buildings was not within the 90% satisfaction, with being too cold/hot as the main source of dissatisfaction. Objective measurements also showed temperature was out of recommended range for several datapoints. Simulation results indicate that, within the average range of 21–24.9 °C, there is not a significant difference in discomfort hours that could drive the selection of one temperature set-point over the other. Challenging the current practices, results suggest that a cooling set point temperature on the upper limit of the range indicated by the Australian standard AS 1837–1976 may minimize the energy consumption without significantly increasing discomfort, or even increasing the perceived satisfaction with the indoor environment. Full article
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20 pages, 2645 KiB  
Article
Life-Cycle Assessment of Contemporary and Classical Seismic Retrofitting Approaches Applied to a Reinforced Concrete Building in Israel
by Svetlana Pushkar, Ido Halperin and Yuri Ribakov
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12111854 - 2 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
This study aims to select an eco-friendly earthquake-resistant design using life-cycle assessments (LCAs). The study compares LCAs of three retrofitting cases: concrete shear-wall strengthening (Case 1); reinforced concrete column jacketing with shear-wall strengthening (Case 2); and high-damping rubber bearing base isolation with viscous [...] Read more.
This study aims to select an eco-friendly earthquake-resistant design using life-cycle assessments (LCAs). The study compares LCAs of three retrofitting cases: concrete shear-wall strengthening (Case 1); reinforced concrete column jacketing with shear-wall strengthening (Case 2); and high-damping rubber bearing base isolation with viscous fluid damping devices (Case 3). These cases were applied to a five-story reinforced concrete building built according to the design principles widely used in Israel in the 1970s. The seismic-bearing capacity of the retrofitted building was improved in all three cases, where Case 3 was observed as being the most effective retrofitting measure. The environmental performance of the retrofitting measures was assessed using the ReCiPe 2016 midpoint, which indicated that Case 3 was the best with the least environmental impact, Case 1 was intermediate with moderate environmental impact, and Case 2 was the worst with the most environmental impact. However, the ReCiPe 2016 endpoint single-score results showed that Case 3 caused significantly less damage than Cases 1 and 2, which caused similar significant environmental damage. These results indicate that LCA should be used to select an eco-friendly earthquake-resistant design. Full article
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32 pages, 26869 KiB  
Article
Development of a Framework to Support Whole-Life-Cycle Net-Zero-Carbon Buildings through Integration of Building Information Modelling and Digital Twins
by Kaining Shen, Lan Ding and Cynthia Changxin Wang
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1747; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101747 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4709
Abstract
Decision-making on whole-life-cycle net-zero-carbon buildings is critical for addressing carbon emission and environmental problems. However, there is a lack of a data integration framework and an open international standard approach integrating key decision variables to support scientific computations and decision-making for whole-life-cycle net-zero-carbon [...] Read more.
Decision-making on whole-life-cycle net-zero-carbon buildings is critical for addressing carbon emission and environmental problems. However, there is a lack of a data integration framework and an open international standard approach integrating key decision variables to support scientific computations and decision-making for whole-life-cycle net-zero-carbon buildings. Building information modelling (BIM) is an open international standard representing building information. Digital Twin (DT) can capture and monitor real-time building conditions to facilitate building operation. Integrating information acquired by DT with BIM has considerable potential to enable an open international standard based computational representation of key decision variables throughout the whole-building life cycle process. This paper aims to develop a novel conceptual framework that integrates BIM and DT to support net-zero-carbon buildings. The framework is developed using an open international standard approach and the ontology-based representation method, to define key decision variables using entities, properties, and relationships, and integrates captured data via DT. The research makes significant contributions to enable net-zero-carbon buildings and paves the way for future research on an automated system to support decision-making for the whole-life-cycle net-zero-carbon buildings. Full article
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29 pages, 4806 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing High-Rise Gated Community Collective Action Effectiveness: Conceptualization of the Social-Ecological System (SES) Framework
by Xuerui Shi and Gabriel Hoh Teck Ling
Buildings 2022, 12(3), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12030307 - 4 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5492
Abstract
Managing common property in gated communities is challenging. Although numerous studies have demonstrated that there are several determinants of collective action effectiveness and performances in gated communities, empirical research drawing on a multidimensional social-ecological system (SES) framework in quantitatively exploring relationships between institutional–physical–social [...] Read more.
Managing common property in gated communities is challenging. Although numerous studies have demonstrated that there are several determinants of collective action effectiveness and performances in gated communities, empirical research drawing on a multidimensional social-ecological system (SES) framework in quantitatively exploring relationships between institutional–physical–social factors and gated community collective action remains lacking. Therefore, based on Ostrom’s social-ecological system (SES) framework, this study attempts to identify factors influencing the self-organizing system (collective action) of gated communities in China. Using stratified purposive sampling, ten gated communities with various characteristics in the Taigu district were selected, in which questionnaires were then distributed to 414 households to collect valid data within the communities. Taking the ridge regression as a more robust predictive SES model with a penalty value of k = 0.1 and regularization, R Square of 0.882, this study, among 14 factors, ultimately identified six key institutional–social–ecological factors based on the descending standardized effect size, and they are: (i) types of community; (ii) presence of leaders; (iii) exclusiveness systems of a gated community; (iv) age of gated community; (v) strict enforcement of rules; and (vi) number of households that affect residents’ collective action in terms of community security, hygiene and cleanliness, and facility quality. The research findings provide urban managers and communities novel insights to formulate strategic policies towards sustainable housing and building management. Full article
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24 pages, 801 KiB  
Article
The Role of Mandatory Building Efficiency Disclosure on Green Building Price Premium: Evidence from Australia
by Chyi Lin Lee, Nicholas Gumulya and Mustapha Bangura
Buildings 2022, 12(3), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12030297 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4699
Abstract
Extensive studies have examined the financial performance of green buildings in recent years. The results have frequently observed that the premium of green buildings is time-varying and dependent on the study period and markets being examined. Further, virtually no dedicated study has been [...] Read more.
Extensive studies have examined the financial performance of green buildings in recent years. The results have frequently observed that the premium of green buildings is time-varying and dependent on the study period and markets being examined. Further, virtually no dedicated study has been devoted to examine the role of mandatory building energy rating disclosure policies on green building price premium. This raises the question of whether the mandatory energy rating disclosure policies would have an influence on the financial performance of green buildings. This study assesses the premium of green buildings by considering the role of mandatory energy efficiency of commercial building disclosure program (CBDP) using the MCSI/IPD NABERS data over 2005–2020. The results of the study showed that, in Australia, buildings with NABERS rating of 4 stars and above delivered a higher total return compared with buildings with lower NABERS ratings. This also supports the Freeman’s (1984) social impact hypothesis in which favorable social performance will ultimately lead to favorable financial performance. In addition, our empirical modelling results also demonstrated the premium of green buildings is stronger since the launch of CBDP, reflecting the importance of mandatory building efficiency disclosure. The policy implications of our studies have also been discussed as buildings play a crucial role in achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly net-zero carbon emissions. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022

15 pages, 391 KiB  
Article
Plan for the Sustainability of Public Buildings through the Energy Efficiency Certification System: Case Study of Public Sports Facilities, Korea
by Seon Gyeong Baek
Buildings 2021, 11(12), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11120589 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2766
Abstract
This study examines strategies for energy efficiency in public buildings in Korea and the implementation of certification systems. It also identifies the actual plan status and discusses improvements at the institutional level. The target is the national sports centers, where the discussion on [...] Read more.
This study examines strategies for energy efficiency in public buildings in Korea and the implementation of certification systems. It also identifies the actual plan status and discusses improvements at the institutional level. The target is the national sports centers, where the discussion on energy efficiency has been assiduous, as they have recently expanded regionally in Korea. Among the 541 national sports centers in Korea, 90 facilities for which a preliminary review was performed on the plan by the National Public Building Center were analyzed. The energy efficiency plan is realized through Building Energy Efficiency, Zero Energy Building, and Green Standard for Energy and Environmental Design certifications. As a result of analyzing the plan status, omissions or errors in certification were confirmed in about 10% of each, even though more than 80% of the facilities were subject to mandatory application. In Korea’s condition, to revitalize the practice of the system, it is necessary to expand the government’s publicity and support initiatives, use differential application of evaluation items, and strengthen incentives. This study provides meaningful results and suggestions for implementing an energy efficiency system at the national level under similar conditions in the future. Full article
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17 pages, 12145 KiB  
Article
Use of Underground Constructions Enhanced with Evaporative Cooling to Improve Indoor Built Environment in Hot Climate
by Mamdooh Alwetaishi
Buildings 2021, 11(12), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11120573 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3193
Abstract
Underground constructions (UGCs) have been used globally to accommodate a wide range of building usage, such as offices and shopping malls. Most of these constructions suffer from a lack of natural ventilation as well as daylight, as they are completely built under the [...] Read more.
Underground constructions (UGCs) have been used globally to accommodate a wide range of building usage, such as offices and shopping malls. Most of these constructions suffer from a lack of natural ventilation as well as daylight, as they are completely built under the surface of the earth. This has caused many issues related to discomfort, impacting the activity and the productivity of users. This study aimed to analyse the effect of the use of UGCs in hot regions, enhanced by partly elevated external walls which reach aboveground to ensure natural ventilation and daylight, with relatively small amounts of glazing to minimise the influence of solar heat gain. The study used a real built underground room with field measurements for indoor temperature and relative humidity. Moreover, the study used the computer tool EDSL TAS to simulate the performance of the model throughout the year after a field validation. It was concluded that the use of UGCs in hot climates should be encouraged as natural ventilation and daylight can decrease temperatures by 3 °C in summer, and the utilisation of evaporative cooling can cool the indoor environment by nearly 12 °C. Furthermore, heat transfer was highly affected by the external environment. It was found that the amount of heat transfer doubled in comparison between under and aboveground constructions. The use of small windows for ventilation caused high humidity, even in hot regions, during summer. Full article
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18 pages, 1660 KiB  
Article
Modeling Social Impacts of High-Rise Residential Buildings during the Post-Occupancy Phase Using DEMATEL Method: A Case Study
by Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra, Ravil Akhmadeev, Dmitry Tumanov, Mikhail Kosov, Shahab Shoar and Audrius Banaitis
Buildings 2021, 11(11), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11110504 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 4799
Abstract
There are numerous risks associated with high-rise buildings, which not only affect stakeholders during the design and construction phase but also impact the occupants and the surrounding environment during the post-occupancy phase. While previous studies examined the risks of high-rise building construction, less [...] Read more.
There are numerous risks associated with high-rise buildings, which not only affect stakeholders during the design and construction phase but also impact the occupants and the surrounding environment during the post-occupancy phase. While previous studies examined the risks of high-rise building construction, less attention has been paid to the diverse impacts of high-rise buildings on their occupants. To fill this gap, this study applied a mixed-method approach (both quantitative and qualitative) to identify and prioritize their most significant social impacts. First, the possible social impacts of these buildings were identified via a literature review. The interrelationships among the identified factors were then determined by drawing on the opinions of relevant experts. Next, through the quantitative phase, the high-rise residential buildings of District 22 of Tehran were considered as a case study, and according to the opinions of 230 chosen residents, the level of influence of factors on one another was determined. The DEMATEL approach was employed subsequently to analyze the data and identify the most important and influential factors. Finally, through the qualitative phase, in-depth interviews were conducted with residents to explain and validate the results. The most significant and influential impacts identified by this study were anti-social behavior, lack of social cohesion, and lack of social contact with neighbors. This study assists designers and policymakers to adopt strategies that could mitigate the identified impacts and improve occupants’ social wellbeing more efficiently. Full article
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16 pages, 5970 KiB  
Article
Adaptation Strategies of Residential Buildings Based on a Health Risk Evaluation—A Case Study of Townhouses in Taiwan
by Yaw-Shyan Tsay, Chen Tang and Mei-Chen Lu
Buildings 2021, 11(10), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11100446 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1793
Abstract
Global warming increases the probability of extreme events and heat waves triggering severe impacts on human health, especially the elderly. Taiwan is an aged society, so residential buildings, which cannot withstand extreme temperature events, increase the risk of harm for the elderly. Furthermore, [...] Read more.
Global warming increases the probability of extreme events and heat waves triggering severe impacts on human health, especially the elderly. Taiwan is an aged society, so residential buildings, which cannot withstand extreme temperature events, increase the risk of harm for the elderly. Furthermore, Taiwanese prefer to open the windows to reduce indoor high temperatures, which causes high levels of outdoor PM2.5 to flow indoors, leading to health risks. Therefore, this research proposes a strategy to create a house with a low temperature and a low PM2.5 health risk for the elderly based on building envelope renovation and windows user behavior patterns. The risk day is demonstrated as an index to evaluate the indoor environment quality, which is based on the number of days that exceed the health risk threshold. The results show that the performance improvement of the building envelope and control of the window opening timing can effectively reduce the risk days by 48.5%. This means that passive strategies cannot fully control health risks, and the use of equipment is necessary. Finally, if the current situation is maintained without any adjustment or strategy improvement, an additional 41.3% energy consumption must be paid every year to control health risks. Full article
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15 pages, 2630 KiB  
Article
Insights into Public Perceptions of Earthship Buildings as Alternative Homes
by Colin A. Booth, Sona Rasheed, Abdul-Majeed Mahamadu, Rosemary Horry, Patrick Manu, Kwasi Gyau Baffour Awuah, Emmanuel Aboagye-Nimo and Panagiotis Georgakis
Buildings 2021, 11(9), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11090377 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 14229
Abstract
Sustainable futures necessitate a concomitant requirement for both sustainable buildings and sustainable behaviours under one roof. The defining principles behind Earthship buildings are to promote the use of local, recycled, waste, natural and renewable materials in their construction, for the adoption of a [...] Read more.
Sustainable futures necessitate a concomitant requirement for both sustainable buildings and sustainable behaviours under one roof. The defining principles behind Earthship buildings are to promote the use of local, recycled, waste, natural and renewable materials in their construction, for the adoption of a passive solar design for internal heating/cooling, collection of rainwater as a potable water supply, and encourage the onsite recycling of used water for plants to aid food production. However, despite growth in Earthship buildings constructed across many countries of the world, their appeal has not yet made a noticeable contribution to mainstream housing. Therefore, this study is the first to attempt to explore public perceptions towards the benefits and barriers of Earthship buildings as a means of understanding their demand by potential home builders/owners. Opinions were sought through questionnaire surveys completed by visitors to the Brighton Earthship building. Results reveal that the public believe that the reclamation of rainwater and greywater, renewable energy consumption and use of recycled materials included in the design/build are the major benefits of Earthship buildings, whilst the opportunity for a modern living style in a conservative lifestyle/setting, having a building that is cheaper than an ordinary home and the possibility of living totally off grid are considered the least beneficial reasons for building Earthship homes. Results also reveal that the public believe acquiring necessary permits/permissions to build may be more complicated, securing financial support (mortgage/loan) may be more challenging, and identifying/attaining suitable building plots are major barriers of Earthship buildings, whilst the futuristic/alternative building design, being built from waste materials and being entirely dependent on renewable resources (rainfall/wind/sunshine) are considered the least important barriers to building Earthship homes. Notwithstanding the participants included in this study already having an interest in Earthship buildings/lifestyles, it is concluded that the general public deem the general principles of Earthships as an acceptable choice of building/living but it is the formal means of building or buying an Earthship home that is the greatest hurdle against the uptake of Earthship buildings. Therefore, if sustainable futures are to be realized, it is proposed that a shift away from traditional house building towards Earthship building will require the involvement of all stakeholders immersed in the building process (architects, planners, builders, investors, lawyers) to path an easier journey for Earthship buildings and sustainable living. Full article
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22 pages, 47315 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Effect of External Horizontal Fixed Shading Devices’ Geometry on Internal Air Temperature, Daylighting and Energy Demand in Hot Dry Climate. Case Study of Ghardaïa, Algeria
by Sahar Magri Elouadjeri, Aicha Boussoualim and Hassan Ait Haddou
Buildings 2021, 11(8), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080348 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4090
Abstract
The present study investigates the effect of fixed external shading devices’ geometry on thermal comfort, daylighting and energy demand for cooling and heating in the hot and dry climate of the city of Ghardaïa (Algeria). A parametric analysis was performed by using three [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the effect of fixed external shading devices’ geometry on thermal comfort, daylighting and energy demand for cooling and heating in the hot and dry climate of the city of Ghardaïa (Algeria). A parametric analysis was performed by using three software: RADIANCE 2.0 and DAYSIM 3.1 for daylighting simulation and TRNSYS.17 for thermal dynamic simulation. Three shading device parameters were assessed: the spacing between slats, the tilted angle and the slats installation. The vertical shading angle “VSA” is fixed; it is equal to the optimum shading angle measured for Ghardaïa. The simulation results indicate that fixed external shading devices have a significant impact on decreasing the energy demand for cooling; however, they are unable to reduce the total energy demand since they significantly increase heating loads. It was found that fixed external shading devices remove all risks associated with glare in summer by decreasing illuminance close to the window; however, they do not improve daylighting performance in winter because of glare. We note that even if the vertical shading angle “VSA” was the same for all cases, these did not present the same thermal and luminous behavior. This is mainly due to the amount and the way that the solar radiation penetrates space. Full article
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16 pages, 8797 KiB  
Article
Can Underground Buildings Be Beneficial in Hot Regions? An Investigation of Field Measurements in On-Site Built Underground Construction
by Mamdooh Alwetaishi, Omrane Benjeddou, Ashraf Balabel and Ali Alzaed
Buildings 2021, 11(8), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080341 - 8 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4009
Abstract
Globally, there has been a remarkable growth in the number of underground constructions (UGC) such as railways, offices, hospitals and shopping malls. This expansion is a result of urban area extensions that are limited by the availability of buildable land. Underground construction can [...] Read more.
Globally, there has been a remarkable growth in the number of underground constructions (UGC) such as railways, offices, hospitals and shopping malls. This expansion is a result of urban area extensions that are limited by the availability of buildable land. Underground construction can also be used to protect people from the harshness of the outdoor conditions. The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of underground construction in hot regions. The major issue with most of the current UGC is the lack of natural ventilation and daylight. This has a clear negative impact on the user’s perception and comfort. The new design elevates the external walls to place some of the windows above ground for the purpose of natural ventilation and providing a view. The study conducted an experiment using an underground room enhanced with field measurements to ascertain the indoor temperature as well as relative humidity. In addition, the study used an energy simulation to calculate building heat transfer and solar heat gain. It was revealed that the use of UGC in hot regions promoted with the addition of natural ventilation can lower the indoor temperature by 3 °C in summer. Full article
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31 pages, 6685 KiB  
Article
A Critical Success Factor Framework for Implementing Sustainable Innovative and Affordable Housing: A Systematic Review and Bibliometric Analysis
by Alireza Moghayedi, Bankole Awuzie, Temitope Omotayo, Karen Le Jeune, Mark Massyn, Christiana Okobi Ekpo, Manfred Braune and Paimaan Byron
Buildings 2021, 11(8), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080317 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 12101
Abstract
The actualization of affordable housing remains a challenge. This challenge is exacerbated by the increasing societal demand for the incorporation of sustainability principles into such housing types to improve levels of occupant health and well-being whilst avouching the desired levels of affordability. Innovative [...] Read more.
The actualization of affordable housing remains a challenge. This challenge is exacerbated by the increasing societal demand for the incorporation of sustainability principles into such housing types to improve levels of occupant health and well-being whilst avouching the desired levels of affordability. Innovative technologies and practices have been described as beneficial to the effectuation of sustainable affordable housing. However, knowledge concerning the deployment of innovative technologies and practices in sustainable affordable housing (sustainable, innovative, affordable housing—SIAH) delivery remains nascent. Consequently, there is a lack of a common ontology among stakeholders concerning how to realize SIAH. This study aims to contribute toward the development of this body of knowledge through the establishment of the critical success factors (CSFs) for effective SIAH implementation. To achieve this objective, a systematic review and bibliometric analysis focusing on a juxtaposition of sustainable, innovative and affordable housing concepts was carried out based on the relevant literature. This led to the identification and clustering of CSFs for these housing concepts at individual levels and as a collective (SIAH). The findings of the study consisted of the establishment of four distinct yet interrelated facets through which SIAH can be achieved holistically, namely, housing design, house element, housing production method and housing technology. A total of 127 CSFs were found to be aligned to these facets, subsequently clustered, and conclusively used for the development of a SIAH CSF framework. The most frequently occurring CSFs with predominant interconnections were the utilization of energy-efficient systems/fittings, tenure security, a comfortable and healthy indoor environment, affordable housing price in relation to income and using water-efficient systems/fittings CSFs, and establishing the emergent SIAH CSF framework. The framework in this study is useful in the documentation of SIAH features for construction projects and further studies into SIAH CSFs. Full article
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22 pages, 536 KiB  
Review
Stakeholder-Associated Factors Influencing Construction and Demolition Waste Management: A Systematic Review
by Xianbo Zhao
Buildings 2021, 11(4), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11040149 - 2 Apr 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 6098
Abstract
Construction and demolition (C&D) activities generate a large amount of waste and have significant impacts on the environment. Thus, it is necessary to implement C&D waste management (WM), which requires the involvement of stakeholders and is influenced by a variety of factors. This [...] Read more.
Construction and demolition (C&D) activities generate a large amount of waste and have significant impacts on the environment. Thus, it is necessary to implement C&D waste management (WM), which requires the involvement of stakeholders and is influenced by a variety of factors. This study aims to undertake a systematic review of the stakeholder-associated factors influencing C&D WM. The Scopus search engine was used in a literature search, and two rounds of screening were performed. Only journal articles or reviews that were published in English after 2000 were used in this study. A total of 106 journal articles were reviewed. The review identified 35 stakeholder-associated factors influencing C&D WM and categorized them into six groups: regulatory environment, government and public supervision, advances in technologies, recycling market, knowledge, awareness, attitude, and behaviour of stakeholders, and project-specific factors. All the 35 factors are discussed in detail with considerations into relevant stakeholders. Although there have been studies focused on the factors influencing C&D WM, few have attempted to take stakeholders’ perspectives into consideration. This study expands the C&D WM literature by mapping the influential factors with relevant stakeholders and enables the practitioners to clearly understand their roles and responsibilities and make better informed decisions in the C&D WM process. Full article
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