Topic Editors

School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
School of Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Department of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China
Dr. Wu Deng
Department of Architecture and Built Environment, The University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China
School of Built Environment, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW 1466, Australia
School of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China

Advances in Sustainable Communities, Neighborhoods and 15-Minute Cities-Theory, Methods and Techniques

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 September 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2022)
Viewed by
99660

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Topic of “Advances in Sustainable Communities, Neighourhoods and 15-Minute Cities” calls for papers on theory, methods, and techniques to support the creation of sustainable and liveable communities, neighbourhoods, 15-minute community-life circles, or 15-minute cities. Cities are important main human settlements, so cities are required to offer qualified living environments in housing, transport, food, air, water, energy, culture, employment, educaiton, socialisation, and so on. However, such requirements are sometimes comprised due to various mega challenges related to population increase, resource supply, job opportunities, economic growth, climate change, and air pollution. To enhance the capacity of addressing such challenges, the United Nations proposed the Sustainable Development Goals, of which Goal 11 highlighted Sustainable Cities and Communities to make cities inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable.

Community, with spatial and functional organisation, is a neighbourhood unit of cities and a microcosm of the macro society. Accordingly, building sustainable communities and neighbourhoods contributes to the creation of Sustainable Cities and Communities. In particular, a new urban planning concept of 15-minute community-life circle or 15-minute city was proposed for polycentric cities, with the pursuit of inclusion, diversity, sharing, coordination, health and safety in aspects of residential, job opportunities, transport, services, entertainment, and so on. Pilot projects of this innovative framework can be found in Australia, China, Colombia, France, Italy, and the United States across different continents. However, the broad implementation of this framework for sustainable communities, neighbourhoods, 15-minute community-life circles, or 15-minute cities is still challenging in the early stage. This topic, therefore, aims to collect latest accomplishments and research findings on the ideas, frameworks, pathways, challenges, solutions, strategies, technologies, and pilot cases and exemplars that can generate implications on the enhancement of urban safety, equity, sustainability, resilience, and inclusivity.

This topic will provide a comprehensive understanding of possible opportunities for environmental, social, and economic sustainability. Moreover, this topic is expected to serve as an important resource to enable decision makers, practitioners, and researchers in various fields including architecture and civil engineering, transport, municipal engineering, environmental sciences, artificial intelligence, digital technologies, big data, information and communication, urban climate, construction management, public administration, public health, and so on, to anticipate, prepare for, and adapt to sustainable communities and neighbourhoods in urban planning, design, construction, operation, and governance.

Relevant themes include but are not limited to the following:

Sustainable Community Planning and Design

  • Community needs and services;
  • Healthy and liveable public spaces;
  • Nature-based solutions;
  • Human-centered design;
  • Sustainable land use and planning;
  • Walkability, accessibility, and cyclability;
  • Job growth and economic vitality.

Low-carbon Communities and Neighborhoods

  • Decarbonisation of built environment;
  • Clean and renewable energies;
  • Low-carbon transport;
  • Low-carbon economy;
  • Circular economy;
  • Green infrastructure and carbon sequestration;
  • Low-carbon education and propaganda.

Planning and Design for Climate Resilience

  • Climate-related risks and vulnerabilities;
  • Mitigation and adaptation strategies;
  • Development of climate-resilient infrastructure;
  • Policies, regulations, and initiatives for climate resilience;
  • Financial support and investments;
  • Co-benefits approaches;
  • Decision-support tools and systems.

Advanced and Emerging technologies

  • Innovative structures and materials;
  • Remote sensing techniques;
  • Building/city information modelling;
  • Smart tools and technologies;
  • Clean technologies;
  • Carbon capture and storage techniques;
  • Big data analytics techniques.

Prof. Dr. Baojie He
Prof. Dr. Deo Prasad
Prof. Dr. Ali Cheshmehzangi
Dr. Wu Deng
Dr. Samad Sepasgozar
Dr. Xiao Liu
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • 15-minute city
  • health and wellbeing
  • transport
  • decarbonisation
  • smart city
  • climate resilience

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400
Buildings
buildings
3.8 3.1 2011 14.6 Days CHF 2600
Water
water
3.4 5.5 2009 16.5 Days CHF 2600
Forests
forests
2.9 4.5 2010 16.9 Days CHF 2600
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
ijgi
3.4 6.2 2012 35.5 Days CHF 1700

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Published Papers (43 papers)

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22 pages, 3609 KiB  
Article
Flexible Trip-Planning Queries
by Gloria Bordogna, Paola Carrara, Luca Frigerio and Simone Lella
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2023, 12(5), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi12050204 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1187
Abstract
The current practice of users searching for different types of geo-resources in a geographic area and wishing to identify the most convenient routes for visiting the most relevant ones, requires the iterative formulation of several queries: first to identify the more interesting resources [...] Read more.
The current practice of users searching for different types of geo-resources in a geographic area and wishing to identify the most convenient routes for visiting the most relevant ones, requires the iterative formulation of several queries: first to identify the more interesting resources and then to select the best route to visit them. In order to simplify this process, in this paper a novel functionality for a geographic information retrieval (GIR) system is proposed, which retrieves and ranks several routes for visiting a number of relevant georeferenced resources as a result of a single query, named flexible trip-planning query. An original retrieval model is defined to identify the relevant resources and to rank the most convenient routes by taking into account personal user preferences. To this end, a graph-based algorithm is defined, exploiting prioritized aggregation to optimize the routes’ identification and ranking. The proposed algorithm is applied in the proof-of-concept of a Smart cOmmunity-based Geographic infoRmation rEtrievAl SysTem (SO-GREAT) designed to strengthen local communities: it collects and manages open data from regional authorities describing categories of authoritative territorial resources and services, such as schools, hospitals, etc., and from volunteered geographic services (VGSs) created by citizens to offer services in their neighbourhood. Full article
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19 pages, 7299 KiB  
Article
Location Scheme of Routine Nucleic Acid Testing Sites Based on Location-Allocation Models: A Case Study of Shenzhen City
by Siwaner Wang, Qian Sun, Pengfei Chen, Hui Qiu and Yang Chen
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2023, 12(4), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi12040152 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
Since late 2019, the explosive outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global threat, necessitating a worldwide overhaul of public health systems. One critical strategy to prevent virus transmission and safeguard public health, involves deploying Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) sites. [...] Read more.
Since late 2019, the explosive outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global threat, necessitating a worldwide overhaul of public health systems. One critical strategy to prevent virus transmission and safeguard public health, involves deploying Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) sites. Nevertheless, determining the optimal locations for public NAT sites presents a significant challenge, due to the varying number of sites required in different regions, and the substantial influences of population, the population heterogeneity, and daily dynamics, on the effectiveness of fixed location schemes. To address this issue, this study proposes a data-driven framework based on classical location-allocation models and bi-objective optimization models. The framework optimizes the number and location of NAT sites, while balancing various cost constraints and adapting to population dynamics during different periods of the day. The bi-objective optimization process utilizes the Knee point identification (KPI) algorithm, which is computationally efficient and does not require prior knowledge. A case study conducted in Shenzhen, China, demonstrates that the proposed framework provides a broader service coverage area and better accommodates residents’ demands during different periods, compared to the actual layout of NAT sites in the city. The study’s findings can facilitate the rapid planning of primary healthcare facilities, and promote the development of sustainable healthy cities. Full article
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15 pages, 3463 KiB  
Article
Road Car Accident Prediction Using a Machine-Learning-Enabled Data Analysis
by Saeid Pourroostaei Ardakani, Xiangning Liang, Kal Tenna Mengistu, Richard Sugianto So, Xuhui Wei, Baojie He and Ali Cheshmehzangi
Sustainability 2023, 15(7), 5939; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075939 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7856
Abstract
Traffic accidents have become severe risks as they are one of the causes of enormous deaths worldwide. Reducing the number of incidents is critical to saving lives and achieving sustainable cities and communities. Machine learning and data analysis techniques interpret the reasons for [...] Read more.
Traffic accidents have become severe risks as they are one of the causes of enormous deaths worldwide. Reducing the number of incidents is critical to saving lives and achieving sustainable cities and communities. Machine learning and data analysis techniques interpret the reasons for car accidents and propose solutions to minimize them. However, this needs to take the benefits of big data solutions as the size and velocity of traffic accident data are increasingly large and rapid. This paper explores road car accident data patterns and proposes a predictive model by investigating meaningful data features, such as accident severity, the number of casualties, and the number of vehicles. Therefore, a pre-processing model is designed to convert raw data using missing and meaningless feature removal, data attribute generalization, and outlier removal using interquartile. Four classification methods, including decision trees, random forest, multinomial logistic regression, and naïve Bayes, are used and evaluated to study the performance of road accident prediction. The results address acceptable levels of accuracy for car accident prediction except for naïve Bayes. The findings are discussed through a data-driven approach to understand the factors influencing road car accidents and highlight the key ones to propose accident prevention solutions. Finally, some strategies are provided to achieve healthy and community-friendly cities. Full article
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18 pages, 1610 KiB  
Article
Telling Our Story—A Community-Based Meso-Level Approach to Sustainable Community Development
by Sabine O’Hara, Golnar Ahmadi, Midas Hampton and Konyka Dunson
Sustainability 2023, 15(7), 5795; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075795 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1625
Abstract
Engaging diverse stakeholders in dialogue around sustainable development has proven to be a successful strategy to advance sustainable development goals. Without local engagement, sustainable development efforts can fail to accomplish their objectives. Yet, determining the best strategy for engaging diverse stakeholders can be [...] Read more.
Engaging diverse stakeholders in dialogue around sustainable development has proven to be a successful strategy to advance sustainable development goals. Without local engagement, sustainable development efforts can fail to accomplish their objectives. Yet, determining the best strategy for engaging diverse stakeholders can be challenging. Similarly challenging can be the transfer of information regarding successful development strategies from one community to another. Local specificity is key to finding sustainable development solutions. Yet, knowledge creation one-community-at-a-time is time consuming and limits the transferability of knowledge. Meso-level approaches are therefore essential to finding transferable solutions. The Five-Pillars approach to development is such a meso-level mixed methods approach. It identifies a manageable set of indicators in five common categories: education, health, environmental quality, social and cultural amenities, and information and transportation access. These indicator categories form the basis for selecting specific locations within a community where local stakeholders engage in writing a collective story about their sustainable development future. This article describes the implementation of the Five Pillars approach in two neighborhoods in Washington D.C. It concludes that the approach offers an effective engagement strategy that gives voice to the sustainable development vision of local stakeholders while providing a framework that can benefit diverse communities. Full article
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22 pages, 8533 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Spatial-Temporal Evolution Pattern and Its Influencing Factors of Warehouse Supermarkets in Liaoning Province
by Hao Huang, Di Li, Zenglin Han, Hao Zhang, Hongye Wang and Ye Duan
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2023, 12(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi12030131 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Based on the data of existing warehouse supermarkets in Liaoning Province, China, spatial autocorrelation analysis, kernel density analysis, composite correlation coefficient analysis and other methods have been adopted to analyze their spatial-temporal evolution pattern to reflect the general law of the development of [...] Read more.
Based on the data of existing warehouse supermarkets in Liaoning Province, China, spatial autocorrelation analysis, kernel density analysis, composite correlation coefficient analysis and other methods have been adopted to analyze their spatial-temporal evolution pattern to reflect the general law of the development of China’s existing warehouse supermarkets and fill the gap in this research field. The results show that the spatial distribution of warehouse supermarkets in Liaoning Province is extremely uneven, and areas with high nuclear density are distributed along the “Shenyang-Dalian” line belonging to the aggregation distribution. The Lorentz curve shows a downward trend with a large degree of spatial imbalance, that is, the regional concentration of warehouse supermarkets is high. Through global and local autocorrelation analysis, the regions with similar development levels of warehouse supermarkets in Liaoning Province tend to gather together, and the spatial distribution has a strong correlation. The distribution of warehousing supermarkets in Liaoning Province is affected by traffic location conditions, economic conditions, population quantity and population density, the number of urban functional areas, policy conditions and the role of the government, especially by economic conditions. Full article
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28 pages, 4463 KiB  
Article
Filling in the Spaces: Compactifying Cities towards Accessibility and Active Transport
by João Monteiro, Marvin Para, Nuno Sousa, Eduardo Natividade-Jesus, Carlo Ostorero and João Coutinho-Rodrigues
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2023, 12(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi12030120 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2591
Abstract
Compactification of cities, i.e., the opposite of urban sprawl, has been increasingly presented in the literature as a possible solution to reduce the carbon footprint and promote the sustainability of current urban environments. Compact environments have higher concentrations of interaction opportunities, smaller distances [...] Read more.
Compactification of cities, i.e., the opposite of urban sprawl, has been increasingly presented in the literature as a possible solution to reduce the carbon footprint and promote the sustainability of current urban environments. Compact environments have higher concentrations of interaction opportunities, smaller distances to them, and the potential for increased active mode shares, leading to less transport-related energy consumption and associated emissions. This article presents a GIS-based quantitative methodology to estimate on how much can be gained in that respect if vacant spaces within a city were urbanized, according to the municipal master plan, using four indicators: accessibility, active modal share, transport energy consumption, and a 15-minute city analysis. The methodology is applied to a case study, in which the city of Coimbra, Portugal, and a compact version of itself are compared. Results show the compact layout improves all indicators, with averages per inhabitant improving by 20% to 92%, depending on the scenario assumed for cycling, and is more equitable. Full article
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20 pages, 3093 KiB  
Article
Spatial Characterization Analysis of Residential Material Stock and its Driving Factors: A Case Study of Xi’an
by Lina Shen, Qi Yang and Haoyue Yan
Buildings 2023, 13(3), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13030581 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1165
Abstract
Since the beginning of the 21st century, driven by industrialization and its corresponding economic development, China has been experiencing a period of rapid urbanization. The continued expansion of residential space contributes to material stocks of residential buildings, accounting for a large proportion of [...] Read more.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, driven by industrialization and its corresponding economic development, China has been experiencing a period of rapid urbanization. The continued expansion of residential space contributes to material stocks of residential buildings, accounting for a large proportion of the total material stocks. Based on a 4D-GIS model, we studied spatiotemporal distribution characteristics and driving factors of residential building material stock in the central urban area of Xi’an from 1992 to 2021. The study innovatively combined this with the spatial development rule, development speed, and expansion direction of cities to analyze the relationship between stock growth and urban development. We found that residential development in central Xi’an is still undergoing a relatively rapid developmental stage. The spatial growth of residential building stock has a distinct agglomeration pattern, showing the characteristics of multi-center agglomeration, and the hot spots of stock growth are concentrated on and expanding to the edges of central cities. The growth of residential building stock has a distinct direction, primarily in the northeast–southwest direction, consistent with the pattern of urban expansion. We also found that social, economic, and transport-related factors are the main drivers of growth of residential building material stock. This study can help policymakers, urban planners, and environmental planners consider the rational development and utilization of land resources and building materials, and it lays a research foundation for the recycling of construction waste in the future. Full article
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15 pages, 2790 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Health of Urban Human Settlements
by Chunmei Zhang and Lingen Wang
Sustainability 2023, 15(4), 3042; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15043042 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
The design and dynamics of a human settlement affect the health of its residents; for example, high-quality human settlements can improve the health of their residents. Accordingly, it is important to evaluate and improve the quality of human settlements, especially from a health [...] Read more.
The design and dynamics of a human settlement affect the health of its residents; for example, high-quality human settlements can improve the health of their residents. Accordingly, it is important to evaluate and improve the quality of human settlements, especially from a health perspective. Taking on this task, this study applied an entropy method and spatial autocorrelation analysis to evaluate the human settlement quality of 14 prefecture-level cities in Liaoning Province. The results provided the following three main insights. (1) The settlements were of ordinary quality and effective measures should be taken to improve their quality. (2) Regarding spatial characteristics, from 2009 to 2019, these settlements showed clear regional differentiation, with a low spatial distribution in the east, high spatial distribution in the west, high spatial distribution in the middle, and slightly lower spatial distribution at both ends. These characteristics reflect imbalances in the quality of the regional human settlements. (3) Regarding subsystem evolution characteristics, the quality of the settlements showed clear systematic differentiation during the evaluation period. In response to these findings, this paper proposes effective measures to improve the quality of urban human settlements and provides theoretical support for the healthy development of such settlements, including the revitalization and development of old industrial bases. Full article
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15 pages, 1122 KiB  
Article
What Is the Rational Choice of Community Governance Policy
by Hongxun Xiang, Xunhua Wang, Yue Wang, Yang Yang, Can Yang, Xinyi Huang, Yangfan Bu and Menglong Wang
Sustainability 2023, 15(3), 2395; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032395 - 29 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Community governance is the “micro-cell” of social governance and the foundation of the governance system. The rational selection logic of community governance policy reflects the value orientation, goal selection, and tool guarantee of governance policy. It is the result of the interaction between [...] Read more.
Community governance is the “micro-cell” of social governance and the foundation of the governance system. The rational selection logic of community governance policy reflects the value orientation, goal selection, and tool guarantee of governance policy. It is the result of the interaction between government and public values and it reflects the final value choice in the form of policy text and tries to balance policy rationality through accurate calculation. Through the analysis of 100 government work reports and 63 community governance policy documents of the Chinese government from 2013 to 2022, it was found that “People-oriented” was the core value orientation of governance policy. “Better life” was a key target choice for governance policy. “Diversified tools” were an important implementation guarantee for governance policy. These rational choices were consistent between the central and the local governments, but there was a conflict between localities. Urban and rural community governance policies need to establish a public space between policy rationality and value selection to solve the targeting bias of policy rationality in the future. This paper solves the conflict between policy rationality and value choice using the paths of expert think tank construction, highlighting leading goals, and using technology empowerment, to adjust the tension between the two through reasonable value choice and balanced policy rationality, to achieve the goal of urban and rural community governance modernization. Full article
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16 pages, 1640 KiB  
Article
Research on Sustainable Development Model of Chinese Artist Village
by Yun Luo, Pengcheng Xiang and Bo Li
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010164 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
As a development form of the creative industry, the Artist Village is a high concern of the Chinese government, and it has achieved rapid developments in China in recent years. However, many Artist Villages come to an untimely end a short period after [...] Read more.
As a development form of the creative industry, the Artist Village is a high concern of the Chinese government, and it has achieved rapid developments in China in recent years. However, many Artist Villages come to an untimely end a short period after their birth and fail to realize sustainable development. In this study, an empirical analysis on 80 Artist Villages in China was carried out. A field investigation and research on eight Artist Villages was implemented. Attention was paid to thoroughly analyze three typical Artist Villages of Guangzhou Xiaozhou Artist Village, Chongqing Gujianshan Artist Village and Beijing Songzhuang Artist Village. It has been found from studies that the development of Artist Villages in China has experienced initiation, development and maturity stages. The development of Artist Villages in China generally has many problems, such as an insufficient endogenous impetus, the excessive intervention of government, market capital “squeezing out” the original artists, and so on. This paper proposed a sustainable development model for Artist Villages during urbanization in China based on the findings and conclusions of this study. This study not only enriches research contents in this field, but can also provide meaningful references for the sustainable development of Artist Villages in China. Full article
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21 pages, 3713 KiB  
Article
Explanatory Factors of Daily Mobility Patterns in Suburban Areas: Applications and Taxonomy of Two Metropolitan Corridors in Madrid Region
by Andrea Alonso, Andrés Monzón, Iago Aguiar and Alba Ramírez-Saiz
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2023, 12(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi12010016 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
Understanding the characteristics that shape mobility could help to achieve more sustainable transport systems. A considerable body of scientific studies tries to determine these characteristics at the urban level. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing those factors for the heterogeneous zones [...] Read more.
Understanding the characteristics that shape mobility could help to achieve more sustainable transport systems. A considerable body of scientific studies tries to determine these characteristics at the urban level. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing those factors for the heterogeneous zones existing in the suburbs of big cities. The study presented in this paper intends to fill this gap, in the context of two metropolitan corridors in the Madrid Region. Correlation analyses are used to examine how mobility patterns are affected by socioeconomic and urban form variables. Then, a cluster analysis is carried out to classify the types of zones we may find in the suburbs. Results show that the main characteristics leading towards higher car use are low urban density, few local activities, a high percentage of children, and a low percentage of seniors. As for the variable distance to the city center, it does not explain car use. Moreover, some remote areas have many walking trips. This is well understood in the cluster analysis; there are zones far away from the city center but that are dense and well provided for, which work as self-sufficient urban centers. Results reinforce the theories underlying polycentrism as a solution to the urban sprawl challenge. Full article
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16 pages, 2112 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Public Fitness Venues: An Urban Accessibility Perspective
by Yong Jiang, Yangyang Liu, Zelei Liu, Chunwei Wang, Zhipeng Shi, Hongbo Zhao, Dongqi Sun, Wei Sun and Xiangquan Wang
Sustainability 2023, 15(1), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010601 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
In the context of healthy China, the study of the spatial distribution characteristics of urban sports venues is not only beneficial to planning the construction of sports venues in cities, but also to the health protection of urban residents. Therefore, to promote a [...] Read more.
In the context of healthy China, the study of the spatial distribution characteristics of urban sports venues is not only beneficial to planning the construction of sports venues in cities, but also to the health protection of urban residents. Therefore, to promote a fair and scientific approach to constructing public fitness sites in the city and meet the needs of urban residents’ fitness activities, this study targeted public fitness sites larger than 10 m2 in the main urban area of Jinan City to study spatial distribution characteristics and accessibility. We combine the traffic road network and other data and use spatial and buffer zone analyses to assess the sites from the perspective of different travel modes of urban residents. The results show that the public fitness venues in the main urban area are mainly concentrated centrally; there is no significant pattern between the construction of venue area and population. For the time range of 0–15 min, Lixia District has the highest ratio of public fitness venue service area for walking, cycling, and car travel, with 22.54%, 62.25%, and 100%, respectively, and Changqing District has the lowest. In terms of travel mode, the highest service area ratio is 62.7% for car travel, followed by 28.7% for cycling, and 7.7% for walking. It is concluded that the construction of public fitness venues in Jinan has an unbalanced layout, does not fully consider the population factor, and different modes of travel have a significant impact on accessibility. It is therefore suggested that the government should increase public fitness venue construction in the areas surrounding the main city; moreover, future planning of urban public fitness venues should fully consider the distribution characteristics of population quantity and age in each area. Finally, the main travel mode characteristics of urban residents should also be considered to promote the future scientific development of urban public fitness venue construction. Full article
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33 pages, 6444 KiB  
Article
Inquiry on Perceptions and Practices of Built Environment Professionals Regarding Regenerative and Circular Approaches
by Henrique Sala Benites, Paul Osmond and Deo Prasad
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010063 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2529
Abstract
The circular economy and regenerative design approaches, although still emerging in the built environment, are important pathways to move away from the degenerative business-as-usual practices in the sector. In this paper, we investigate the perception, awareness, and practices of built environment professionals regarding [...] Read more.
The circular economy and regenerative design approaches, although still emerging in the built environment, are important pathways to move away from the degenerative business-as-usual practices in the sector. In this paper, we investigate the perception, awareness, and practices of built environment professionals regarding the adoption of a combined regenerative circularity approach for buildings and cities, and if current practices and ‘neighbourhood sustainability assessment’ (NSA) tools should be improved and how. The inquiry was conducted using a convergent mixed methods approach with professionals from around the globe through: (a) online questionnaires which collected 146 responses, and (b) 18 semi-structured interviews which delved further into relevant aspects of the survey. Quantitative and qualitative responses were coded, grouped, and analysed. Results indicate an average awareness of topics with large space for improvement of practices. The main pathways for improvement for NSA tools include performance requirements, aspects of flexibility and adaptability, and engagement and communication, to which are added opportunities and enablers to improve the sector. The authors hope that this study will contribute towards the improvement and design of better tools and practices to support the implementation of regenerative circularity in the built environment sector. Full article
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18 pages, 2354 KiB  
Article
Perceived Safety in the Neighborhood: Exploring the Role of Built Environment, Social Factors, Physical Activity and Multiple Pathways of Influence
by Erli Zeng, Yu Dong, Li Yan and Alin Lin
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010002 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4782
Abstract
Considering the sensitivity to environmental safety is rooted in human genes, the external variables that affect the perception of environmental safety and their influence mechanisms have become a point of concern. The existing literature has proven that elements of the built environment are [...] Read more.
Considering the sensitivity to environmental safety is rooted in human genes, the external variables that affect the perception of environmental safety and their influence mechanisms have become a point of concern. The existing literature has proven that elements of the built environment are vital influencing factors; however, little is known about the mechanism by which the built environment affects perceived safety and multiple influence pathways have been ignored. Based on defining the concept of perceived safety, this article applies a structural equation model to study the relationship between the built environment and residents’ safety perception with the social environment and physical activity as potential mediators. The statistical results suggest that the variables of the built environment, social factors, and physical activity all significantly influence perceived safety. This finding also reveals that the social environment and group physical activities slightly mediate the relationship, proving that the built environment exerts both direct and indirect effects on perceived safety. This study provides evidence that built environment design is more important than previously thought because it contributes positively to the social atmosphere and encourages the passion for physical activities, which are also beneficial to safety perception. Full article
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26 pages, 6853 KiB  
Article
Testing Small-Scale Vitality Measurement Based on 5D Model Assessment with Multi-Source Data: A Resettlement Community Case in Suzhou
by Jinliu Chen, Wenkang Tian, Kexin Xu and Paola Pellegrini
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(12), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11120626 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
In China’s fourteenth five-year plan, urban regeneration has become one of the most crucial strategies for activating the existing cities. Since creating vibrant urban spaces is a critical component of urban regeneration, understanding the patterns of community vitality helps formulate reactive regeneration policies [...] Read more.
In China’s fourteenth five-year plan, urban regeneration has become one of the most crucial strategies for activating the existing cities. Since creating vibrant urban spaces is a critical component of urban regeneration, understanding the patterns of community vitality helps formulate reactive regeneration policies and design interventions. However, the lack of local-scale measurement criteria and data collection methods has posed significant constraints to assessing and rejuvenating community vitality. Taking Suzhou Nanhuan New Village as a study area, our research involved a comparative study approach to investigate the fundamental driving mechanism of urban vitality with the support of a theoretical model (5D theory), multi-source data input, real-time photography technologies, and statistical analysis tools (Analytic Hierarchy Process). The result shows at the community level, the original ‘3d’ dimensions (‘Density’, ‘Diversity’, ‘Design’) remain key elements for forming vibrant spatial quality and functionality, and density factors matter significantly. This study intends to provide a new paradigm for small-scale community vitality assessment, verification, and regeneration by combining urban morphology with people-oriented and environmental-oriented perspectives. This research could support quantitative research on creating vibrant high-density communities in the urban regeneration process and bring insights to academics and design practitioners. Full article
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14 pages, 16452 KiB  
Article
Research on Gridding of Urban Spatial Form Based on Fractal Theory
by Qindong Fan, Xuejian Mei, Chenming Zhang and Xiaoyu Yang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(12), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11120622 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
Urban spatial form is a significant reference to getting to know cities and running the cities. The fractal theory is an effective means to quantify urban spatial form. Taking the buildings in the outer ring of Zhengzhou City as the research object, the [...] Read more.
Urban spatial form is a significant reference to getting to know cities and running the cities. The fractal theory is an effective means to quantify urban spatial form. Taking the buildings in the outer ring of Zhengzhou City as the research object, the basic architectural models are built by extracting their forms. The research site is subdivided into 199 regions. The distribution of architectural forms in Zhengzhou is analyzed by fractal theory and spatial autocorrelation from the perspective of two-dimensional(2D) and three-dimensional(3D). The results indicate that the architectural layout of Zhengzhou has distinct fractal characteristics; Both global spatial autocorrelation and local spatial autocorrelation show significant positive correlations; There are obvious spatial differences in architectural space forms in different regions. The refined grid analysis strengthens the understanding of the urban spatial structure and development rules in more detail. The study promotes the refinement and visualization of fractal theory effectively and improves the depth of urban spatial form cognition. Full article
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13 pages, 2630 KiB  
Article
Spatial Validation of Agent-Based Models
by Kristoffer Wikstrom and Hal T. Nelson
Sustainability 2022, 14(24), 16623; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142416623 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1107
Abstract
This paper adapts an existing techno–social agent-based model (ABM) in order to develop a new framework for spatially validating ABMs. The ABM simulates citizen opposition to locally unwanted land uses, using historical data from an energy infrastructure siting process in Southern California. Spatial [...] Read more.
This paper adapts an existing techno–social agent-based model (ABM) in order to develop a new framework for spatially validating ABMs. The ABM simulates citizen opposition to locally unwanted land uses, using historical data from an energy infrastructure siting process in Southern California. Spatial theory, as well as the model’s design, suggest that adequate validation requires multiple tests rather than relying solely on a single test-statistic. A pattern-oriented modeling approach was employed that first mapped real and simulated citizen comments across the US Census tract. The suite of spatial tests included Global Moran’s I, complemented with bivariate correlations, as well as the local indicators of spatial association (LISA) test. The global tests showed the model explained up to 65% of the variation in the historical data for US Census tract-level citizen comments on a locally unwanted land use. These global tests were also found helpful to inform the model’s calibration for the current application. The LISA results were even stronger, showing that the model predicted citizen comment clustering correctly in five of six Census tracts. It slightly over predicted comments further away from the land use. The LISA results and pattern-oriented modeling validation techniques identified theoretical factors to improve the modeling specification in future applications. The combined suite of validation techniques helped improve confidence in the model’s predictions. Full article
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16 pages, 5393 KiB  
Article
Research on the Sustainable Design of Commercial Street Space Based on Importance Performance Analysis
by Linhui Hu, Jiali Yan, Yitong Zhu, Junsen Deng, Lidan Chen and Shizhu Lu
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2096; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122096 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
Street commerce is the basic unit of urban structure and an important part of people’s life. With the continuous advancement of online commerce, people’s consumption habits and consumption patterns have begun to change. (1) Background: During the epidemic, the global business environment changed [...] Read more.
Street commerce is the basic unit of urban structure and an important part of people’s life. With the continuous advancement of online commerce, people’s consumption habits and consumption patterns have begun to change. (1) Background: During the epidemic, the global business environment changed dramatically, and traditional street business has also been hit hard, leaving a lot of idle space. The question is how to solve the problem of activating the commercial street space after its decay, and realize its sustainable development. (2) Methods: This paper takes the commercial space of Nonglin Street as the object, constructs the relevant factors affecting the commercial space of the street by using the theory of scenes, and collects the data by means of a field investigation and questionnaire. According to a weight analysis and satisfaction analysis, the advantages and disadvantages of the commerce in Nonglin Street are understood. (3) Results: The importance of the three variables of the appearance, comfort and diversity of the commercial space in Nonglin Street is very high and the satisfaction is low. (4) Conclusions: Nonglin Street need to increase diversified forms of business, open block space, integrate regional cultural symbols, and improve the management model of street commerce. Full article
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13 pages, 909 KiB  
Article
One Man’s Trash Is Another Man’s Treasure: Negative Experiences of Tourists with Different Satisfaction Levels
by Li Li, Yaoming Zhuang, Yanpeng Gao and Shasha Li
Sustainability 2022, 14(23), 15964; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142315964 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
From a postmodernist perspective, tourist experience is a subjective construct related to numerous aspects. Tourists can generate either positive or negative emotions from their experiences, and negative experiences are not exclusive to satisfied tourists. This study analyzes the negative experiences of tourists with [...] Read more.
From a postmodernist perspective, tourist experience is a subjective construct related to numerous aspects. Tourists can generate either positive or negative emotions from their experiences, and negative experiences are not exclusive to satisfied tourists. This study analyzes the negative experiences of tourists with different satisfaction levels. Lijiang Old Town was chosen to conduct the case study. A computer-assisted content analysis method was used to identify and analyze the negative experience themes. The attitudes of tourists with different satisfaction levels towards these themes are discussed. The results indicate that people understand the meaning and value of a destination uniquely. The main negative experience themes of Lijiang Old Town include touristy aspects, commercialization, lack of authenticity, and the ease of getting lost. Tourists with different satisfaction levels share these negative comments, while their perceptions and attitudes of each theme are quite different. Tourists have a similar perception of “commercialization” and “lack of authenticity” in Lijiang. Tourists with low satisfaction complain about the experience brought by “touristy” and “easy to get lost”, while highly satisfied tourists appreciate the similar experiences. “One man’s trash is another man’s treasure” is a common phenomenon in the tourism context. This study enhances the personalization attribute of tourist experience. The negative feedbacks of tourists should be dealt with according to the specific situation. Full article
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15 pages, 7847 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Emergency Shelter Spatial Accessibility Based on the Adaptive Catchment Size 2SFCA Method
by Zilin Ding, Hongjun Dong, Liang Yang, Na Xue, Lanping He and Xinqiang Yao
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(12), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11120593 - 26 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1758
Abstract
In order to access the spatial accessibility of emergency shelters, the relationship between the supply and demand of emergency shelters in the two dimensions of space and non-space must be comprehensively considered. Meanwhile, it is vital to understand the competitive relationship among emergency [...] Read more.
In order to access the spatial accessibility of emergency shelters, the relationship between the supply and demand of emergency shelters in the two dimensions of space and non-space must be comprehensively considered. Meanwhile, it is vital to understand the competitive relationship among emergency shelters. However, there are disadvantages when using the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method and the improved 2SFCA method when addressing these issues. This study proposes the adaptive catchment size 2SFCA (A-2SFCA) method to calculate spatial accessibility values, which can work alongside the two relationships mentioned above. The analysis procedure of the A-2SFCA method has two stages. Firstly, this method adjusts the catchment size of the shelters by observing how crowded they are and repeatedly using this statistic in a service subset. At the end of this stage, every catchment area is determined. Secondly, the catchment areas are used to calculate the spatial accessibility values. The method was used to study a region in the Tianjin urban area in China. The proposed A-2SFCA and fixed-coverage-based two-step floating catchment area (FC2SFCA) methods are employed to measure and compare the spatial accessibility values. The result shows that the spatial accessibility in Tianjin urban area is unstable. The spatial accessibility result obtained from the A-2SFCA method is more reasonable than the FC2SFCA method when analyzing the reasonable catchment areas of emergency shelters. The A-2SFCA method provides a method for determining the catchment size of public service providers, which can be used for the accessibility analysis of various other public facilities. Full article
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20 pages, 4122 KiB  
Article
Urban Human-Land Spatial Mismatch Analysis from a Source-Sink Perspective with ICT Support
by Tong Li, Chunliang Xiu and Huisheng Yu
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(11), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11110575 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1498
Abstract
The development management of the city constantly pursues sustainable development of human-land matching. Under the new research framework, this study discusses the urban human-land relationship from the perspective of the source-sink of daily population mobility, making up for the lack of a static [...] Read more.
The development management of the city constantly pursues sustainable development of human-land matching. Under the new research framework, this study discusses the urban human-land relationship from the perspective of the source-sink of daily population mobility, making up for the lack of a static research perspective in the past. The spatial relationship between population source-sink and land use intensity was studied by bivariate Moran’s I and multivariate correspondence analysis. The results show that there is a significant spatial correlation between urban population source-sink and land use intensity, which is obviously affected by urban circles and land use types, and these laws are cyclical day after day. The urban fringe becomes the main place where spatial mismatch occurs. Currently, the spatial mismatch of cities in northeast China, represented by Shenyang, is dominated by the high intensity of land use and low flow of the population. The key to solving the problem is to curb the high-density urban sprawl. The research results improve the integrity and accuracy of urban human-land spatial mismatch analysis and provide support for formulating more specific urban land use policies. Full article
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19 pages, 6989 KiB  
Article
Improve Urban Form to Achieve High Social Sustainability in a Residential Neighborhood Salam New City as a Case Study
by Amr N. Mohamed, Ashraf Abd Elfattah Elmokadem, Shimaa M. Ali and Nancy Badawey
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12111935 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2677
Abstract
The urban built environment has a significant role in leading individuals to outdoor spaces, socializing, and being together. Despite the Egyptian Government’s efforts to provide more housing for people in different forms, they ignore the social life in the new residential neighborhood when [...] Read more.
The urban built environment has a significant role in leading individuals to outdoor spaces, socializing, and being together. Despite the Egyptian Government’s efforts to provide more housing for people in different forms, they ignore the social life in the new residential neighborhood when designing the neighborhood’s urban form. This paper examines the quantitative connection between the Urban Form Aspects and Social Sustainability in residential communities. The research selects Salam New City in Port Said Governorate as a case study and applies different scenarios for the most important urban aspects. The research uses the simulation method to investigate the effects of the different urban form scenarios on the social aspects by using Urban Modeling Interference (Umi) and DepthmapX simulation software. Finally, the paper concludes that social interaction and activities improve by 48% and social integration will improve by 74% from the base case for Salam New City case study when using the Urban Form Aspects (Green percentage 35%, Mixed land use 40%, Street network 7% with D/H Ratio 4/1), which leads to improving the social life in the selected area. Full article
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19 pages, 5583 KiB  
Article
Delineating Urban Community Life Circles for Large Chinese Cities Based on Mobile Phone Data and POI Data—The Case of Wuhan
by Hongzan Jiao and Miaomiao Xiao
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(11), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11110548 - 01 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
In the recent decade, a new concept, urban community life circle (CLC), has been introduced and widely applied to Chinese community planning and public service facilities configuration alongside people-oriented urbanization. How to delineate the CLC has become a core task of urban CLC [...] Read more.
In the recent decade, a new concept, urban community life circle (CLC), has been introduced and widely applied to Chinese community planning and public service facilities configuration alongside people-oriented urbanization. How to delineate the CLC has become a core task of urban CLC planning. The traditional way to determine the CLC using administrative boundaries does not fully consider the needs of residents. Recent research on urban CLC delineation is usually based on residential behavior survey using sample surveys or GPS data. However, it is difficult to generalize the sample surveys or GPS surveys for one specific community to that for others, because of the extremely high cost. Due to the ubiquity of the location-based service (LBS) data, i.e., the mobile phone data and points of interest (POI) data, they can serve as a fine-grained and continuous proxy for conducting human daily activity research with easy accessibility and low cost. Mobile phone data can represent the daily travel activities of residents, and POI data can comprehensively describe the physical conditions. In this paper, we propose a method from both the social and physical perspectives to delineate the CLC based on mobile phone and POI data, named DMP for short. The proposed DMP method is applied to Wuhan. We decipher the CLC’s boundary and residents’ travel activity patterns and demonstrate that (1) the CLC is not a regular circle but a non-homogeneous corridor space extending along streets; and (2) adjacent CLCs are found to share some daily facilities. Based on these findings, we propose that CLC planning should be data-based and people-oriented in general. In addition, sufficient space in the overlapping region of the CLCs should be preserved for future planning of public service facilities configuration, given that adjacent CLCs share some daily facilities. Full article
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22 pages, 6287 KiB  
Article
Multi-Source Spatio-Temporal Data-Based Tourism Structure Analysis of Demonstration City for Global Tourism: Case Study of Liyang, China
by Haoqi Wu, Zhenan Chen, Jun Yan and Xiaolan Tang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(11), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11110547 - 01 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1493
Abstract
Tourism can bring economic development and social benefits to cities. At present, global tourism is the leading urban tourism development model in China, and there is a growing tendency to use global tourism demonstration cities as models for urban tourism development; however, existing [...] Read more.
Tourism can bring economic development and social benefits to cities. At present, global tourism is the leading urban tourism development model in China, and there is a growing tendency to use global tourism demonstration cities as models for urban tourism development; however, existing research has mostly focused on the theoretical level, and it is unclear whether such cities achieve sustainable development on a realistic level. This study selected the first demonstration cities of global tourism in China and conducted a coupling analysis using multi-source big data, clustering algorithm models, regional tourism flow distribution characteristics, etc., to explore whether the model cities meet development requirements. The following findings can be drawn from the analysis results. Firstly, the clustering algorithm coupled model study can provide a more accurate assessment of the current situation of regional tourism compared to the thermal values; secondly, the selected cities did not meet the development requirements of sustainable tourism and are in urgent need of improvement. The overarching contribution of this study is to propose a quantitative and replicable framework for urban tourism evaluation, combining spatial big data, computer algorithmic models and urban economics, etc.; this study also extends the interpretation of global tourism cities, reminds scholars, urban planners and urban tourism managers not to underestimate the possible tourism-related unsustainability of global tourism cities, and provides theoretical support for future tourism construction and urban planning development in China. Full article
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20 pages, 3897 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Renovation Status and Flexible Strategies of Urban Housing in China Based on Two Surveys of Residents and Architects
by Jie Huang, Jingmin Zhou, Song Gao and Xiao Liu
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1764; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101764 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1714
Abstract
Housing renovations have become an important part of the construction of living environments in China, and improving residential flexibility is an important way to facilitate renovations. This study focused on the adjustments of interior space and living function from the perspective of the [...] Read more.
Housing renovations have become an important part of the construction of living environments in China, and improving residential flexibility is an important way to facilitate renovations. This study focused on the adjustments of interior space and living function from the perspective of the application of flexible design strategies through two-stage surveys. The renovation contents and needs of 439 residents were statistically analyzed, an evaluation of design strategies was performed by 226 architects, and a correlation analysis was carried out based on the data. The results showed that the distribution of renovations was positively related to the renovation difficulty and could be summarized into four parts, viz., functional arrangement, device and pipeline, furniture and storage, and decorative details, while the willingness to renovate was related to living requirements. Twenty design strategies for improving housing flexibility were evaluated, and a statistical analysis was carried out on the flexibility assessment and adoption willingness provided by architects. In 14 of these strategies, the flexibility assessment affected the architects’ willingness to adopt the design (p < 0.05); however, the adoption willingness was affected by external factors in the other six strategies, such as cost control. In addition, the architects’ adoption willingness score was generally lower than their assessment score for the same strategy; thus, top-level guidance to promote the application of flexible strategies should be strengthened. Full article
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23 pages, 4780 KiB  
Article
Research on the Indicators of Sustainable Campus Renewal and Reconstruction in Pursuit of Continuous Historical and Regional Context
by Weihong Guo, Yaqian Ding, Guang Yang and Xiao Liu
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101508 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
As cities transition from incremental development to stock development, university campuses in suburban areas are progressively becoming urban university campuses. The stability of the boundary between urban university campuses and the city, along with the fact that the campus’s overall spatial capacity is [...] Read more.
As cities transition from incremental development to stock development, university campuses in suburban areas are progressively becoming urban university campuses. The stability of the boundary between urban university campuses and the city, along with the fact that the campus’s overall spatial capacity is reaching its maximum, makes it impossible for urban university campuses to have future spatial expansions. This article focused on the stock development, renewal, and transformation of urban campuses. From the perspective of urban university campus block morphology hierarchy and using the Wushan Campus of South China University of Technology in Guangzhou as an example, this study utilized urban morphology theory, data mining technology, big data collection, and visualization techniques to measure campus block morphology. Then, K-means clustering was utilized to classify the block form, and historical background research was employed to study the many forms of typical block form. Finally, the campus renewal and transformation guiding principles were introduced, and the control index of block form renewal and transformation was formed, evolving into the university campus block form renewal and transformation design technique. This strategy was used to investigate the general revitalization of college campuses. Full article
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22 pages, 10085 KiB  
Article
Spatial Interaction Analysis of Shared Bicycles Mobility Regularity and Determinants: A Case Study of Six Main Districts, Beijing
by Lujin Hu, Zheng Wen, Jian Wang and Jing Hu
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(9), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11090477 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Understanding the regularity and determinants of mobility is indispensable for the reasonable deployment of shared bicycles and urban planning. A spatial interaction network covering streets in Beijing’s six main districts, using bike sharing data, is constructed and analyzed. as Additionally, the exponential random [...] Read more.
Understanding the regularity and determinants of mobility is indispensable for the reasonable deployment of shared bicycles and urban planning. A spatial interaction network covering streets in Beijing’s six main districts, using bike sharing data, is constructed and analyzed. as Additionally, the exponential random graph model (ERGM) is used to interpret the influencing factors of the network structure and the mobility regularity. The characteristics of the spatial interaction network structure and temporal characteristics between weekdays and weekends show the following: the network structure on weekdays is obvious; the flow edge is always between adjacent blocks; the traffic flow frequently changes and clusters; the network structure on weekends is more complex, showing scattering and seldom changing; and there is a stronger interaction between blocks. Additionally, the predicted result of the ERGM shows that the influencing factors selected in this paper are positively correlated with the spatial interaction network. Among them, the three most important determinants are building density, housing prices and the number of residential areas. Additionally, the determinant of financial services shows greater effects on weekdays than weekends. Full article
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22 pages, 12498 KiB  
Article
Extraction of Urban Quality of Life Indicators Using Remote Sensing and Machine Learning: The Case of Al Ain City, United Arab Emirates (UAE)
by Mohamed. M. Yagoub, Yacob T. Tesfaldet, Marwan G. Elmubarak and Naeema Al Hosani
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(9), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11090458 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3240
Abstract
Urban quality of life (UQoL) study is very important for many applications such as services distribution, urban planning, and socioeconomic analysis. The objective of this study is to create an urban quality of life index map for Al Ain city in the United [...] Read more.
Urban quality of life (UQoL) study is very important for many applications such as services distribution, urban planning, and socioeconomic analysis. The objective of this study is to create an urban quality of life index map for Al Ain city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The research aligns with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals number ten (reduce inequalities) and eleven (sustainable cities and communities). In this study, remote sensing images and GIS vector datasets were used to extract biophysical and infrastructure facility indicators. The biophysical indicators are normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), enhanced normalized difference impervious surfaces index (ENDISI), normalized difference built-up index (NDBI), land surface temperature (LST), slope, and land use land cover (LULC). In addition, infrastructure facility indicators such as distances to main roads, parks, schools, and hospitals were obtained. Additional infrastructure facility variables namely built-up to green area and build-up to bare soil area ratio were extracted from the LULC map. Machine learning was used to classify satellite images and generate LULC map. Random Forest (RF) was found as the best machine learning classifier for this study. The overall classification and Kappa hat accuracy was 95.3 and 0.92, respectively. Both biophysical and infrastructure facility indicators were integrated using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA analysis identified four components that explain 75% of the variance among the indicators. The four factors were interpreted as the effect of LULC, infrastructure facility, ecological, and slope. Finally, the components were assigned weights based on the percentage of variance they explained and developed the UQoL map. Overall, the result showed that greenness has a greater effect on the spatial pattern of UQoL in Al Ain city. The study could be of a value to policy makers in urban planning and socioeconomic departments. Full article
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17 pages, 8223 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Public Recreational Activity in Urban Green Space under Summer Heat
by Ziluo Huang, Jiaying Dong, Ziru Chen, Yujie Zhao, Shanjun Huang, Weizhen Xu, Dulai Zheng, Peilin Huang and Weicong Fu
Forests 2022, 13(8), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13081268 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
The urbanization process has contributed to the deterioration of the urban thermal environment and increased the frequency of heat waves in summer that damage public health. Urban green space is the space for the public to escape the summer heat. The cooling effect [...] Read more.
The urbanization process has contributed to the deterioration of the urban thermal environment and increased the frequency of heat waves in summer that damage public health. Urban green space is the space for the public to escape the summer heat. The cooling effect of urban green space (UGS) can encourage outdoor activities and enhance public health. Analysis of when and how the public utilizes UGS under summer heat can serve as a guide for UGS improvements. In this study, the Hot Spring Park in Fuzhou City, China was utilized as a case study to examine the characteristics of the public recreational behaviors and their influencing factors under summer heat. Results showed the following observations: (1) Canopy density and turf coverage played key roles in regulating the thermal environment. (2) UGS can accommodate multiple summertime behaviors with considerable spatiotemporal variations. (3) In the hot summer, the frequency of recreational activities in UGS was negatively correlated with temperature. Dynamic behaviors were significantly impacted by temperature. Older and younger groups were less heat-tolerant. Based on this, we propose countermeasures and suggestions that are tailored to the needs of urban residents and their behavior characteristics for the planning and management of urban parks in the summer heat. Full article
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21 pages, 5691 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Urban Sprawl by Integrating Socioeconomic Factors in the Batticaloa Municipal Council, Sri Lanka
by Mathanraj Seevarethnam, Noradila Rusli and Gabriel Hoh Teck Ling
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(8), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11080442 - 04 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2213
Abstract
Due to extensive population growth, urbanization increases urban development and sprawl in the world’s cities. Urban sprawl is a socioeconomic phenomenon that has not extensively incorporated socioeconomic factors in the prediction of most of the urban sprawl models. This study aimed to predict [...] Read more.
Due to extensive population growth, urbanization increases urban development and sprawl in the world’s cities. Urban sprawl is a socioeconomic phenomenon that has not extensively incorporated socioeconomic factors in the prediction of most of the urban sprawl models. This study aimed to predict the urban sprawl pattern in 2030 by integrating socioeconomic and biophysical factors. NDBI, Cramer’s V, logistic regression, and CA-Markov analyses were used to classify and predict built-up patterns. The built-up area is the dominant land use, which had a gradual growth from 1990 to 2020. A total of 20 socioeconomic and biophysical factors were identified as potentials in the municipality, affecting the urban sprawl. Policy regulation was the most attractive driver with a positive association, and land value had a high inverse association. Three prediction scenarios for urban sprawl were achieved for 2030. Higher sprawling growth is expected in scenario 3, compared with scenarios 1 and 2. Scenario 3 was simulated with biophysical and socioeconomic factors. This study aids in addressing urban sprawl at different spatial and temporal scales and helps urban planners and decision makers enhance the development strategies in the municipality. Predicted maps with different scenarios can support evaluating future sprawling growth and be used to develop sustainable planning for the city. Full article
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14 pages, 6126 KiB  
Article
The Correlation between Convenience Stores’ Distribution and Urban Spatial Function: Taking the FamilyMart Stores in Shanghai as an Example
by Shuling Liao, Kun Liu, Ying Yang and Yong Liu
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9457; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159457 - 02 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2328
Abstract
This manuscript mainly focuses on the correlation between the spatial distribution of convenience stores and the distribution of urban spatial functions. We took 1217 FamilyMart convenience stores within the Shanghai outer ring area as the research objects and used the calculation method of [...] Read more.
This manuscript mainly focuses on the correlation between the spatial distribution of convenience stores and the distribution of urban spatial functions. We took 1217 FamilyMart convenience stores within the Shanghai outer ring area as the research objects and used the calculation method of kernel density estimation. The results show that the distribution of Shanghai FamilyMart stores is centered on the three central urban areas of Huangpu District, Jing’an District, and Xuhui District; the high-density areas of convenience stores partially overlap with the city’s main center, and some do not. The research shows that in areas with a high distribution density of convenience stores, the establishment of the convenience stores has a strong correlation with urban spatial functions, and these continence stores have formalized a network deeply integrated with the community. We believe that, in the future, with the development of small retail businesses, these can be transformed into public activity spaces through space transformation and design, which promotes the sustainable development of community interaction and traditional retail business, stimulating the sustainability of community vitality. The results of this study show that this concept has a feasible spatial basis, and the research method can also be applied to the study of other small retail commercial spaces. Full article
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15 pages, 3686 KiB  
Article
Improving the Spatial Accessibility of Community-Level Healthcare Service toward the ‘15-Minute City’ Goal in China
by Genxin Song, Xinxin He, Yunfeng Kong, Ke Li, Hongquan Song, Shiyan Zhai and Jingjing Luo
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(8), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11080436 - 01 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2593
Abstract
Background: The recent global COVID-19 pandemic serves as another reminder that people in different urban neighborhoods need equal access to basic medical services. This study aims to improve the spatial accessibility of healthcare services toward the ‘15-minute city’ goal. Methods: We chose Zhengzhou, [...] Read more.
Background: The recent global COVID-19 pandemic serves as another reminder that people in different urban neighborhoods need equal access to basic medical services. This study aims to improve the spatial accessibility of healthcare services toward the ‘15-minute city’ goal. Methods: We chose Zhengzhou, China, as a case study. To improve spatial accessibility, two optimization models of optimal supply-demand allocation (OSD) and the capacitated p-medina problem (CPMP) were used. Spatial accessibility in this study is defined as the walking time from the communities to healthcare centers. Results: For the current status of healthcare services at the community level, the mean travel time is 18.3 min, and 39.6% of residents can access healthcare services within a 15-minute travel time. Population coverage within a 15-minute walking time is significantly lower than the national target of 80%. After redefining the service areas through OSD allocation, the mean travel time was reduced to 16.5 min, and 45.1% of the population could reach services. Furthermore, the 60 newly proposed healthcare centers selected by the CPMP model could potentially increase by 35.0% additional population coverage. The average travel time was reduced to 10 min. Conclusions: Both the redefinition of the service areas and the opening of new service centers are effective ways to improve the spatial accessibility of healthcare services. Two methods of this study have implications for urban planning practices towards the 15-minute city. Full article
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14 pages, 6682 KiB  
Article
Posyandu Application for Monitoring Children Under-Five: A 3-Year Data Quality Map in Indonesia
by Fedri Ruluwedrata Rinawan, Afina Faza, Ari Indra Susanti, Wanda Gusdya Purnama, Noormarina Indraswari, Didah, Dani Ferdian, Siti Nur Fatimah, Ayi Purbasari, Arief Zulianto, Atriany Nilam Sari, Intan Nurma Yulita, Muhammad Fiqri Abdi Rabbi and Riki Ridwana
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(7), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11070399 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3179
Abstract
Posyandu is an Indonesian mother-child health, community-based healthcare. The provision of the Posyandu data quality map is crucial for analyzing results but is limited. This research aimed to (a) demonstrate data quality analysis on its completeness, accuracy, and consistency and (b) map the [...] Read more.
Posyandu is an Indonesian mother-child health, community-based healthcare. The provision of the Posyandu data quality map is crucial for analyzing results but is limited. This research aimed to (a) demonstrate data quality analysis on its completeness, accuracy, and consistency and (b) map the data quality in Indonesia for evaluation and improvement. An observational study was conducted using the Posyandu application. We observed data in Indonesia from 2019 to 2021. Data completeness was identified using children’s visits/year. Data accuracy was analyzed using WHO anthropometry z-score and implausible z-score values analyzing the outliers. Cronbach’s α of variables was used to know data consistency. STATA 15.1 SE and QGIS 3.10 was used to analyze and map the quality. Data completeness and accuracy in three years show a good start for the pilot project area, continued with declines in pandemic time, while some other areas demonstrated a small start, then slightly increased. The overall consistency decreased through the study period. A good report on data completeness can occur initially in a pilot project area, followed by others. Data accuracy and consistency can decrease during the pandemic. The app can be promising when synchronized with the government health information system. Full article
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18 pages, 3741 KiB  
Article
The Synergy of Patterns vs. Processes at Community Level: A Key Linkage for Subtropical Native Forests along the Urban Riparian Zone
by Haiyang Wang, Danrong Wang, Ya Shi, Zhiqing Xu and Hong Chen
Forests 2022, 13(7), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13071041 - 01 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1359
Abstract
Riparian zones possesses unique ecological position with biota differing from aquatic body and terrestrial lands, and plant–animal coevolution through a propagule-dispersal process may be the main factor for the framework of riparian vegetation was proposed. In the current study, the riparian forests and [...] Read more.
Riparian zones possesses unique ecological position with biota differing from aquatic body and terrestrial lands, and plant–animal coevolution through a propagule-dispersal process may be the main factor for the framework of riparian vegetation was proposed. In the current study, the riparian forests and avifauna along with three subtropical mountainous riparian belts of Chongqing, China, were investigated, and multivariate analysis technique was adopted to examine the associations among the plants’ and birds’ species. The results show that: (1) the forest species’ composition and vertical layers are dominated by native catkins of Moraceae species, which have the reproductive traits with small and numerous propagules facilitating by frugivorous bird species, revealing an evolutionary trend different from the one in the terrestrial plant climax communities in the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests. The traits may provide a biological base for the plant–bird coevolution; (2) there are significant associations of plant–bird species clusters, i.e., four plant–bird coevolution groups (PBs) were divided out according to the plant species’ dominance and growth form relating to the fruit-dispersing birds’ abundance; (3) the correlation intensity within a PB ranks as PB I > II > IV > III, indicating the PB I is the leading type of coevolution mainly shaped by the dominant plant species of Moraceae; (4) the PB correlation may be a key node between patterns vs. process of a riparian ecosystem responsible for the riparian native vegetation, or even the ecosystem health. Our results contribute understanding the plant–animal coevolution interpreting the forests’ structures in riparian environments. The results may also be used by urban planner and managers to simulate the patterns for restoring a more stable riparian biota, a better functioning ecosystem in subtropical zone. Full article
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21 pages, 5579 KiB  
Article
Multisource Data Integration and Comparative Analysis of Machine Learning Models for On-Street Parking Prediction
by Saba Inam, Azhar Mahmood, Shaheen Khatoon, Majed Alshamari and Nazia Nawaz
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7317; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127317 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2754
Abstract
Searching for a free parking space can lead to traffic congestion, increasing fuel consumption, and greenhouse gas pollution in urban areas. With an efficient parking infrastructure, the cities can reduce carbon emissions caused by additional fuel combustion, waiting time, and traffic congestion while [...] Read more.
Searching for a free parking space can lead to traffic congestion, increasing fuel consumption, and greenhouse gas pollution in urban areas. With an efficient parking infrastructure, the cities can reduce carbon emissions caused by additional fuel combustion, waiting time, and traffic congestion while looking for a free parking slot. A potential solution to mitigating parking search is the provision of parking-related data and prediction. Previously many external data sources have been considered in prediction models; however, the underlying impact of contextual data points and prediction has not received due attention. In this work, we integrated parking occupancy, pedestrian, weather, and traffic data to analyze the impact of external factors on on-street parking prediction. A comparative analysis of well-known Machine (ML) Learning and Deep Learning (DL) techniques, including Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Random Forest (RF), Decision Trees (DT), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Gradient Boosting (GA), Adaptive Boosting (AB), and linear SVC for the prediction of OnStreet parking space availability has been conducted. The results show that RF outperformed other techniques evaluated with an average accuracy of 81% and an AUC of 0.18. The comparative analysis shows that less complex algorithms like RF, DT, and KNN outperform complex algorithms like MLP in terms of prediction accuracy. All four data sources have positively impacted the prediction, and the proposed solution can determine the best possible parking slot based on weather conditions, traffic flow, and pedestrian volume. The experiments on live prediction showed an ingest rate of 0.1 and throughput of 0.3 events per second, demonstrating a fast and reliable prediction approach for available slots within a 5–10 min time frame. The study is scalable for larger time frames and faster predictions that can be implemented for IoT-based big data-driven environments for on-street and off-street parking. Full article
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17 pages, 3368 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Whether People Are Willing to Pay a Premium for Living in Food Swamps: A Study of Edmonton, Canada
by Juan Tu, Feng Qiu and Meng Yang
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 5961; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105961 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 1515
Abstract
Extensive studies have examined how unfavorable food environments, especially food swamps (neighborhoods with oversaturated unhealthy food sources), influence people’s dietary behaviors and health. Although excess fast-food consumption may have an adverse effect on health, it also benefits consumers due to its convenience, time [...] Read more.
Extensive studies have examined how unfavorable food environments, especially food swamps (neighborhoods with oversaturated unhealthy food sources), influence people’s dietary behaviors and health. Although excess fast-food consumption may have an adverse effect on health, it also benefits consumers due to its convenience, time saving, and affordability. Therefore, people’s preference for an unhealthy food environment is not necessarily negative. Understanding how people value or disvalue unhealthy food environments is a prerequisite for developing effective policies to promote good diet habits and improve public health. Thus, this study adopts spatial hedonic pricing models to estimate people’s willingness to pay to live in food swamps. The results show that people are willing to pay a premium to live in food swamps when taking low income and low healthy-to-unhealthy food ratios into consideration. On average, a household is willing to pay a premium of C$12,309 to reside in a food swamp neighborhood. Potential reasons for the positive willingness to pay among low-income communities and households with relatively limited access to healthy food may include the unaffordability of healthy diets, preference for better tastes, and time saved in fast-food consumption. These findings can help policymakers evaluate the effectiveness of relevant policies and develop targeted strategies to improve the local food environment. Full article
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21 pages, 5374 KiB  
Article
Research on the Characteristics of High-Temperature Heat Waves and Outdoor Thermal Comfort: A Typical Space in Chongqing Yuzhong District as an Example
by Haijing Huang and Pengyu Jie
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050625 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2711
Abstract
For the high-density urban space heat wave problem, take the core urban area of the mountainous city of Chongqing as an example, four types of typical urban functional spaces, including commercial areas, residential areas, mountain parks, and riverfront parks, were measured during a [...] Read more.
For the high-density urban space heat wave problem, take the core urban area of the mountainous city of Chongqing as an example, four types of typical urban functional spaces, including commercial areas, residential areas, mountain parks, and riverfront parks, were measured during a heat wave cycle, and the characteristics of high-temperature heat waves in different urban spaces were compared through the analysis of air temperature, surface temperature, relative humidity, solar thermal radiation, and other thermal environment parameters. Combined with the questionnaire research related to the heat comfort of the urban population, the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) was selected to describe the heat sensation of the human body, to summarize the elements and patterns of the influence of heat waves on heat comfort of the population in urban spaces, and to establish a prediction model of outdoor heat comfort in summer. It shows that: (1) temperatures recorded during the heat waves are influenced by urban space elements and are differentiated, with older residential areas recording the highest temperatures, followed by commercial areas, and green park areas comparing favorably with both; (2) crowd thermal comfort is correlated with the thermal environment formed by space elements, PET is significantly positively correlated with air temperature, thermal radiation and surface temperature, and significantly negatively correlated with relative humidity, air temperature and thermal radiation have more influence on thermal comfort has a greater impact, while relative humidity and surface temperature have a relatively small impact; (3) reasonable spatial form and shade planning, vegetation and water body settings, high thermal storage substrate and other design elements can alleviate high-temperature heat waves, reduce the thermal neutral temperature and improve thermal comfort. The research results provide some basis for the investigation of the formation mechanism of high-temperature heat waves in mountainous cities and the optimal design of urban spatial thermal environment. Full article
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16 pages, 1999 KiB  
Article
Research on Visual Preference of Chinese Courthouse Architecture Appearance
by Jingyin Pan, Yuping Yuan, Xinyu Wang and Chenping Han
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050557 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2791
Abstract
Whether courthouse architecture should be solemn or friendly is a topic worth exploring. Currently, a large quantity of courthouse buildings have been constructed in China, but the architectural style differs greatly. This situation provides a good foundation for the study on visual preference [...] Read more.
Whether courthouse architecture should be solemn or friendly is a topic worth exploring. Currently, a large quantity of courthouse buildings have been constructed in China, but the architectural style differs greatly. This situation provides a good foundation for the study on visual preference appraisal of the external form of courthouse buildings. This research selected 50 representative courthouse buildings as the research object and set architectural style, height–width ratio, window–wall ratio, and open ground in front of the buildings as the physical properties under study. Participants of different demographic characteristics were chosen to conduct a photo stimulation experiment. The results obtained were analyzed by SPSS. According to the research results, the neoclassical courthouse building with a large window–wall ratio, small height–width ratio, and large open ground is the most favorite among the participants; participants of different demographic characteristics render different visual preference appraisals of the external form of Chinese courthouse buildings. Contemporary Chinese court building should have a new image. This research can be taken as a reference for the external design of Chinese courthouse buildings. Full article
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23 pages, 6189 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Evolution of the Urban Thermal Environment Effect and Its Influencing Factors: A Case Study of Beijing, China
by Ziqi Ren, Zhe Li, Feng Wu, Huiqiang Ma, Zhanjun Xu, Wei Jiang, Shaohua Wang and Jun Yang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(5), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11050278 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2557
Abstract
Rapid urbanization has led to significant changes in land surface temperature (LST), which in turn affect the urban thermal environment effect and the health of residents. Exploring the causes of the urban thermal environment effect will provide guidance for promoting sustainable urban development. [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization has led to significant changes in land surface temperature (LST), which in turn affect the urban thermal environment effect and the health of residents. Exploring the causes of the urban thermal environment effect will provide guidance for promoting sustainable urban development. The spatiotemporal evolution of the urban thermal environment effect within the sixth ring road of Beijing was analyzed by inversion of remote sensing data to obtain the LST in 2004, 2009, 2014, and 2019. In addition, based on multivariate spatial data, we applied the standard deviation ellipse (SDE), spatial principal component analysis (PCA), and other methods to analyze and identify the relationships between the urban thermal environment effect and its influencing factors. The results show that from 2004 to 2019, the spatial distribution of urban development and LST within the sixth ring road of Beijing were closely related, the heat island area showed a small increasing trend, and differences in the thermal environment effect between different administrative regions in different periods were obvious. The main factors affecting the urban thermal environment effect were urban construction intensity, vegetation and water bodies, socioeconomic activities, and geomorphology. It is noteworthy that human factors had a greater impact than natural factors. Among them, the positive effect of the normalized difference impervious surface index (NDBBI) and the negative effect of the fractional vegetation cover (FVC) were the most prominent. This study provides theoretical support for mitigating the urban thermal environment effect and promoting sustainable urban development. Full article
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19 pages, 1332 KiB  
Article
Developing an Indicator System to Monitor City’s Sustainability Integrated Local Governance: A Case Study in Zhangjiakou
by Li Zhu, Chen Wang, Ning Huang, Yu Fu and Zhexing Yan
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5047; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095047 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
Indicator-based evaluation systems are critical for guiding and monitoring cities’ sustainable development. Zhangjiakou city is the national renewable energy demonstration zone in China, and is gaining more attention (being the co-host city of the 2022 Winter Olympic Games). It needs to seize the [...] Read more.
Indicator-based evaluation systems are critical for guiding and monitoring cities’ sustainable development. Zhangjiakou city is the national renewable energy demonstration zone in China, and is gaining more attention (being the co-host city of the 2022 Winter Olympic Games). It needs to seize the opportunities for its long-term sustainable development. An indicator system was developed to monitor the city’s sustainability. Local governance was integrated into an extended three-pillar evaluation model as the fourth dimension through the involvement of over 30 local government departments. Based on the interpretation of local demands, 118 assessment tools were reviewed and an international indicator inventory of 224 indicators was established. By analyzing the local relevance, 95 indicators were selected and categorized into eight modules (energy and carbon emission, resources and environment, harmony and well-being, economics and inclusion, key industries, innovation and smart, governance and efficiency, and internationalization). However, only 67 indicators were confirmed for value assignments after applicability assessment. Basic performance values (BPVs) were given as achievable goals during the 14th Five-Year Plan (FYP), and the excellent performance values (EPVs) were given towards carbon neutrality. All of the values were peer-reviewed and agreed by the local government while discrepancy still exists on carbon emission. Full article
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19 pages, 3445 KiB  
Article
Research on the Satisfaction Degree Characteristics of Residential Public Resources under Lockdowns for Pandemic Prevention and Control: A Case Study in the Changchun
by Ze Liu, Ruonan Wang and Ziteng Liu
Sustainability 2022, 14(8), 4385; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14084385 - 07 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
In order to improve the ability of residential disaster prevention, control, and governance, it is important to objectively measure how nearby residents’ needs match the public resources of the residential area, and to understand the factors affecting the satisfaction of residents’ needs at [...] Read more.
In order to improve the ability of residential disaster prevention, control, and governance, it is important to objectively measure how nearby residents’ needs match the public resources of the residential area, and to understand the factors affecting the satisfaction of residents’ needs at the time of lockdowns. Taking Changchun City as an example, this paper used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)-logit and Importance–Satisfaction (I–S) evaluation methods to discuss the impact mechanism and improvement strategies of residential public resource elements on the satisfaction of residents’ needs during the lockdown period. The results showed the influencing factors and the degree of importance of the satisfaction of residents’ needs under different types of settlements have obvious differentiation characteristics. The level of resource management can better affect the overall evaluation of residents in newly built settlements, and the quality of the conditions of the space environment is more important for the old residential communities. The satisfaction of residents in settlements has a more significant impact. Finally, the study explained the renovation proposals and their priority levels that meet the needs of residents to provide beneficial support for the resilience of urban settlements. Full article
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13 pages, 3361 KiB  
Article
Cultural Sustainability of US Cities: The Scaling of Non-Profit Arts Footprint with Population
by George P. Kraemer
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4245; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074245 - 02 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2096
Abstract
The functional characteristics of urban systems vary predictably with Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) population, with certain metrics increasing apace with population (e.g., housing stock), some increasing faster than population (e.g., wealth), and others increasing slower than population (infrastructure elements). Culture has been designated [...] Read more.
The functional characteristics of urban systems vary predictably with Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) population, with certain metrics increasing apace with population (e.g., housing stock), some increasing faster than population (e.g., wealth), and others increasing slower than population (infrastructure elements). Culture has been designated the fourth pillar of sustainability. The population-dependent scaling of operating revenue, work space, and number of employees was investigated for almost 3000 arts organizations in the US, both in aggregate and by arts discipline (music, theater, visual and design arts, dance, and museums). Unlike general measures of creativity, the three measures of economic footprint did not scale supra-linearly with the population of metropolitan areas. Rather, operating revenue scaled linearly (e.g., like amenities), and work space and employee number scaled sub-linearly (e.g., like infrastructure). The cost of living, proxied by housing costs, increased with MSA population, though not as rapidly as did arts organization operating revenue, indicating a degree of uncoupling. The generally higher educational attainment of adults in larger cities, coupled with the growth of the education-dependent arts patronage, suggest a funding focus on less populous (50,000–1,000,000), as well as on under-performing, cities. Full article
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16 pages, 28575 KiB  
Article
Generating Inclusive Health Benefits from Urban Green Spaces: An Empirical Study of Beijing Olympic Forest Park
by Jialin He, Li Li and Jiaming Li
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040397 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
Nature proximity contributes to improving many people’s health. In urban areas, how to increase the gaining of health benefits from urban green space (UGS) has gradually become a topic of concern for urban planners and public health practitioners. However, studies that can make [...] Read more.
Nature proximity contributes to improving many people’s health. In urban areas, how to increase the gaining of health benefits from urban green space (UGS) has gradually become a topic of concern for urban planners and public health practitioners. However, studies that can make causal inferences and evidence from developing countries and societies are still limited, and little has been done to address the issue of equity. Using data gathered in face-to-face surveys from 997 visitors to the Beijing Olympic Forest Park, we applied the instrumental variable approach to analyze park visit benefits to human physical and mental health, and explore ways that can help motivate visits and enhance equitable use. The results show that the overweight had more frequent visits, indicating that people with less-than-ideal health status might feel the urgency in improving their health and choose to engage in more recreation. In this sense, UGS showed a tendency to provide means for a certain group of people to proactively improve health. The study also solidifies the mid-term stress-relieving effect of park recreation that increased with visiting frequency, and found that visits to different types of UGS should all be beneficial, and do not have to be to large green parks. While distance is a decisive factor in encouraging UGS visits, route friendliness was found to have a complementing role, implying that creating routes to UGS that are more conducive to non-motorized travel (walking and cycling) could be seen as an important instrument. Both the incentives to park visitation and stress-relieving effect are more pronounced in elder groups, indicating higher potentials of such an approach in cities with an aging population. In terms of equity, differences in knowledge and income levels associated with use levels indicated inequitable use. To promote inclusiveness, the policy could start by increasing people’s recognition of health benefits derived from UGS recreation through for example publicity programs. The study could bring implications for planning practitioners to leverage health potentials from increased and equitable use of UGS. Limitations of the study includes: (1) given the nature of cross-sectional data, the possibility of two-way causality cannot be ruled out, and (2) the study was conducted in one park and only park visitors were surveyed. In the future, researchers could consider conducting multi-period surveys, and to look at the city level to include all kinds of recreational UGS, and, if possible, to cover all residents. Full article
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