Green, Resilient, and Sustainable Composite Structures: Development, Design, and Construction

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Building Structures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 April 2024) | Viewed by 18538

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Architecture, Civil and Transportation Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
Interests: concrete-filled steel tube; recycled concrete; prefabricated steel-concrete structures; self-centering structures

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Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China
Interests: seismic and static performance analysis of (stainless) steel/aluminium alloy-concrete composite under ambient temperature and after fire; confining stress path of confined concrete

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Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
Interests: steel-concrete composite structures; high performance cementitious materials; stainless steel structures

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Guest Editor
School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000, China
Interests: bridge dynamics; vehicle-bridge coupled vibration; bridge inspection and evaluation; design theory of bridges; bridge construction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the past few decades, innovative composite structures, e.g., steel–concrete structures and FRP-confined concrete structures, have been widely used in civil engineering because of their high performance. As climate change and extreme natural disasters accelerate, green, resilient, and sustainable composite structures show a promising future and have been emerging as highly-focused research areas. This Special Issue is dedicated to the advances in the development, design, and construction of green, resilient, and sustainable composite structures. The topics of interest include (but are not limited to):

  • Design of composite structures with green and sustainable materials, e.g., high-performance fibre-reinforced cementitious materials; recycled concrete; stainless steel; aluminium alloy; fibre-reinforced polymer.
  • Development and design of earthquake-resilient prefabricated composite structures.
  • Self-centring composite structures.
  • Composite structures in bridge
  • Machine-learning-based design/modelling of composite structures.
  • Reliability analysis of composite structures.
  • Composite structures under extreme loads or events (fire/impacts/earthquakes).
  • Novel numerical analysis methods of composite structures.
  • Construction of composite structures.

Prof. Dr. Siqi Lin
Dr. Xifeng Yan
Dr. Binglin Lai
Prof. Dr. Qingfei Gao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • prefabricated composite structures
  • self-centring composite structures
  • machine-learning-based design/modelling
  • composite bridges
  • green and sustainable materials
  • reliability analysis
  • fire/impact/earthquake resistance
  • novel numerical analysis methods
  • construction

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 5723 KiB  
Article
Experimental Test and Finite Element Analysis on a Concrete Box Girder of a Cable-Stayed Bridge with W-Shaped Prestressed Concrete Diagonal Braces
by Xuhui He, Zhiyu Wang, Chao Li, Ce Gao, Yongfeng Liu, Changpeng Li and Bin Liu
Buildings 2024, 14(2), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14020506 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 668
Abstract
This paper presents an experimental study on the box girder of a low-tower cable-stayed railway bridge with a W-shaped section that consists of prestressed concrete diagonal braces. A 1:6 scale test model was designed and constructed for the experiment. The mechanical behavior of [...] Read more.
This paper presents an experimental study on the box girder of a low-tower cable-stayed railway bridge with a W-shaped section that consists of prestressed concrete diagonal braces. A 1:6 scale test model was designed and constructed for the experiment. The mechanical behavior of the test model was investigated under two loading conditions: a double-track train symmetrical load and a single-track train unsymmetrical load. The experimental results were validated against a finite element model. Furthermore, the torsional performance of the box girder section was analyzed and discussed. Full article
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20 pages, 6506 KiB  
Article
Fragility Assessment of a Long-Unit Prestressed Concrete Composite Continuous Girder Bridge with Corrugated Steel Webs Subjected to Near-Fault Pulse-like Ground Motions Considering Spatial Variability Effects
by Mingcheng Han, Yidian Dong, Tong Wang, Mingqu Du and Qingfei Gao
Buildings 2024, 14(2), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14020330 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Prestressed concrete composite girder bridges with corrugated steel webs (PCCGBCSWs) are extensively employed in bridge construction because of their low dead weight, fast construction, and high prestressing efficiency. Moreover, PCCGBCSWs will experience deformation and failure of the corrugated steel webs, including steel fatigue [...] Read more.
Prestressed concrete composite girder bridges with corrugated steel webs (PCCGBCSWs) are extensively employed in bridge construction because of their low dead weight, fast construction, and high prestressing efficiency. Moreover, PCCGBCSWs will experience deformation and failure of the corrugated steel webs, including steel fatigue and fracture, during earthquakes. These changes will introduce safety hazards, which can be addressed via bridge disaster prevention and mitigation. Because near-fault pulse-like ground motions (NFPLGMs) have high peak accelerations, these motions can easily cause damage to a bridge. Therefore, in this study, a seismic fragility assessment is performed for long-unit PCCGBCSWs subjected to NFPLGMs considering spatial variability effects, and a sensitivity evaluation of the seismic fragility is conducted considering girder type, bearing type, ground motion type, and apparent wave velocity to offer a point of reference for seismic design. The results show that PCCGBCSWs are less vulnerable than concrete bridges. The shock absorption effect of the friction pendulum bearing is better than that of the viscous damper. The impact of NFPLGMs on bridges is greater than that of near-fault non-pulse-like ground motions (NFNPLMs) and far-fault ground motions (FFGMs). The seismic fragility under nonuniform excitation conditions is greater than that under uniform excitation conditions, showing an increasing trend with decreasing apparent wave velocity. Full article
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18 pages, 13685 KiB  
Article
Study on the Cyclic Shear Performance of Waste Steel Slag Mixed Soil
by Weisheng Xu, Yingna Zhu, Haoran Kang, Qing Xu, Qipei Han, Xiangwei Song and Zhenwei Liu
Buildings 2023, 13(12), 3133; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13123133 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Clay soil has poor engineering properties such as poor permeability and low shear strength. Waste steel slag is an industrial by-product formed in the furnace during the steelmaking process which has high quality, durability, anti-slip properties, gelling, high permeability and good particle interlocking [...] Read more.
Clay soil has poor engineering properties such as poor permeability and low shear strength. Waste steel slag is an industrial by-product formed in the furnace during the steelmaking process which has high quality, durability, anti-slip properties, gelling, high permeability and good particle interlocking properties. Therefore, in order to improve the engineering properties of clay and increase the utilization rate of waste steel slag, the steel slag was mixed into the clay. Steel slag clay mix was used for the straight shear test, cyclic shear test and post-cyclic straight shear test. To investigate the strength characteristics, damping ratio, shear stiffness variation and mixed soil displacement at the reinforcement-soil interface under different steel slag dosing, vertical stress, moisture content and shear amplitude conditions. The test results show that steel slag can significantly improve the shear strength of the clay tendon-soil interface, and the improvement effect is better than the conventional material sand improved clay. The steel slag mix has a large damping ratio and shear stiffness, suggesting that it has good damping and energy dissipation properties. In this case, the shear strength, damping ratio and shear stiffness of the soil mix at 40% steel slag admixture are better. The shear strength of the steel slag mix is increased after cyclic loading compared to straight shear before cyclic loading. In addition, the water content has a greater effect on the shear strength parameters, shear stiffness and damping ratio of the steel slag clay mix compared to the vertical stress and shear amplitude. The test results can provide a theoretical basis for the replacement of sand by steel slag in improving clay soils. Full article
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16 pages, 2352 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Different Dynamic Material Constitutive Models on the Impact Performance of Circular CFST Columns
by Xi-Feng Yan, Siqi Lin and Mizan Ahmed
Buildings 2023, 13(7), 1634; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13071634 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
At present, there is a lack of research on the influence of different dynamic constitutive models of steel and concrete on the dynamic mechanical properties of concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns under lateral impact. In this paper, A comprehensive numerical study on the [...] Read more.
At present, there is a lack of research on the influence of different dynamic constitutive models of steel and concrete on the dynamic mechanical properties of concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns under lateral impact. In this paper, A comprehensive numerical study on the effects of different dynamic constitutive models of steel and concrete on the lateral impact response of CFST columns was conducted. The dynamic constitutive models of steel and concrete with different strengths were divided into four categories, namely, normal-strength steel, high-strength steel, normal-strength concrete and high-strength concrete. The established finite element model of CFST columns considering the progressive damage degradation of steel as well as the compressive and tensile damage factors of concrete was verified against published experimental data. Based on the verified FE model, the effects of different dynamic constitutive models of steel and concrete on the impact response of circular CFST columns were analyzed. The analyzed results show that the different dynamic constitutive models of steel have different effects on the impact force and mid-span time-history deflection curves of CFST columns. The analysis result, ignoring the effect of concrete strain rate, is in good agreement with the CEB-FIP model considering the effect of steel strain rate. This is because the largest proportion of the impact energy of CFST members is mainly assimilated by the outer steel tube. Full article
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11 pages, 1190 KiB  
Article
Compatible Truss-Arch Model for Predicting the Shear Strength of Steel Shape-Reinforced Concrete (SRC) Beams
by Xu Zhang, Yicong Xue, Yaping Liu and Yunlong Yu
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061391 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
A steel shape-reinforced concrete (SRC) beam, in which a steel profile is encased in an R.C. section, is an essential configuration of steel-concrete composite members. Nevertheless, the precise estimation of shear strength for SRC elements is currently being explored due to the challenges [...] Read more.
A steel shape-reinforced concrete (SRC) beam, in which a steel profile is encased in an R.C. section, is an essential configuration of steel-concrete composite members. Nevertheless, the precise estimation of shear strength for SRC elements is currently being explored due to the challenges associated with incorporating steel-concrete interaction. This paper establishes a compatible truss-arch model to simulate the shear behavior of SRC beams and predict their maximum shear strength. In the established model, the shear contribution of the R.C. encasement is evaluated using the traditional truss-arch model, and a stress decomposition based on von Mises yielding criterion and strain compatibility is conducted within the steel shape to decouple its shear contribution. Finally, the validity of the proposed model is confirmed using a comprehensive database. The comparison between the experimental and calculated results demonstrates that the established model can effectively and reliably calculate the SRC beams’ shear strength. Full article
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21 pages, 8533 KiB  
Article
Performance of Silica Fume on Preventing Strength Retrogression in Hardened Cement Paste and Mortar at Elevated Temperatures
by Ngaelle Dorivice Nkanpa Moffo, John Mwero and Zachary A. Gariy
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051301 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1143
Abstract
This study examines the effect of silica fume (SF) as a partial replacement for cement to prevent strength retrogression in hardened cement paste (HCP) and mortar at elevated temperatures. An experimental procedure was conducted on 320 specimens, replacing 0, 10, 20, and 30% [...] Read more.
This study examines the effect of silica fume (SF) as a partial replacement for cement to prevent strength retrogression in hardened cement paste (HCP) and mortar at elevated temperatures. An experimental procedure was conducted on 320 specimens, replacing 0, 10, 20, and 30% of the cement by weight with SF. The residual compressive strength of the specimens was evaluated at room temperature (25 °C) and at 100, 200, 300, and 400 °C for 7, 28, and 56 days. The results indicate that the addition of SF to the cement paste and mortar improves the compressive strength both at 25 °C and at temperatures up to 400 °C. That is attributed to the formation of C-S-H phases, such as tobermorite and xonotlite. Additionally, the optimal residual compressive strength was achieved by adding 30% of SF. Therefore, XRD, SEM, and EDS techniques were employed to evaluate the microstructure of HCP specimens with 30% of SF. The results show that adding SF leads to a denser microstructure and lower porosity, resulting in more durable cement paste and mortar at ambient and elevated temperatures. In conclusion, using SF as a partial replacement for cement can be an effective way of developing sustainable fire-resistant construction materials. Full article
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15 pages, 1703 KiB  
Article
Research on Corrosion Rate Model of Reinforcement in Concrete under Chloride Ion Environments
by Ruoli Shi, Zhicheng Pan, Peiyuan Lun, Yali Zhan, Ziheng Nie, Yuzi Liu, Zongyun Mo and Zhijian He
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13040965 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
In a chloride environment, taking reinforced concrete structures as the research object, the corrosion rate of reinforcement determines its corrosion expansion because multiple coupling parameters will affect the corrosion rate of reinforcement, which is extremely difficult to effectively predict. In this paper, 144 [...] Read more.
In a chloride environment, taking reinforced concrete structures as the research object, the corrosion rate of reinforcement determines its corrosion expansion because multiple coupling parameters will affect the corrosion rate of reinforcement, which is extremely difficult to effectively predict. In this paper, 144 sets of experimental data were collected and sorted out by reading the relevant literature, and six empirical models for predicting the corrosion rate of steel bars were compared and analyzed based on these experimental data. Based on the investigations, a new empirical model is proposed for predicting the corrosion rate of reinforcement, and the relevant influencing factors are considered in the new model. By comparing the 144 sets of experimental data and 90 experimental data for this paper, the new prediction model can well predict the corrosion rate of reinforcement. Furthermore, the time variability of the new prediction model is verified. The probability distribution characteristics of seven prediction models are obtained through model error analysis, which provides a theoretical basis for the next step of concrete cover cracking and reliability analysis. Full article
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18 pages, 3079 KiB  
Article
Reuse of Abandoned Shield Residues Stabilized by a Sustainable Binder: Assessment of Strength, Durability, and Environmental Properties
by Wei Cao, Jun Zhao, Zhe-Yuan Jiang, Ying-Zhen Li and Chi Che
Buildings 2023, 13(3), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13030738 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1488
Abstract
The resourceful reuse, construction, and environmental and safety hazards of shield residues in underground construction have received a lot of attention. This paper reports the assessment of shield residues generated with the underground space development through stabilization. The variations of strength, durability, and [...] Read more.
The resourceful reuse, construction, and environmental and safety hazards of shield residues in underground construction have received a lot of attention. This paper reports the assessment of shield residues generated with the underground space development through stabilization. The variations of strength, durability, and environmental properties of magnesium oxide (MgO)-activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS)-fiber material stabilized shield residues are tested by unconfined compressive strength test, direct shear test, pH test, and modified dry and soaking cycle test (acidic sulfate ion condition, pH = 5.0). Portland cement (PC)-stabilized shield residues are selected as the control group. The optimal ratio of MgO-activated GGBS-fiber-stabilized material is recommended. The test results show that the basalt fiber with 12 mm length and 0.1% ratio is designed as the optimal value. The MgO-activated GGBS-fiber-stabilized shield residues specimens with the ratio of MgO to GGBS of 1:7 display higher unconfined compressive strength (qu) and shear strength (τ). After ten dry–soaking cycles, the qu, τ, and pH of the MgO-activated GGBS-fiber-stabilized shield residues specimens decreased by 21%, 8%, and 12%, respectively, compared to those corresponding to the standard curing time. In contrast, the qu, τ, and pH of the control group were reduced by 46%, 39%, and 13%. Full article
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14 pages, 11999 KiB  
Article
Influence of Friction Coefficient between Cable and Membrane on Wind-Induced Response of Air-Supported Membrane Structures with Oblique Cable Net
by Guangxin Lai, Yanli He, Yanguo Zhao and Limei Zhang
Buildings 2023, 13(3), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13030649 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Cable-membrane constructions typically exhibit significant displacement and distortion under load action, and the cable-membrane contact results in relative sliding. In this paper, the interaction force between cable and membrane is transferred through frictional contact action, and as a result, the friction coefficient must [...] Read more.
Cable-membrane constructions typically exhibit significant displacement and distortion under load action, and the cable-membrane contact results in relative sliding. In this paper, the interaction force between cable and membrane is transferred through frictional contact action, and as a result, the friction coefficient must be taken into consideration for the form-finding and load analysis of air-supported membrane structures. Eight kinds of P-type membrane materials commonly used in engineering were chosen, and the friction coefficients between the various membrane and cable materials were obtained. The connection between a cable and a membrane of an air-supported membrane structure is considered a contact problem, and its initial shape analysis and wind load response analysis are carried out. The influence of the friction coefficient of a cable membrane on the wind-induced response of an air-supported membrane structure is discussed, and the results are compared with those of the cable-membrane binding model under wind load. Full article
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15 pages, 5394 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Two Sulfate-Bearing Soils Stabilized with Reactive Magnesia-Activated Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag: Swelling, Strength, and Mechanism
by Wentao Li, Runxiang Li, Yin Chen and Henglin Xiao
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010230 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
Sulfate-bearing soils, which causes many engineering problems, e.g., cracking, collapse, and pavement layer settlement, are often encountered in the construction of pavements. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS)-magnesia (MgO) has been regarded as an effective curing agent in the treatment of sulfate-bearing soil [...] Read more.
Sulfate-bearing soils, which causes many engineering problems, e.g., cracking, collapse, and pavement layer settlement, are often encountered in the construction of pavements. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS)-magnesia (MgO) has been regarded as an effective curing agent in the treatment of sulfate-bearing soil containing gypsum. However, field sulfate-bearing soils usually include other forms of sulfates, such as sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). Currently, few studies have investigated the effect of the type of sulfate on the properties of sulfate-bearing soil stabilized with GGBS-MgO. In this study, GGBS-MgO was used to treat Ca-sulfate-soil and Mg-sulfate-soil. Swelling, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests were employed to investigate the properties of the stabilized soils. The results showed that when suitable GGBS:MgO ratios were achieved, the swelling of the two types of sulfate-bearing soils could be well suppressed. However, the trend that the swelling varied with the decrease in the GGBS:MgO ratios was opposite between the two soils. The UCS of Mg-sulfate-soils was much lower than that of the Ca-sulfate-soils after the stabilization of GGBS-MgO irrespective of the curing or soaking stage. CSH significantly occurred in Ca-sulfated soils treated by GGBS-MgO. Ettringite was not observed in the soil with GGBS-MgO = 9:1 but was observed in 6:4. Compared to Ca-sulfate-soils, MSH and less CSH were formed in Mg-sulfate-soils stabilized with GGBS-MgO, which caused the lower strength of the stabilized Mg-sulfate-soils. No ettringite was formed in such soils. Hence, the sulfate type contained in the soils had a significant effect on the swelling and strength properties of sulfate-bearing soils with GGBS-MgO, and so the sulfate needs to be identified before the soil’s stabilization. Full article
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19 pages, 9366 KiB  
Article
Bending Strength of Connection Joints of Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Pipe Piles
by Mengxiong Tang, Zao Ling and Yuliang Qi
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010119 - 3 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2010
Abstract
The connection joint of prestressed concrete pipe piles is a typical steel–concrete structure, and its bending strength has evolved into a critical factor affecting the safety of supporting structures in underground engineering. Based on full-scale bending tests of five specimens of large-diameter prestressed [...] Read more.
The connection joint of prestressed concrete pipe piles is a typical steel–concrete structure, and its bending strength has evolved into a critical factor affecting the safety of supporting structures in underground engineering. Based on full-scale bending tests of five specimens of large-diameter prestressed reinforced concrete (PRC) pipe piles and connection joints, as well as the corresponding finite element numerical simulation, the bending bearing and deformation characteristics of connection joints of PRC pipe piles were analyzed, together with the effects of concrete strength, precompression stress, and connection mode of joints. The results showed that the crack resistance of the welded joint of PRC pipe piles was equivalent to that of the pipe pile shaft, but the ultimate bending moment of the joint was about 58–87% of that of the pile shaft. The bending failure mode of the pipe pile joint was mainly manifested in the end plate yielding into a drum shape, with the tension side of the pile hoop and the end plate clearly separated from the pipe pile, and crushed concrete at the upper edge of the pile hoop. The bending strength of the joint can be improved by increasing the bonding strength between the end plates of the joint or embedding Rachel reinforcement in concrete. In addition, synchronously increasing the strength grade and reinforcement ratio of concrete or strengthening the precompression stress of concrete are favorable measures. Full article
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17 pages, 1981 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design Formula for Tuned Mass Damper Based on an Analytical Solution of Interaction between Soil and Structure with Rigid Foundation Subjected to Plane SH-Waves
by Liguo Jin, Bowei Li, Siqi Lin and Guangning Li
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010017 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3890
Abstract
The tuned mass damper (TMD) is widely used for vibration mitigation, especially in high-rise buildings where significant soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects are usually involved. This creates a need to consider SSI effects in TMD design. In this work, a novel design framework for [...] Read more.
The tuned mass damper (TMD) is widely used for vibration mitigation, especially in high-rise buildings where significant soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects are usually involved. This creates a need to consider SSI effects in TMD design. In this work, a novel design framework for TMD systems with SSI effects is proposed. For response evaluations, structure-TMD systems are modeled as a two-degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) system, standing on a rigid foundation and subject to out-of-plane SH seismic wave inputs in a homogeneous half-space. Closed-form analytical solutions of its displacement and acceleration responses are derived, and the H2-norm of the system transfer function is introduced to quantify the performances of TMDs. The TMD design problem is then formulated and solved by optimizing the performances. Considering that aspects other than response mitigation, e.g., strokes, damper device costs, etc., may be critical to TMD damping ratios, a design framework is developed by firstly making an informed selection on TMD damping ratios, and subsequently tuning TMD frequency ratios through calibrated formulae. In addition, TMD strokes versus TMD damping ratios are investigated to facilitate the determination of TMD damping ratios. A case study based on a real-existing building system is carried out to illustrate the application of the proposed design framework. The framework has proven to be highly efficient and effective and suitable to for use in practical engineering. Full article
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