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User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Computing and Artificial Intelligence".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 75430
Related Special Issue: User Experience for Advanced Human-Computer Interaction II

Special Issue Editors

Division of Future Convergence (HCI Science Major), Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 02748, Republic of Korea
Interests: HCI (human-computer interaction); UX (user experience); UCD (user-centered design); ergonomic design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Industrial and Management Engineering, Sungkyul University, Anyang 14097, Korea
Interests: deep learning; unstructured data analysis; human factors; UX (user experience)

E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea
Interests: ergonomics; human factors; user-centered design; human interface design; affective engineering; Kansei Engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to recent advances in technologies, new high technology-based products are being developed that interact with users in various ways (e.g., tactile, gesture interaction, voice or motion recognition) such as smart products, artificial intelligence speakers, virtual reality, and augmented reality devices. Moreover, as the Internet of Things (IoT), which is a new technology paradigm envisioned as a global network of devices capable of interacting with each other, has been widely adopted, consumers can now control multiple devices at the same time. However, due to the appearance of these various interactions, users may be rather uncomfortable with using the product. In particular, products that have been developed without considering the user’s needs and behavior will be difficult for consumers to get used to, and they will be dissatisfied with them. Therefore, studies of user experience (UX) or user-centered design (UCD) on the interaction between new high technology-based products and users will be more needed in the future.

This Special Issue welcomes original, unpublished research contributions including but not limited to methodological studies, quantitative, qualitative or mixed-methods studies focusing on issues around consumer interaction with new technologies.

Prof. Ilsun Rhiu
Guest Editor

Prof. Wonjoon Kim
Prof. Myung Hwan Yun
Co-Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • User experience
  • User-centered design
  • Usability
  • Human–computer interaction
  • Smart product
  • Virtual reality
  • Augmented reality
  • Internet of Things

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 45148 KiB  
Article
The Cognition of Audience to Artistic Style Transfer
by Yanru Lyu, Chih-Long Lin, Po-Hsien Lin and Rungtai Lin
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 3290; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11073290 - 6 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4239
Abstract
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming more popular in various fields, including the area of art creation. Advances in AI technology bring new opportunities and challenges in the creation, experience, and appreciation of art. The neural style transfer (NST) realizes the intelligent conversion of [...] Read more.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming more popular in various fields, including the area of art creation. Advances in AI technology bring new opportunities and challenges in the creation, experience, and appreciation of art. The neural style transfer (NST) realizes the intelligent conversion of any artistic style using neural networks. However, the artistic style is the product of cognition that involving from visual to feel. The purpose of this paper is to study factors affecting audience cognitive difference and preference on artistic style transfer. Those factors are discussed to investigate the application of the AI generator model in art creation. Therefore, based on the artist’s encoding attributes (color, stroke, texture) and the audience’s decoding cognitive levels (technical, semantic, effectiveness), this study proposed a framework to evaluate artistic style transfer in the perspective of cognition. Thirty-one subjects with a background in art, aesthetics, and design were recruited to participate in the experiment. The experimental process consists of four style groups, including Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism, and Renaissance. According to the finding in this study, participants can still recognize different artistic styles after transferred by neural networks. Besides, the features of texture and stroke are more impact on the perception of fitness than color. The audience may prefer the samples with high cognition in the semantic and effectiveness levels. The above indicates that through AI automated routine work, the cognition of the audience to artistic style still can be kept and transferred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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20 pages, 16802 KiB  
Article
Designing Procedure Execution Tools with Emerging Technologies for Future Astronauts
by John A. Karasinski, Isabel C. Torron Valverde, Holly L. Brosnahan, Jack W. Gale, Ron Kim, Melodie Yashar and Jessica J. Marquez
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041607 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2745
Abstract
NASA’s human spaceflight efforts are moving towards long-duration exploration missions requiring asynchronous communication between onboard crew and an increasingly remote ground support. In current missions aboard the International Space Station, there is a near real-time communication loop between Mission Control Center and astronauts. [...] Read more.
NASA’s human spaceflight efforts are moving towards long-duration exploration missions requiring asynchronous communication between onboard crew and an increasingly remote ground support. In current missions aboard the International Space Station, there is a near real-time communication loop between Mission Control Center and astronauts. This communication is essential today to support operations, maintenance, and science requirements onboard, without which many tasks would no longer be feasible. As NASA takes the next leap into a new era of human space exploration, new methods and tools compensating for the lack of continuous, real-time communication must be explored. The Human-Computer Interaction Group at NASA Ames Research Center has been investigating emerging technologies and their applicability to increase crew autonomy in missions beyond low Earth orbit. Interactions using augmented reality and the Internet of Things have been researched as possibilities to facilitate usability within procedure execution operations. This paper outlines four research efforts that included technology demonstrations and usability studies with prototype procedure tools implementing emerging technologies. The studies address habitat feedback integration, analogous procedure testing, task completion management, and crew training. Through these technology demonstrations and usability studies, we find that low- to medium-fidelity prototypes, evaluated early in the design process, are both effective for garnering stakeholder buy-in and developing requirements for future systems. In this paper, we present the findings of the usability studies for each project and discuss ways in which these emerging technologies can be integrated into future human spaceflight operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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31 pages, 2817 KiB  
Article
Impact of Different Types of Head-Centric Rest-Frames on VRISE and User Experience in Virtual Environments
by Andrej Somrak, Matevž Pogačnik and Jože Guna
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041593 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a user study of the effects of different head-centric rest-frames on Virtual Reality-Induced Symptoms and Effects (VRISE) and the user experience in virtual environments (VE). Participants played the custom-designed 3D game in two different game modes (high [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of a user study of the effects of different head-centric rest-frames on Virtual Reality-Induced Symptoms and Effects (VRISE) and the user experience in virtual environments (VE). Participants played the custom-designed 3D game in two different game modes (high action and low action). For assessing VRISE levels, we used the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) and Fast Motion Sickness Score (FMS). The presence was evaluated by SPES (Spatial Presence Experience Scale), and for the user experience, the short version of the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ-S) was used. The results indicate that the usage of head-centric rest-frames negatively affected VRISE levels (more sickness) in the low action mode of the game. However, for the users experienced with VR technology, the VRISE disorientation symptoms were alleviated in a high action mode of the game with rest-frame glasses. We found no negative effect of rest-frames on the user experience and presence, except for some negative impact when using rest-frame glasses in the low action mode of the game. No negative impact on the performance itself was observed. That means that the usage of head-centric rest-frames is suitable for usage in VR applications. In terms of VRISE levels, we found out that rest-frame glasses are more suitable for the wearers of the distance spectacles, and a baseball hat is more suitable for non-wearers of distance spectacles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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28 pages, 14670 KiB  
Article
A Persona-Based Approach for Identifying Accessibility Issues in Elderly and Disabled Users’ Interaction with Home Appliances
by Joong Hee Lee, Yong Min Kim, Ilsun Rhiu and Myung Hwan Yun
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010368 - 1 Jan 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 8296
Abstract
Disabled and elderly populations may not fully appreciate the benefits of advanced technologies and every-day products due to accessibility issues. However, the diverse characteristics of disabled and elderly users make conducting user research a challenging task for stakeholders who oversee the needs of [...] Read more.
Disabled and elderly populations may not fully appreciate the benefits of advanced technologies and every-day products due to accessibility issues. However, the diverse characteristics of disabled and elderly users make conducting user research a challenging task for stakeholders who oversee the needs of developing accessible products. They need a tool providing rich information to empathize with the disabled and elderly users, instead of standards and documents without detailed explanation of real-world applications. Therefore, this study aims to identify accessibility issues based on the interview and observation data from 52 people with different disabilities and ages. We developed eight personas representing four different user groups under the context of home appliance usage: visually impaired, hearing impaired, spinal-cord impaired, and elderly. Each persona takes a role as a tool to understand the target users and has a persona card representing their task barriers, frustrations, needs, and quotations along with a cartoonized character. In this study, we address two common accessibility issues and two persona-specific issues within each user group. The issues are presented in stakeholder’s language personas to help them comprehend and empathize with their users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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19 pages, 3476 KiB  
Article
Serious Game as Support for the Development of Computational Thinking for Children with Hearing Impairment
by Sandra Cano, Juan S. Naranjo, Cristhiam Henao, Cristian Rusu and Sergio Albiol-Pérez
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010115 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3527
Abstract
Computational thinking (CT) has been a topic of interest in research, not only in the field of computer science, but also in education, since it allows the development of a set of competencies in the child related to problem-solving and decision-making. However, few [...] Read more.
Computational thinking (CT) has been a topic of interest in research, not only in the field of computer science, but also in education, since it allows the development of a set of competencies in the child related to problem-solving and decision-making. However, few studies on CT are focused on children with disabilities. Developing computational thinking skills for children with hearing problems is a challenge, even more so when their language skills are limited. Following a methodology for conception of serious games for children with hearing impairment called MECONESIS (Acronym in Spanish, MEtodología para CONcepción de juEgos Serios para nIños con discapacidad auditiva), we designed the serious game Perdi-Dogs for children between 7 and 11 years old with hearing impairment. We considered a set of aspects, such as challenges/learning, control, rules, feedback, interaction, rewards, surprise, communication/language, and fantasy. Perdi-Dogs involves both a physical and a digital interface, specifically a physical board together with digital interaction, by means of a QR (Quick Response) code and vibrotactile feedback system. Perdi-Dogs simulates a real environment, using physical elements able to interact simultaneously with technology. Evaluation was carried out with a group of seven children between 7 and 11 years old from the Institute for Deaf and Blind Children (Colombia). The results showed a high motivation to play for all of the children involved in the experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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17 pages, 4133 KiB  
Article
Gaze-Head Input: Examining Potential Interaction with Immediate Experience Sampling in an Autonomous Vehicle
by Aya Ataya, Won Kim, Ahmed Elsharkawy and SeungJun Kim
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 9011; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10249011 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2428
Abstract
Autonomous vehicles (AV) increasingly allow drivers to engage in secondary tasks such as eating or working on a laptop and thus require easy and reliable interaction inputs to facilitate communication between the driver and the vehicle. However, drivers report feeling less in control [...] Read more.
Autonomous vehicles (AV) increasingly allow drivers to engage in secondary tasks such as eating or working on a laptop and thus require easy and reliable interaction inputs to facilitate communication between the driver and the vehicle. However, drivers report feeling less in control when driving is no longer the primary task, which suggests that novel approaches for assessing satisfaction regarding AV decision-making are needed. Therefore, we propose an immediate experience sampling method (IESM) that learns driver preferences for AV actions. We also suggest gaze-head input (G-HI) as a novel input in an AV. G-HI provides a hands-free, remote, and intuitive input modality that allows drivers to interact with the AV while continuing to engage in non-driving related tasks. We compare G-HI with voice and touch inputs via IESM for two simulated driving scenarios. Our results report the differences among the three inputs in terms of system usability, reaction time, and perceived workload. It also reveals that G-HI is a promising candidate for AV input interaction, which could replace voice or touch inputs where those inputs could not be utilized. Variation in driver satisfaction and expectations for AV actions confirms the effectiveness of using IESM to increase drivers’ sense of control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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12 pages, 678 KiB  
Article
Voice as a Mouse Click: Usability and Effectiveness of Simplified Hands-Free Gaze-Voice Selection
by Darisy G. Zhao, Nikita D. Karikov, Eugeny V. Melnichuk, Boris M. Velichkovsky and Sergei L. Shishkin
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8791; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248791 - 9 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2470
Abstract
Voice- and gaze-based hands-free input are increasingly used in human-machine interaction. Attempts to combine them into a hybrid technology typically employ the voice channel as an information-rich channel. Voice seems to be “overqualified” to serve simply as a substitute of a computer mouse [...] Read more.
Voice- and gaze-based hands-free input are increasingly used in human-machine interaction. Attempts to combine them into a hybrid technology typically employ the voice channel as an information-rich channel. Voice seems to be “overqualified” to serve simply as a substitute of a computer mouse click, to confirm selections made by gaze. It could be expected that the user would feel discomfort if they had to frequently make “clicks” using their voice, or easily get bored, which also could lead to low performance. To test this, we asked 23 healthy participants to select moving objects with smooth pursuit eye movements. Manual confirmation of selection was faster and rated as more convenient than voice-based confirmation. However, the difference was not high, especially when voice was used to pronounce objects’ numbers (speech recognition was not applied): Score of convenience (M ± SD) was 9.2 ± 1.1 for manual and 8.0 ± 2.1 for voice confirmation, and time spent per object was 1269 ± 265 ms and 1626 ± 331 ms, respectively. We conclude that “voice-as-click” can be used to confirm selection in gaze-based interaction with computers as a substitute for the computer mouse click when manual confirmation cannot be used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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20 pages, 5855 KiB  
Article
A Novel Framework for Identifying Customers’ Unmet Needs on Online Social Media Using Context Tree
by Taehoon Ko, Ilsun Rhiu, Myung Hwan Yun and Sungzoon Cho
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8473; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238473 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
Customer needs and user contexts play an important role in generating ideas for new products or new functions. This study proposes a novel framework for identifying customers’ unmet needs on online social media using the Context Tree through the Hierarchical Search of Concept [...] Read more.
Customer needs and user contexts play an important role in generating ideas for new products or new functions. This study proposes a novel framework for identifying customers’ unmet needs on online social media using the Context Tree through the Hierarchical Search of Concept Spaces (HSCS) algorithm. The Context Tree represents the hierarchical structure of nodes associated with related keywords and corresponding concept spaces. Unlike other methods, the Context Tree focuses on finding the unmet needs of customers from online social media. The proposed framework is applied to extract customer needs for home appliances. Identified customer needs are used to make user scenarios, which are used to develop new functions of home appliances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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17 pages, 1123 KiB  
Article
Measuring Anticipated and Episodic UX of Tasks in Social Networks
by Luis Martín Sánchez-Adame, José Fidel Urquiza-Yllescas and Sonia Mendoza
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8199; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10228199 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2460
Abstract
Today, social networks are crucial commodities that allow people to share different contents and opinions. In addition to participation, the information shared within social networks makes them attractive, but success is also accompanied by a positive User eXperience (UX). Social networks must offer [...] Read more.
Today, social networks are crucial commodities that allow people to share different contents and opinions. In addition to participation, the information shared within social networks makes them attractive, but success is also accompanied by a positive User eXperience (UX). Social networks must offer useful and well-designed user-tools, i.e., sets of widgets that allow interaction among users. To satisfy this requirement, Episodic User eXperience (EUX) yields reactions of users after having interacted with an artifact. Anticipated User eXperience (AUX) grants the designers the capacity to recollect users’ aspirations, assumptions, and needs in the initial development phase of an artifact. In this work, we collect UX perceived in both periods to contrast user expectations and experiences offered on social networks, in order to find elements that could improve the design of user-tools. We arrange a test where participants (N=20) designed prototypes on paper to solve tasks and then did the same tasks on online social networks. Both stages are assessed with the help of AttrakDiff, and then we analyze the results through t-tests. The results we obtained suggest that users are inclined towards pragmatic aspects of their user-tools expectations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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15 pages, 1468 KiB  
Article
The Onset Threshold of Cybersickness in Constant and Accelerating Optical Flow
by Jiwon Kim and Taezoon Park
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7808; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217808 - 4 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2900
Abstract
This study investigated the principal translational or rotational axis that evokes the most severe cybersickness by detecting constant velocity and acceleration thresholds on the onset of cybersickness. This human subject experiment with 16 participants used a 3D particle field with movement directions (lateral, [...] Read more.
This study investigated the principal translational or rotational axis that evokes the most severe cybersickness by detecting constant velocity and acceleration thresholds on the onset of cybersickness. This human subject experiment with 16 participants used a 3D particle field with movement directions (lateral, vertical, yaw, or pitch) and motion profiles (constant velocity or constant acceleration). The results showed that the threshold of pitch optical flow was suggestively lower than that of the yaw, and the vertical threshold was significantly lower than the lateral. Still, there was no effect of scene movement on the level of cybersickness. In four trials, the threshold increased from the first to the second trial, but the rest remained the same as the second one. However, the level of cybersickness increased significantly between the trials on the same day. The disorientation-related symptoms occurred on the first trial day diminished before the second trial day, but the oculomotor-related symptoms accumulated over the days. Although there were no correlations between the threshold and total cybersickness severity, participants with a lower threshold experienced severe nausea. The experimental findings can be applied in designing motion profiles to reduce cybersickness by controlling the optical flow in virtual reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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18 pages, 1236 KiB  
Article
Customer Experience in Retail: A Systematic Literature Review
by Camila Bascur and Cristian Rusu
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7644; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217644 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 12950
Abstract
The customer experience (CX) is a concept that has been closely studied by companies in recent years. This is because it is one of the most important factors in maintaining a competitive advantage. In addition, it is customers who seek to create an [...] Read more.
The customer experience (CX) is a concept that has been closely studied by companies in recent years. This is because it is one of the most important factors in maintaining a competitive advantage. In addition, it is customers who seek to create an experience that goes beyond the acquisition of a product. In this article, we present a systematic literature review of the CX in retail. We reviewed articles published over the last ten years related to (1) the definition of the CX; (2) dimensions, attributes, and factors that influence the CX in retail; (3) methods used to evaluate the CX in retail; and (4) potential heuristics to evaluate the CX in general and, in particular, in retail. We analyzed 67 articles, and the obtained result shows that (1) multiple definitions exist in different contexts; (2) the dimensions, such as the conceptualization of the CX, vary depending on the context; (3) the evaluation methods found do not comprehensively evaluate the CX; (4) there is no evidence of heuristics used to evaluate the CX. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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32 pages, 4618 KiB  
Article
Accessibility Evaluation of Saudi E-Government Systems for Teachers: A Visually Impaired User’s Perspective
by Duaa AlSaeed, Hend Alkhalifa, Hind Alotaibi, Raghad Alshalan, Nourah Al-Mutlaq, Shahad Alshalan, Hind Taleb Bintaleb and Areej Mansour AlSahow
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7528; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217528 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2873
Abstract
The Saudi government pays great attention to the usability and accessibility issues of e-government systems. E-government educational systems, such as Noor, Faris, and iEN systems, are some of the most rapidly developing e-government systems. In this study, we used a mixed-methods approach (usability [...] Read more.
The Saudi government pays great attention to the usability and accessibility issues of e-government systems. E-government educational systems, such as Noor, Faris, and iEN systems, are some of the most rapidly developing e-government systems. In this study, we used a mixed-methods approach (usability testing and automated tools evaluation) to investigate the degree of difficulty faced by teachers with visual impairment while accessing such systems. The usability testing was done on four visually impaired teachers. In addition, four automated tools, namely, AChecker, HTML_CodeSniffer, SortSite, and Total Validator, were utilized in this study. The results showed that all three systems failed to support screen readers effectively as it was the main issue reported by the participants. On the other hand, the automated evaluation tools helped with identifying the most prominent accessibility issues of these systems. The perceivable principle was the principle most violated by the three systems, followed by operable, and then robust. The errors corresponding to the perceivable principle alone represented around 73% of the total errors. Moreover, further analysis revealed that most of the detected errors violated even the lowest level of accessibility conformance, which reflected the failure of these systems to pass the accessibility evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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42 pages, 6232 KiB  
Article
SNUXH: A Set of Social Network User Experience Heuristics
by Daniela Quiñones, Cristian Rusu, Diego Arancibia, Sebastián González and María Josée Saavedra
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6547; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186547 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3675
Abstract
With the growth and overcrowding of the internet, the use of online social networks has been increasing. Currently, social networks are used by a wide variety of users–with different objectives and in different contexts of use–, so it is essential to design intuitive [...] Read more.
With the growth and overcrowding of the internet, the use of online social networks has been increasing. Currently, social networks are used by a wide variety of users–with different objectives and in different contexts of use–, so it is essential to design intuitive and easy to use social network applications that generate a positive user experience (UX). The heuristic evaluation is a well-known evaluation method that allows detecting usability problems; a group of experts evaluates a product and/or system using a set of heuristics as a guide. Although the heuristic evaluation is oriented to evaluate the usability, it can be useful to evaluate other aspects related to the UX. Due to the specific features of social networks, it is necessary to have a specific set of heuristics to evaluate them. Sets of specific heuristics for social networks have been proposed, but they focus on evaluating the only usability. This article presents a set of heuristics that attend not only usability issues, but other UX factors as well, social network user experience heuristics (SNUXH). The new set of heuristics was developed, validated, and refined in four iterations. The results obtained in the experimental validation indicate that the SNUXH set is useful and more effective than generic heuristics (Nielsen’s heuristics) when evaluating social networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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13 pages, 2348 KiB  
Article
Computer-Assisted Translation Tools: An Evaluation of Their Usability among Arab Translators
by Hind M. Alotaibi
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6295; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186295 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5735
Abstract
Technology has become an essential part of the translation profession. Nowadays, computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools are extensively used by translators to enhance their productivity while maintaining high-quality translation services. CAT tools have gained popularity given that they provide a useful environment to facilitate [...] Read more.
Technology has become an essential part of the translation profession. Nowadays, computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools are extensively used by translators to enhance their productivity while maintaining high-quality translation services. CAT tools have gained popularity given that they provide a useful environment to facilitate and manage translation projects. Yet, little research has been conducted to investigate the usability of these tools, especially among Arab translators. In this study, we evaluate the usability of CAT tool from the translators’ perspective. The software usability measurement inventory (SUMI) survey is used to evaluate the system based on its efficiency, affect, usefulness, control, and learnability attributes. In total, 42 participants completed the online survey. Results indicated that the global usability of these tools is above the average. Results for all usability subscales were also above average wherein the highest scores were obtained for affect and efficiency, and the lowest scores were attributed to helpfulness and learnability. The findings suggest that CAT tool developers need to work further on the enhancement of the tool’s helpfulness and learnability to improve the translator’s experience and satisfaction levels. Further improvements are still required to increase the Arabic language support to meet the needs of Arab translators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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14 pages, 884 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Relationship between User’s Subjective Feeling and the Degree of Side Curvature in Smartphone
by Yushin Lee, Wonjoon Kim, Joong Hee Lee, Yong Min Kim and Myung Hwan Yun
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3320; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093320 - 10 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2720
Abstract
To develop a flexible display, smartphones with edge screens with curved displays on both sides of the main screen have been used widely. Considering that small differences in the form of smartphones, such as length, width, and thickness, could affect user experience, the [...] Read more.
To develop a flexible display, smartphones with edge screens with curved displays on both sides of the main screen have been used widely. Considering that small differences in the form of smartphones, such as length, width, and thickness, could affect user experience, the effects of the curvature of the edge screen should be identified. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the curvature of edge screens on subjective feelings of smartphone users and to find out the optimal curvature. In the experiment, four nonfunctional samples with different radii of curvature (4R/6R/8R/10R) were used as samples, and participants evaluated the five subjective feelings: grip/control comfort, front/side visibility, and stability of the samples with four usage patterns. Our results revealed that 8R is the optimal curvature for the edge screen based on subjective feelings in smartphone usage. Moreover, the effect of the curvature of the edge screen on grip comfort and control comfort varied according to the usage patterns. The results of this study can be applied to design of the curvature of edge screens in smartphones and it is expected that it will contribute to improvement of users’ satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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Review

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18 pages, 827 KiB  
Review
Evaluation of Methodologies and Measures on the Usability of Social Robots: A Systematic Review
by Minjoo Jung, May Jorella S. Lazaro and Myung Hwan Yun
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041388 - 4 Feb 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3143
Abstract
This paper systemically reviews and clarifies the state-of-the-art HRI evaluation studies especially for the usability of social robots. A total of 36 articles were collected through a keyword, abstract, title search from various online search engines. Afterwards, 163 measures were selected and reviewed [...] Read more.
This paper systemically reviews and clarifies the state-of-the-art HRI evaluation studies especially for the usability of social robots. A total of 36 articles were collected through a keyword, abstract, title search from various online search engines. Afterwards, 163 measures were selected and reviewed carefully. This research was classified into two parts. In the first part, evaluation methodologies were investigated according to (1) type of stimuli on evaluation, (2) evaluation technique, and (3) criteria of participants. In the second part, assessment measures were collected and the model of attitude towards a social robot is proposed. As a result, this study suggests practical strategies for selecting appropriate methods and measures that meet specific requirements of research. The proposed hierarchical structure of assessment measures is expected to contribute to both practical use and academic use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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23 pages, 810 KiB  
Review
Brain-to-Brain Neural Synchrony During Social Interactions: A Systematic Review on Hyperscanning Studies
by Chang S. Nam, Sanghyun Choo, Jiali Huang and Jiyoung Park
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6669; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196669 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 8115
Abstract
The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive review on hyperscanning research (measuring brain activity simultaneously from more than two people interacting) using an explicit systematic method, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). Data were searched from [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive review on hyperscanning research (measuring brain activity simultaneously from more than two people interacting) using an explicit systematic method, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). Data were searched from IEEE Xplore, PubMed, Engineering Village, Web of Science and Scopus databases. Inclusion criteria were journal articles written in English from 2000 to 19 June 2019. A total of 126 empirical studies were screened out to address three specific questions regarding the neuroimaging method, the application domain, and the experiment paradigm. Results showed that the most used neuroimaging method with hyperscanning was magnetoencephalography/electroencephalography (MEG/EEG; 47%), and the least used neuroimaging method was hyper-transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) (1%). Applications in cognition accounted for almost half the studies (48%), while educational applications accounted for less than 5% of the studies. Applications in decision-making tasks were the second most common (26%), shortly followed by applications in motor synchronization (23%). The findings from this systematic review that were based on documented, transparent and reproducible searches should help build cumulative knowledge and guide future research regarding inter-brain neural synchrony during social interactions, that is, hyperscanning research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
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