Composite Structures Reinforced by Nano Materials: Applications, Theories and Experiments

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 7989

Special Issue Editors

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eastern Mediterranean University, 99628 Famagusta, North Cyprus via Mersin 10, Turkey
Interests: computational Mechanics, micro and nano Mechanics, design of lightweight structures, composite materials, mechanical vibration, biomechanics and drug delivery, advanced manufacturing, finite element and mesh-free method
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Interests: rotordynamics, aerospace engineering, vibration control, nanocomposites, vibration energy harvesting
Mechanical Engineering Science Department, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa
Interests: atomic layer deposition; cold gas dynamics spraying deposition; hydrogen generation/filtration/storage; solar cell; fuel cell; nano fabrication; nano structure and materials; renewable energies; bio-fuel
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Advanced Research Laboratory for Multifunctional Lightweight Structures (ARL-MLS), Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Interests: advanced materials: nanocomposite, piezoelectric nanocomposite, functionally graded materials, elastic, thermoelastic and electro-mechanic behaviors, dynamic, vibration, static and buckling responses, smart structures, micro and nano mechanics, finite element and mesh-free methods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Composite materials have become the center of attention in both applied research and basic science, because of their great technological potential in producing new materials, which can outperform materials available today. Possible combinations of matrices, reinforcing agents and technological procedures not only provide extensive options for designers, but also extend research fields required to achieve all requested information for safe designs. Research goals and scopes in this field generally focus on developing materials with superior chemical, physical, and thermo mechanical characteristics through the addition of nano materials. It is well-known that the addition of small quantities of nanoparticle reinforcement drastically improves the stiffness and strength of composite materials. The combination of various material types results in a wide variety of composites, mainly distinguished by their constitution. Therefore, the most prominent instants include ceramic matrix composites (CMC), metal matrix composites (MMC) and polymer matrix composites (PMC). In the above cases, composite materials comprise a matrix containing a dispersed phase of one or more other materials. This dispersed phase can exist in various morphologies such as platelets, particles, whiskers, or fibers. Ideally, the obtained composite material chemically or physically outperforms pure component phases. Based on the sizes of each constituent, nano/nano-, nano/micro- and micro/micro-composites are distinguished.

This Special Issue aims to solicit recent promising developments in nanomaterial-reinforced composite structures simulation, characterization, and modeling, in terms of both design and manufacturing, including industrial scale and experimental case studies. A rigorous review will be performed on all submitted papers, and they will be published only if they meet the standards of the journal.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following items:

  • Composite structures;
  • Nanocomposites;
  • Biomedical composites;
  • Fiber-reinforced composites;
  • Manufacturing, processing, properties and performance;
  • Physics, chemistry, and mechanics characterization of composites;
  • Unidirectional and woven reinforcements;
  • Modeling and characterization;
  • Numerical simulation of components made by composites;
  • Experimental studies;
  • Industrial case studies;
  • Functional composite materials (including nano-modified materials)

Dr. Babak Safaei
Dr. Zhaoye Qin
Prof. Dr. Tien-Chien Jen
Dr. Rasool Moradi-Dastjerdi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 8825 KiB  
Article
Simple Route to Increase Electrical Conductivity and Optical Transmittance in Graphene/Silver Nanoparticles Hybrid Suspensions
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031922 - 02 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Electrical and optical properties of graphene/silver nanoparticles hybrid suspensions intended for use in inkjet printing technologies were studied. Few-layered graphene particles were manufactured via a direct ultrasonic-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation route in water/surfactant system, whereas silver nanoparticles were synthetized using a polyol process. Hybrid [...] Read more.
Electrical and optical properties of graphene/silver nanoparticles hybrid suspensions intended for use in inkjet printing technologies were studied. Few-layered graphene particles were manufactured via a direct ultrasonic-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation route in water/surfactant system, whereas silver nanoparticles were synthetized using a polyol process. Hybrid suspensions for graphene/silver nanoparticles mixtures showed significant reduction in mean particle size while electrical conductivity remained almost intact even after thorough centrifugation. Structuring effects in mixed colloids were very pronounced as both electrical conductivity and optical transmission showed maxima at 65 wt.% graphene. Suspensions with conductivities above 300 μSm/cm, much higher than previously reported, were obtained, and resulted in the manufacturing of films with less than 10% optical absorption throughout the visible region. These samples did not demonstrate absorption peaks attributed to silver nanoparticles’ surface plasmon resonance, which is suitable for transparent electrode applications. Suspension properties at optimal composition (65 wt.% graphene) are very promising for printed electronics as well as transparent conductive coating applications. In the paper, we establish that the optimal suspension composition matches that of the film; therefore, more attention should be paid to carefully studying electrically conductive suspensions. Full article
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12 pages, 3679 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Synthesis and Structural Characteristics of New Carbon-Based Materials Generated in Molten Salts
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9923; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199923 - 02 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
This article is devoted to providing a new feasible route to realize carbon dioxide reduction and resource utilization. With the wide electrochemical window, high thermal stability and fast mass transfer rate of molten salt electrolyte, new carbon-based materials can be synthesized on the [...] Read more.
This article is devoted to providing a new feasible route to realize carbon dioxide reduction and resource utilization. With the wide electrochemical window, high thermal stability and fast mass transfer rate of molten salt electrolyte, new carbon-based materials can be synthesized on the surface of the inexpensive Fe cathode. EDS (Electron-Dispersive-Spectroscope), SEM (Scanning-Electron-Microscope) and BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) analyzers are selected to detect the critical element, microstructures and specific surface area of the new carbon-based materials generated via electrolysis. It is demonstrated that eutectic carbonates’ electrochemical reduction, ranging from 450 °C to 750 °C prefers to produce carbons with no high-value structure. While carbon products are observed with honeycomb-like and platelet structures at 450 °C with an increase in current density. Additionally, the feedstock CO2 could be converted into carbon-based materials with high value such as high surface area carbon, spherical carbon and cellular porous carbon production by optimizing the electrolysis parameters of temperature, current density and molten salt conformation. This paper shows a viable way for one-pot CO2 utilization and facile production of micro-scale structure carbon materials, in line with the concept of sustainable development. Full article
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12 pages, 3344 KiB  
Article
A New, Efficient Conversion Technology to Transform Ambient CO2 to Valuable, Carbon-Based Fuel via Molten Salt Electrochemistry
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(17), 8874; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178874 - 04 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Climate warming and environmental problems caused by the excessive consumption of fossil energy and massive CO2 emissions have seriously damaged the human living environment. This paper develops a new green, efficient, and environmentally friendly CO2 capture and conversion method, which is [...] Read more.
Climate warming and environmental problems caused by the excessive consumption of fossil energy and massive CO2 emissions have seriously damaged the human living environment. This paper develops a new green, efficient, and environmentally friendly CO2 capture and conversion method, which is a crucial way to alleviate the greenhouse effect. In this study, alkali metal carbonates (and the corresponding hydroxides) are fused and blended to construct a liquid molten salt electrolyte system with excellent performance, which is applied to synthesize carbon materials or carbon-based fuel gas. By regulating the electrolyte composition and electrolysis parameters, carbon-based fuels with different micro-morphologies and compositions can be prepared in a controllable manner. In pure Li2CO3 electrolyte, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a high value are synthesized at 750 °C with, initially, 10 mA/cm2 and, finally, with 100 mA/cm2. Carbon spheres are obtained in Li-Ca-Ba at 750 °C with 200 mA/cm2, while honeycomb carbon is generated in the electrolyte of Li-Na-K at 450 °C with 450 mA/cm2. Syngas (33.6%) or CH4-rich fuel gas (40.1%) can also be obtained by adding LiOH into the electrolyte under 500 °C at 2.0 V and 3.2 V, respectively. This paper provides a new way of utilizing CO2 resources and a new sustainable green development. Full article
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11 pages, 2591 KiB  
Article
Effect of Mechanical Activation on the Leaching Process of Rare Earth Metal Yttrium in Deep Eutectic Solvents
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(16), 8253; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12168253 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have the potential to be a lixiviant for the selective processing of metal because of their versatile complexation properties. In this study, the leaching behavior of rare-earth carbonate before and after mechanical activation in chloride–urea–malonic acid, the deep eutectic [...] Read more.
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have the potential to be a lixiviant for the selective processing of metal because of their versatile complexation properties. In this study, the leaching behavior of rare-earth carbonate before and after mechanical activation in chloride–urea–malonic acid, the deep eutectic solvents (ChCl-urea-MA DESs) were investigated. Leaching experiments were employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature and activation time on the leaching efficiency of the metal, yttrium, in DESs. The leaching efficiency of yttrium was determined to be 85.2% when the activation time was 60 min, the leaching temperature was 80 °C and the leaching time was 12 h. The findings showed that mechanical activation increased the yttrium leaching efficiency from 48.61 to 88.37% by lowering the particle size and increasing the contact area of the reaction. The investigation of the yttrium leaching kinetics revealed that, after mechanical grinding, the apparent activation energy of rare-earth carbonate decreased from 83.88 kJ∙mol−1 to 37.4 kJ∙mol−1, and the leaching process of the sample changed from controlled by chemical reaction to controlled by diffusion in the solid product layer. Mechanical activation combined with DESs was proposed as an eco-friendly, sustainable, and effective alternative to conventional mineral acid leaching and solvent, with advantages such as moderate conditions, reusability of the DESs, and no additional wastewater produced. The findings of the study show this method is a good way to recycle rare-earth metals. Full article
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20 pages, 4316 KiB  
Article
Vibration and Reliability Analysis of Non-Uniform Composite Beam under Random Load
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 2700; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052700 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Non-uniform structures and composite materials have advantages in engineering applications, such as light weight design, multi-functionality, and better buckling/flutter load capacity. For composite structures under dynamic loading conditions, reliability is a key problem to be analyzed during practical operations. However, there is little [...] Read more.
Non-uniform structures and composite materials have advantages in engineering applications, such as light weight design, multi-functionality, and better buckling/flutter load capacity. For composite structures under dynamic loading conditions, reliability is a key problem to be analyzed during practical operations. However, there is little research work on non-uniform composite structural reliability analysis under random load. The forced vibration response of non-uniform composite beam under random load is firstly solved by the Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) and iterative process for reliability analysis. Different variation laws of the cross-section rigidity and mass distribution along the length of the non-uniform composite beam structures are analyzed. Various angular frequency and amplitude of random base motion acceleration following Gaussian distribution are considered. Influences of different random excitations and structural design on vibration responses and reliability are studied. The larger mean and variance of excitation frequency leads to the smaller amplitude and strain of the beam, while greater mean and variance of the base motion excitation amplitude will induce the higher maximum amplitude and strain values and lower reliability. The influences of structural design on reliability are studied. The reliability increases with the increment of taper ratios of the host beam and composite layer. The iteration mathematical model and numerical solutions proposed in this paper can be used to solve and analyze vibration responses and reliability of general non-uniform composite beam structures under arbitrary excitation during a certain period of time. Full article
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