Multi-Scale Modelling and Characterization of Asphalt Pavement Materials

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2023) | Viewed by 8091

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Highway Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, 52062 Aachen, Germany
Interests: asphalt pavement design; application of numerical methods on pavement engineering; bearing capacity of asphalt pavement; meso-model of asphalt pavement considering its multiphase
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Transportation, Southeast University, No.2 Sipailou, Nanjing 210096, China
Interests: microstructural analysis of asphalt mixture; structure-intelligent detection; recycled aggregate asphalt mixture
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce this Special Issue of Buildings, which will focus on multi-scale modelling and characterisation of asphalt pavement materials.

The ability of asphalt materials to resist damage during service is related to the multi-scale properties of the material. Therefore, in order to deeply understand the deformation and failure of the asphalt materials, we should not only stay on the macroscopic scale that gives the appearance of the materials, but should fully carry out multi-scale analysis, integrating the perspectives of multiple disciplines such as engineering, materials, chemistry, and physics. By quantitatively or qualitatively correlating relevant physical, chemical, and geometric parameters at different scales, methods and basis for material selection, modification, and structure design can be provided. In recent years, scholars have used advanced nano- and micro-scale testing technology, molecular dynamics, meso-mechanics, numerical simulation methods, and other multi-scale research methods to conduct valuable discussions on the properties of asphalt pavement materials, which forms the foundation for accurate characterisation and prediction of the performance of asphalt pavement materials.

This Special Issue will provide an opportunity to highlight recent developments in the multi-scale modelling and characterisation of asphalt pavement materials, covering topics such as:

  • Innovative multiscale characterisation methods.
  • Innovative image processing and multiscale model reconstruction.
  • Novel, sustainable, multifunctional high-performance building materials.
  • Bridging scale methods.
  • Combined FEM and DEM Approach for multiphase behaviour of pavement materials.
  • Numerical modelling of multifunctional pavement materials.
  • Molecular dynamics modelling.
  • Multiphysics simulation of pavement materials.

Prof. Dr. Pengfei Liu
Dr. Jing Hu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • innovative multiscale characterisation methods
  • innovative image processing and multiscale model reconstruction
  • novel, sustainable, multifunctional high-performance building materials
  • bridging scale methods
  • combined FEM and DEM Approach for multiphase behaviour of pavement materials
  • numerical modelling of multifunctional pavement materials
  • molecular dynamics modelling
  • multiphysics simulation of pavement materials

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 3268 KiB  
Article
REOB/SBS Composite-Modified Bitumen Preparation and Modification Mechanism Analysis
by Xiang Li, Dedong Guo, Meng Xu, Changyun Guo and Di Wang
Buildings 2023, 13(7), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13071601 - 24 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
To investigate the effect of recycled engine oil bottoms (REOB) as a compatibilizer on the properties of styrene–butadiene–styrene-modified bitumen (SBS-PMB), this paper studied the preparation method, properties, and micro-mechanism of composite modification of matrix bitumen with SBS and REOB. Firstly, a multi-factor orthogonal [...] Read more.
To investigate the effect of recycled engine oil bottoms (REOB) as a compatibilizer on the properties of styrene–butadiene–styrene-modified bitumen (SBS-PMB), this paper studied the preparation method, properties, and micro-mechanism of composite modification of matrix bitumen with SBS and REOB. Firstly, a multi-factor orthogonal experiment determined the optimal preparation scheme of REOB/SBS composite-modified bitumen (REOB/SBS-PMB). Then, the high-temperature stability rheological properties, and anti-aging performance of REOB-PMB were studied by testing Brookfield viscosity, elasticity recovery, and dynamic shear rheology (DSR) and by short-term aging simulation (TFOT). Finally, the microstructure, fraction content, and SBS particle dispersion of 70# matrix bitumen (70-MB), SBS-PMB, and REOB/SBS-PMB were compared and analyzed by tests of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), rod-shaped thin-layer chromatography, and fluorescence microscopy to reveal the micro-mechanism of REOB improving SBS and bitumen compatibility. The research results showed that the mixing form of SBS and REOB in bitumen was mainly physical swelling and blending, with chemical changes also present that have a minor impact. The light fraction in REOB increased the flowability of bitumen, promoted the swelling of SBS, improved the compatibility between SBS and bitumen, and improved the high-temperature stability and rheological properties while reducing the impact of aging. Full article
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21 pages, 12974 KiB  
Article
Research on Characterization of 3D Morphology of Coarse Aggregate Based on Laser Scanning
by Jinbiao Song, Xinglin Zhou and Ruiqie Jiang
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041029 - 14 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1254
Abstract
The morphology of coarse aggregate has a significant impact on the road performance of asphalt mixtures and aggregate characterization studies, but many studies were based on the two-dimensional morphology of coarse aggregate, which failed to consider morphological characteristics in a holistic manner. In [...] Read more.
The morphology of coarse aggregate has a significant impact on the road performance of asphalt mixtures and aggregate characterization studies, but many studies were based on the two-dimensional morphology of coarse aggregate, which failed to consider morphological characteristics in a holistic manner. In order to quantitatively analyze the shape, angularity, and texture characteristics of roadway coarse aggregates, a rapid and accurate multiparameter characterization method of coarse aggregate 3D morphology is explored in this article. A 3D laser scanner is used to obtain the 3D point cloud data of pebble, granite, and basalt, and the solid models of the three coarse aggregates are reconstructed. In addition, the fitted ellipsoidal algorithm and Laplace smoothing algorithm are proposed for the characterization analysis of the overall shape, angularity, and surface roughness of coarse aggregate, and the variation rules of multicharacteristic parameters of coarse aggregate are summarized. The results of the study show that the ratio of the three axes of the fitted ellipsoid can be used to classify the shape of coarse aggregate into four types, among which the cubic shape accounts for the majority of the coarse aggregate. By analyzing the fitted ellipsoidal value and the change rate of angularity of coarse aggregate, it is concluded that the larger the values of both, the more angular the aggregate is. Moreover, the study finds that the fitted ellipsoidal value can characterize not only the shape of coarse aggregate, but also its angularity to some extent. Compared with the spherical value, the fitted ellipsoidal value has better variability and is more “sensitive” to the overall data. The change in surface area can well characterize the texture of coarse aggregate. When the particle size is small, the larger the surface area change rate of the coarse aggregates, the better the roughness of the aggregates, among which the surface area change rate of basalt is the largest. The influence of aggregate morphology was not adequately considered in previous studies of asphalt-aggregate adhesion, and this study provides parameter help for subsequent quantitative analysis of the relationship between asphalt-aggregate adhesion and coarse aggregate morphology. Full article
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20 pages, 5337 KiB  
Article
Surface Modification of Steel Slag Aggregate for Engineering Application in Asphalt Mixture
by Dongyu Niu, Zhao Zhang, Jiandang Meng, Zhengxian Yang, Ruxin Jing, Xueyan Liu, Peng Lin and Yanping Sheng
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010016 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
The proper disposal of steel slag has always been a great challenge for the metallurgical industry in China and around the world. In this work, the steel slag aggregate (SSA) was surface pretreated (PSSA) and applied into asphalt mixture. The adhesive behavior between [...] Read more.
The proper disposal of steel slag has always been a great challenge for the metallurgical industry in China and around the world. In this work, the steel slag aggregate (SSA) was surface pretreated (PSSA) and applied into asphalt mixture. The adhesive behavior between the bitumen and five different types of aggregates (i.e., limestone, diorite, diabase, SSA, PSSA) were evaluated based on the contact angle and binder bond strength tests. The pavement performance of three asphalt mixtures which contain normal aggregate, SSA and PSSA respectively, was analyzed by Marshall stability test, wheel-tracking rutting test, low-temperature bending creep test and water sensitivity test. The results showed that surface modification can improve the surface properties of SSA, reduce its contact angle with bitumen, and eventually lead to the improvement of adhesion between them. In addition to the satisfied low-temperature properties, PSSA was found to significantly improve the anti-rutting property and reduce the water sensitivity of asphalt mixture. This work is expected to promote an alternative application for recycling of SSA in pavement engineering. Full article
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13 pages, 4801 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Thermal Degradation of SBS Polymer in Long-Term Aged Asphalt Binder Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM)
by Jitong Ding, Jiwang Jiang, Fujian Ni and Junqiu Zheng
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2110; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122110 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
Styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) polymer is extensively employed for asphalt pavement construction, and its degradation significantly damages the durability of asphalt concrete. However, the effect of aging protocols on the degradation of SBS polymer in asphalt binder has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, [...] Read more.
Styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) polymer is extensively employed for asphalt pavement construction, and its degradation significantly damages the durability of asphalt concrete. However, the effect of aging protocols on the degradation of SBS polymer in asphalt binder has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was applied to characterize the change in morphology with SBS polymer degradation. Various aging protocols were considered, including accelerated aging processes in laboratory- and field-aged samples from three highway sections with different in-service periods. Scanned images of the polymer phase in the 2D plane at different depths were processed and further reconstructed in three dimensions. Furthermore, the three-dimensional polymer morphology indices derived from the semi-quantitative analysis of the images were correlated with the rheological indices. The results show that the polymer particles change from a relatively large ellipsoidal shape to a relatively small spherical shape as aging proceeds. The increase in aging temperature appears to accelerate the degradation of the polymer at the same rheological level. The effect of the laboratory aging method on the polymer was more pronounced during the early stages of aging compared to that in the field aging process. Full article
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14 pages, 3748 KiB  
Article
Development of an FEM-DEM Model to Investigate Preliminary Compaction of Asphalt Pavements
by Pengfei Liu, Chonghui Wang, Wei Lu, Milad Moharekpour, Markus Oeser and Dawei Wang
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12070932 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1786
Abstract
Variations in pavement density have been widely monitored and investigated, both in laboratory and in field experiments, since the compaction of pavement is so critical to its long-term performance quality. In contrast to field testing, laboratory tests are simpler to produce but less [...] Read more.
Variations in pavement density have been widely monitored and investigated, both in laboratory and in field experiments, since the compaction of pavement is so critical to its long-term performance quality. In contrast to field testing, laboratory tests are simpler to produce but less accurate. Destructive drilled samples are used to conduct field testing; however, they are limited in their ability to assess density information at specific areas. The use of computationally aided approaches, such as the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Discrete Element Method (DEM), in research involving asphalt mixtures is increasing, since these methods simulate and evaluate the characteristics of asphalt mixtures at macroscopic and microscopic scales. Individual particle behavior at the microscopic level cannot be fully represented using the FEM alone, and the computing cost of utilizing the DEM approach alone is prohibitively high. The objective of this work is to simulate the pre-compaction process by using the coupled FEM-DEM approach. In order to investigate the impact of the asphalt mixtures’ gradation, a dense-graded asphalt mixture (AC 11) and a gap graded asphalt mixture (PA 11) were simulated. Different paving speeds (4, 5, and 6 m/min) were applied on the preliminary compaction model of AC 11 to study the effect of the paving speeds on the compaction process. By comparing the angular velocity, which worked as a reference of compaction quality, it was demonstrated that the grade AC 11 asphalt mixtures performed better in the preliminary compaction process compared to the grade PA 11 asphalt mixtures. Moreover, since it has an effect on compaction, paving speed was carefully monitored and kept within a reasonable range in order to maximize both pavement quality and project efficiency. Full article
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