3D and 4D Animal Space Use and Overlap

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737). This special issue belongs to the section "Behavioural Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 1647

Special Issue Editor

Lipu-BirdLife Italy, Via Udine 3/a, I-43122 Parma, Italy
Interests: behavioural ecology; ecological modelling; numerical ecology; spatial ecology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Animal space use is a fundamental question in behavioral ecology because of its implications for demography, interspecific and intra-specific competition, niche partitioning, and habitat use and selection. Although animal space use has typically been quantified in 2D dimensions, arguably because of the lack of tools adapted to 3D data, the vast majority of animal taxa, and in particular birds, use space in 3D. In addition, space use can vary in time and such variation may have implications for habitat selection and use and predator–prey relationships. However, time has rarely been considered when estimating home range size and overlap, and it has never been incorporated as a fourth dimension.

The editor of this Special Issue welcomes submissions of both original research and synthetic reviews about any type of species, including the following topics:

(1) 3D volumetric home ranges (i.e., x,y,z); (2) 3D probabilistic home ranges (i.e., x,y,z,p); (3) 3D volumetric home range overlap; (4) 3D probabilistic home ranges overlap; (5) 4D volumetric home ranges (i.e., x,y,z,t); (6) 4D probabilistic home ranges (i.e., x,y,z,p,t); (7) new pairwise metrics of 3D and 4D home range overlap; and (8) non-pairwise metrics of 3D and 4D home range overlap.

Dr. Alessandro Ferrarini
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biology is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • 3D home range
  • 4D home range
  • non-pairwise overlap metric
  • pairwise overlap metric
  • probabilistic home range
  • time-dependent home range
  • utilization distribution
  • volumetric home range

Published Papers (1 paper)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:


12 pages, 3107 KiB  
Overlap and Segregation among Multiple 3D Home Ranges: A Non-Pairwise Metric with Demonstrative Application to the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni
Biology 2023, 12(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12010077 - 02 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1343
In this study we solved the issue of measuring the degree of overlap/segregation among an arbitrarily large number (n ≥ 2) of 3D volumetric home ranges (i.e., x, y, and hg; where hg is height above ground [...] Read more.
In this study we solved the issue of measuring the degree of overlap/segregation among an arbitrarily large number (n ≥ 2) of 3D volumetric home ranges (i.e., x, y, and hg; where hg is height above ground level) for the first time. For this purpose, we introduced the novel non-pairwise index MVOI (Multiple Volumetric Overlap Index) and its complement to 100 MVSI (Multiple Volumetric Segregation Index). Regardless of the number of 3D volumetric home ranges, the MVOI and MVSI generate a single score of overlap/segregation between 0 and 100, making ecological interpretation much easier and more meaningful when compared to n × n pairwise overlap indices. As a case study, we applied the MVOI and MVSI to 12,081 GPS points of five lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni) during the nesting period at Santeramo in Colle (Apulia region; Italy) in an area with the most elevated density of lesser kestrels in urban colonies worldwide. The 3D volumetric home ranges ranged between 1.79 km3 and 8.19 km3. We found that the tracked birds had different vertical profiles, possibly to limit intraspecific competition, resulting in a 3D home range overlap that was only 61.1% of the 2D overlap and 52.8% of the probabilistic one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D and 4D Animal Space Use and Overlap)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop