Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2018) | Viewed by 71387

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Centre for Nano Optics, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark
Interests: nano-optics; plasmonics; nanophotonics; quantum optics
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Centre de Recherche sur l’Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Application, CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, Sophia-Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne, France
Interests: plasmonics; metasurfaces; transformation optics; semiconductors
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Guest Editor
Centre for Nano Optics, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark
Interests: nano-optics; plasmonics; nanophotonics; quantum optics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metasurfaces, the two-dimensional analog of metamaterials, have attracted progressively increasing attention in recent years due to their planar configurations and thus ease of fabrication, while enabling an unprecedented control over optical fields. The phase, amplitude, polarization, helicity and even angular momentum of the reflected and transmitted optical fields can be controlled at will by tailoring optically thin planar arrays of resonant subwavelength elements arranged in a periodic or aperiodic manner. As a result, numerous applications and fascinating devices have been realized by designed metasurfaces, including beam deflectors, wave plates, flat lenses, vortex beam generation, holograms and surface-wave couplers.

The aim of this special issue is to attract world-leading researchers in the area of metasurfaces in an effort to highlight the latest exciting developments, discuss the underlying physics of various configurations used, and promote concrete applications of metasurfaces. The accepted contributions will include theoretical considerations, experimental verifications, and proof-of-concept applications.

Prof. Dr. Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi
Dr. Patrice Genevet
Dr. Fei Ding
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Physics of metasurfaces

  • Reflective metasurfaces

  • Dielectric metasurfaces

  • Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces

  • Nonlinear metasurfaces

  • Multi-functional metasurfaces

  • Free form and conformal metasurfaces

  • Metasurface-based devices and applications

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 176 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on “Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications”
by Fei Ding, Patrice Genevet and Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1727; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101727 - 24 Sep 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3046
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications)

Research

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12 pages, 3382 KiB  
Article
Study of Energy Scattering Relation and RCS Reduction Characteristic of Matrix-Type Coding Metasurface
by Jia Ji Yang, Yong Zhi Cheng, Dong Qi and Rong Zhou Gong
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081231 - 26 Jul 2018
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4373
Abstract
In this paper, we present a design of the linear polarization conversion metasurface (MS) for the broadband radar cross section (RCS) reduction based on split-ring resonator (SRR) structure in microwave region. The corresponding phase gradient can be obtained through the stable phase difference [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a design of the linear polarization conversion metasurface (MS) for the broadband radar cross section (RCS) reduction based on split-ring resonator (SRR) structure in microwave region. The corresponding phase gradient can be obtained through the stable phase difference of basic units of polarization conversion MS. The designed polarization conversion MS is applied in coded electromagnetic (EM) matrix by defining two basic units “0” and “1”, respectively. Based on the principle of planar array theory, a new random coding method named by matrix-type coding is proposed. Correlative RCS reduction mechanism is discussed and verified, which can be used to explore the RCS reduction characteristic. The simulated linear polarization conversion rate of the designed structure is up to 90% in the frequency range of 6–15 GHz, and the RCS reduction results verify the theoretical assumptions. Two kinds of matrix-type coding MS samples are prepared and measured. The experimental results indicate that the reflectance of MS is less than –10 dB on average under normal incidence in frequency range of 5.8–15.5 GHz. The average RCS reduction is essentially more than 10 dB in frequency range of 5.5–15 GHz and the corresponding relative bandwidth is 92.7%, which reasonably agrees with simulation. In addition, excellent RCS reduction characteristic of the designed MS can also be achieved over a wide incident angle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications)
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17 pages, 36512 KiB  
Article
Waveguide Coupling via Magnetic Gratings with Effective Strips
by Kevin M. Roccapriore, David P. Lyvers, Dean P. Brown, Ekaterina Poutrina, Augustine M. Urbas, Thomas A. Germer and Vladimir P. Drachev
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040617 - 14 Apr 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3511
Abstract
Gratings with complex multilayer strips are studied under inclined incident light. Great interest in these gratings is due to applications as input/output tools for waveguides and as subwavelength metafilms. The structured strips introduce anisotropy in the effective parameters, providing additional flexibility in polarization [...] Read more.
Gratings with complex multilayer strips are studied under inclined incident light. Great interest in these gratings is due to applications as input/output tools for waveguides and as subwavelength metafilms. The structured strips introduce anisotropy in the effective parameters, providing additional flexibility in polarization and angular dependences of optical responses. Their characterization is challenging in the intermediate regime between subwavelength and diffractive modes. The transition between modes occurs at the Wood’s anomaly wavelength, which is different at different angle of incidence. The usual characterization with an effective film using permittivity ε and permeability μ has limited effectiveness at normal incidence but does not apply at inclined illumination, due to the effect of periodicity. The optical properties are better characterized with effective medium strips instead of an effective medium layer to account for the multilayer strips and the underlying periodic nature of the grating. This approach is convenient for describing such intermediate gratings for two types of applications: both metafilms and the coupling of incident waves to waveguide modes or diffraction orders. The parameters of the effective strips are retrieved by matching the spectral-angular map at different incident angles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications)
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9 pages, 34398 KiB  
Article
Electromagnetic Power Harvester Using Wide-Angle and Polarization-Insensitive Metasurfaces
by Xuanming Zhang, Haixia Liu and Long Li
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040497 - 26 Mar 2018
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 5080
Abstract
A new wide-angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface (MS) instead of traditional antenna is built as the primary ambient energy harvester in this paper. The MS is a two-dimensional energy harvesting array that is composed of subwavelength electrical small ring resonator that is working at [...] Read more.
A new wide-angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface (MS) instead of traditional antenna is built as the primary ambient energy harvester in this paper. The MS is a two-dimensional energy harvesting array that is composed of subwavelength electrical small ring resonator that is working at 2.5 GHz (LTE/WiFi). In the case of different polarization and incidence angles, we demonstrate the metasurface can achieve high harvesting efficiency of 90%. The fabricated prototype of 9 × 9 MS energy harvesting array is measured, and the experimental results validate that the proposed MS has a good performance more than 80% of energy harvesting efficiency for arbitrary polarization and wide-angle incident waves. The good agreement of the simulation with the experiment results verifies the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed MS structure, which will provide a new source of supply in wireless sensor networks (WSN). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications)
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9 pages, 25106 KiB  
Article
Dispersion Properties of an Elliptical Patch with Cross-Shaped Aperture for Synchronized Propagation of Transverse Magnetic and Electric Surface Waves
by Amagoia Tellechea, Iñigo Ederra, Ramón Gonzalo and Juan Carlos Iriarte
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030472 - 19 Mar 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4300
Abstract
This paper presents a novel pixel geometry for the implementation of metasurfaces requiring synchronized phase propagation of transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes. The pixel is composed by an elliptical metallic patch with an asymmetric cross-shaped aperture in the center, printed [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel pixel geometry for the implementation of metasurfaces requiring synchronized phase propagation of transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes. The pixel is composed by an elliptical metallic patch with an asymmetric cross-shaped aperture in the center, printed on a grounded slab. A practical implementation of a metasurface was carried out employing such a pixel geometry. Simulation results show similar frequency dispersion properties for both modes within the working frequency band, in agreement with the theoretical basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications)
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9 pages, 3187 KiB  
Article
Minkowski Island and Crossbar Fractal Microstrip Antennas for Broadband Applications
by Roman Kubacki, Mirosław Czyżewski and Dariusz Laskowski
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030334 - 27 Feb 2018
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4806
Abstract
The paper presents microstrip patch antennas, which are based on the fractal antenna concept, and use planar periodic geometries, providing improved characteristics. The properties of the fractal structure were used in a single-fractal layer design as well as in a design, which employs [...] Read more.
The paper presents microstrip patch antennas, which are based on the fractal antenna concept, and use planar periodic geometries, providing improved characteristics. The properties of the fractal structure were used in a single-fractal layer design as well as in a design, which employs fractals on both the upper and bottom layers of the antenna. The final structure, i.e., a double-fractal layer antenna has been optimized to enhance bandwidth and gain of the microstrip antenna. The proposed geometry significantly improved antenna performance. The antenna could support an ultra-wide bandwidth ranging from 4.1 to 19.4 GHz, demonstrating higher gain with an average value of 6 dBi over the frequency range, and a radiation capability directed in the horizontal plane of the antenna. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications)
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11 pages, 2428 KiB  
Article
Characteristic Analysis of Compact Spectrometer Based on Off-Axis Meta-Lens
by Yi Zhou, Rui Chen and Yungui Ma
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030321 - 26 Feb 2018
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5112
Abstract
Ultra-compact spectrometers with high-resolution and/or broadband features have long been pursued for their wide application prospects. The off-axis meta-lens, a new species of planar optical instruments, provides a unique and feasible way to realize these goals. Here we give a detailed investigation of [...] Read more.
Ultra-compact spectrometers with high-resolution and/or broadband features have long been pursued for their wide application prospects. The off-axis meta-lens, a new species of planar optical instruments, provides a unique and feasible way to realize these goals. Here we give a detailed investigation of the influences of structural parameters of meta-lens-based spectrometers on the effective spectral range and the spectral resolution using both wave optics and geometrical optics methods. Aimed for different usages, two types of meta-lens based spectrometers are numerically proposed: one is a wideband spectrometer working at 800–1800 nm wavelengths with the spectral resolution of 2–5 nm and the other is a narrowband one working at the 780–920 nm band but with a much higher spectral resolution of 0.15–0.6 nm. The tolerance for fabrication errors is also discussed in the end. These provides a prominent way to design and integrate planar film-based spectrometers for various instrumental applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications)
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6451 KiB  
Article
A Transplantable Frequency Selective Metasurface for High-Order Harmonic Suppression
by Na Kou, Haixia Liu and Long Li
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(12), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7121240 - 01 Dec 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3883
Abstract
A transplantable frequency selective metasurface element (FSMSE) for high-order harmonic suppression (HS) is presented in this paper. The proposed harmonic free FSMSE can be integrated with arbitrary frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) operating at the same frequency band. The designed HS-FSMSE is applied to [...] Read more.
A transplantable frequency selective metasurface element (FSMSE) for high-order harmonic suppression (HS) is presented in this paper. The proposed harmonic free FSMSE can be integrated with arbitrary frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) operating at the same frequency band. The designed HS-FSMSE is applied to two different types of FSSs for verification of harmonic suppression, respectively. One is a multilayer sub-wavelength patch-grid FSS that has weak resonant behavior, and the other is a complementary resonant loop FSS which has strong resonant behavior, especially for high-order harmonic waves. By integrating with HS-FSMSE, the two kinds of FSSs operating at 10 GHz are free of harmonic transmission bands up to 30 GHz. The simulation and measurement results show feasibility of the harmonic suppression FSMSW and good polarization and angle stabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications)
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14386 KiB  
Article
Measurement Matrix Analysis and Radiation Improvement of a Metamaterial Aperture Antenna for Coherent Computational Imaging
by Na Kou, Long Li, Shuncheng Tian and Yuanchang Li
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(9), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7090933 - 12 Sep 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4334
Abstract
A metamaterial aperture antenna (MAA) that generates frequency-diverse radiation field patterns has been introduced in the context of microwave wave imaging to perform compressive image reconstruction. This paper presents a new metamateriapl aperture design, which includes two kinds of metamaterial elements with random [...] Read more.
A metamaterial aperture antenna (MAA) that generates frequency-diverse radiation field patterns has been introduced in the context of microwave wave imaging to perform compressive image reconstruction. This paper presents a new metamateriapl aperture design, which includes two kinds of metamaterial elements with random distribution. One is a high-Q resonant element whose resonant frequency is agile, and the other one is a low-Q element that has a high radiation efficiency across frequency band. Numerical simulations and measurements show that the radiation efficiency of up to 60% can be achieved for the MAA and the far-field patterns owns good orthogonality, when using the complementary electric-field-coupled (CELC) element and the complementary Jerusalem cross (CJC) element with a random distribution ratio of 4 to 1, which could be effectively used to reconstruct the target scattering scene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications)
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2127 KiB  
Article
Design of 1-Bit Digital Reconfigurable Reflective Metasurface for Beam-Scanning
by Shuncheng Tian, Haixia Liu and Long Li
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(9), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7090882 - 28 Aug 2017
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5729
Abstract
A 1-bit digital reconfigurable reflective metasurface (RRM) with 20 × 20 cells is presented, fabricated and measured for beam-scanning performance in this paper. The cell is designed with a single layer structure and one varactor diode, controlled electronically. The cell’s phase compensation is [...] Read more.
A 1-bit digital reconfigurable reflective metasurface (RRM) with 20 × 20 cells is presented, fabricated and measured for beam-scanning performance in this paper. The cell is designed with a single layer structure and one varactor diode, controlled electronically. The cell’s phase compensation is over 180° between 3 GHz and 4 GHz and the two states with 180° phase difference are selected as coding “0” and coding “1”. By the fuzzy quantification theory, all the elements on the RRM are set to be coding “0” or coding “1” according to the phase compensation calculated by MATLAB. Furthermore, by changing the coding of the RRM, it can achieve beam-scanning. The simulation results show that the beam-scanning range is over ±60°. The RRM prototype is fabricated and experimentally tested for principle. The gain of the RRM is 18 dB and the 3 dB bandwidth is about 16.6%. The 1-bit digital RRM is preferred in practical implementations due to less error and much easier bias voltage control. The proposed RRM successfully balances the performance and system complexity, especially in the large-scale antenna designs. The experimental and simulated results are in good agreement to prove the correctness and feasibility of the design of the 1-bit digital RRM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications)
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Review

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21 pages, 3216 KiB  
Review
Metasurface-Based Polarimeters
by Fei Ding, Yiting Chen and Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040594 - 10 Apr 2018
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 8152
Abstract
The state of polarization (SOP) is an inherent property of light that can be used to gain crucial information about the composition and structure of materials interrogated with light. However, the SOP is difficult to experimentally determine since it involves phase information between [...] Read more.
The state of polarization (SOP) is an inherent property of light that can be used to gain crucial information about the composition and structure of materials interrogated with light. However, the SOP is difficult to experimentally determine since it involves phase information between orthogonal polarization states, and is uncorrelated with the light intensity and frequency, which can be easily determined with photodetectors and spectrometers. Rapid progress on optical gradient metasurfaces has resulted in the development of conceptually new approaches to the SOP characterization. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of and recent developments within metasurface-based polarimeters. Starting by introducing the concepts of generalized Snell’s law and Stokes parameters, we explain the Pancharatnam–Berry phase (PB-phase) which is instrumental for differentiating between orthogonal circular polarizations. Then we review the recent progress in metasurface-based polarimeters, including polarimeters, spectropolarimeters, orbital angular momentum (OAM) spectropolarimeters, and photodetector integrated polarimeters. The review is ended with a short conclusion and perspective for future developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications)
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18 pages, 2991 KiB  
Review
Multifunctional Metasurfaces Based on the “Merging” Concept and Anisotropic Single-Structure Meta-Atoms
by Shiwei Tang, Tong Cai, He-Xiu Xu, Qiong He, Shulin Sun and Lei Zhou
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040555 - 04 Apr 2018
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 7472
Abstract
Metasurfaces offer great opportunities to control electromagnetic (EM) waves, attracting intensive attention in science and engineering communities. Recently, many efforts were devoted to multifunctional metasurfaces integrating different functionalities into single flat devices. In this article, we present a concise review on the development [...] Read more.
Metasurfaces offer great opportunities to control electromagnetic (EM) waves, attracting intensive attention in science and engineering communities. Recently, many efforts were devoted to multifunctional metasurfaces integrating different functionalities into single flat devices. In this article, we present a concise review on the development of multifunctional metasurfaces, focusing on the design strategies proposed and functional devices realized. We first briefly review the early efforts on designing such systems, which simply combine multiple meta-structures with distinct functionalities to form multifunctional devices. To overcome the low-efficiency and functionality cross-talking issues, a new strategy was proposed, in which the meta-atoms are carefully designed single structures exhibiting polarization-controlled transmission/reflection amplitude/phase responses. Based on this new scheme, various types of multifunctional devices were realized in different frequency domains, which exhibit diversified functionalities (e.g., focusing, deflection, surface wave conversion, multi-beam emissions, etc.), for both pure-reflection and pure-transmission geometries or even in the full EM space. We conclude this review by presenting our perspectives on this fast-developing new sub-field, hoping to stimulate new research outputs that are useful in future applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications)
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18 pages, 5709 KiB  
Review
Orbital Angular Momentum Generation and Detection by Geometric-Phase Based Metasurfaces
by Menglin L. N. Chen, Li Jun Jiang and Wei E. I. Sha
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030362 - 02 Mar 2018
Cited by 83 | Viewed by 10388 | Correction
Abstract
We present a comprehensive review on the geometric-phase based metasurfaces for orbital angular momentum (OAM) generation and detection. These metasurfaces manipulate the electromagnetic (EM) wave by introducing abrupt phase change, which is strongly dependent on the polarization state of incident EM wave and [...] Read more.
We present a comprehensive review on the geometric-phase based metasurfaces for orbital angular momentum (OAM) generation and detection. These metasurfaces manipulate the electromagnetic (EM) wave by introducing abrupt phase change, which is strongly dependent on the polarization state of incident EM wave and can be interpreted by geometric phase. Hence, the conventional bulk devices that based on the accumulated phase change along the optical path can be avoided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications)
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