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Blockchain and Internet of Things for Smart Applications

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Computing and Artificial Intelligence".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2022) | Viewed by 21304

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610056, China
Interests: IoT; blockchain; resource allocation; wireless networks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Cyber Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
Interests: software-defined networks; mobile networks; cyber security; fog computing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Internet of things (IoT), which supports ubiquitous information exchange and content sharing among smart devices with little or no human intervention, is a key enabler for various applications, such as smart city, smart grid, smart health, intelligent transportation systems, and so on. In a nutshell, the Internet of Things (IoT) is the convergence of connecting people, things, data, and processes; it is transforming our life, business, and everything in between. A secure and Smart IoT explores many aspects of the Internet of Things and explains many of the complicated principles of IoT and the new advancements in the IoT, including using fog computing, AI, and blockchain technology. In recent years, blockchain technology has been defined as a distributed ledger able to store information across several systems securely and to enable peer-to-peer transactions by creating a trustworthy source of ‘truth’ avoiding the “intermediaries of trust”. A wide range of smart applications can be imagined with the development of the IoT and blockchain, such as smart city, smart transportation, smart logistic, smart industry and smart agriculture, etc.

The Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences, “Blockchain and the Internet of Things for Smart Applications”, aims to cover recent advances in the use of blockchain technology and the IoT in the development of a number of smart applications, obtained by researchers from both academia and industry.

Prof. Dr. Zheng Chang
Prof. Dr. Jun Wu
Dr. Shancang li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Internet of Things
  • blockchain
  • edge/cloud/fog computing
  • smart industry
  • smart city
  • smart applications

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

30 pages, 577 KiB  
Article
Reputation-Based Blockchain for Spatial Crowdsourcing in Vehicular Networks
by Wenlong Guo, Zheng Chang, Yunfei Su, Xijuan Guo, Timo Hämäläinen, Jian Li and Yuan Li
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(21), 11049; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122111049 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1993
Abstract
The sharing of high-quality traffic information plays a crucial role in enhancing the driving experience and safety performance for vehicular networks, especially in the development of electric vehicles (EVs). The crowdsourcing-based real-time navigation of charging piles is characterized by low delay and high [...] Read more.
The sharing of high-quality traffic information plays a crucial role in enhancing the driving experience and safety performance for vehicular networks, especially in the development of electric vehicles (EVs). The crowdsourcing-based real-time navigation of charging piles is characterized by low delay and high accuracy. However, due to the lack of an effective incentive mechanism and the resource-consuming bottleneck of sharing real-time road conditions, methods to recruit or motivate more EVs to provide high-quality information gathering has attracted considerable interest. In this paper, we first introduce a blockchain platform, where EVs act as the blockchain nodes, and a reputation-based incentive mechanism for vehicular networks. The reputations of blockchain nodes are calculated according to their historical behavior and interactions. Further, we design and implement algorithms for updating honest-behavior-based reputation as well as for screening low-reputation miners, to optimize the profits of miners and address spatial crowdsourcing tasks for sharing information on road conditions. The experimental results show that the proposed reputation-based incentive method can improve the reputation and profits of vehicle users and ensure data timeliness and reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain and Internet of Things for Smart Applications)
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19 pages, 912 KiB  
Article
Privacy-Preserving, Scalable Blockchain-Based Solution for Monitoring Industrial Infrastructure in the Near Real-Time
by Andrzej Sobecki, Stanisław Barański and Julian Szymański
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 7143; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12147143 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
This paper proposes an improved monitoring and measuring system dedicated to industrial infrastructure. Our model achieves security of data by incorporating cryptographical methods and near real-time access by the use of virtual tree structure over records. The currently available blockchain networks are not [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an improved monitoring and measuring system dedicated to industrial infrastructure. Our model achieves security of data by incorporating cryptographical methods and near real-time access by the use of virtual tree structure over records. The currently available blockchain networks are not very well adapted to tasks related to the continuous monitoring of the parameters of industrial installations. In the database systems delivered by default (the so-called world state), only the resultant or the last value recorded by the IoT device is stored. Effective use of measurement values recorded in the past requires each time viewing the entire chain of recorded events for a given IoT device. The solution proposed in the article introduces the concept of dependent wallets, the purpose of which is the aggregation and indexation of changes in machine parameters, recorded in the original wallets. As a result, we can easily get data from a certain sensor or sensors in the specified date range, even if the chain of transactions is very long. Our contribution is a universal mechanism that improves the efficiency of the infrastructure monitoring process, which uses blockchains to record measurements from sensors. The proposed model has been experimentally tested on two types of blockchains: Stellar and Hyperledger Fabric. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain and Internet of Things for Smart Applications)
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16 pages, 2448 KiB  
Article
A Novel Decentralized E-Commerce Transaction System Based on Blockchain
by Yuanyuan Xiao, Chuangming Zhou, Xinpeng Guo, Yafei Song and Chen Chen
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 5770; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12125770 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2703
Abstract
With the rapid development of e-commerce systems, the centralized service model gradually fails to meet the needs of SMEs. In the existing centralized e-commerce system, users’ transaction data and reputation scores are stored in a centralized cloud server, which has high storage cost, [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of e-commerce systems, the centralized service model gradually fails to meet the needs of SMEs. In the existing centralized e-commerce system, users’ transaction data and reputation scores are stored in a centralized cloud server, which has high storage cost, low processing efficiency, and the data is vulnerable to attacks and leaks. However, the existing decentralized e-commerce systems more than its reputation system to store the average credit score evaluation are receiving unfair evaluations against risk. The system of malicious nodes and no disciplinary measures, is not conducive to system development. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a blockchain-based decentralized e-commerce transaction system. The system commodity information is stored in the Interplanetary File System (IPFS) and the returned commodity addresses are stored in the blockchain to enhance the service performance. This paper proposes a reputation evaluation model based on multi-criteria decision making (MCDM), which can effectively resist unfair evaluation and collusion attacks, and proposes an incentive mechanism based on reputation value to reward and punish nodes, thus promoting the good circulation of the system. We implement the proposed system based on Ethereum. The experimental results show that the system has a small communication cost, accurately reflects the user’s reputation value, and has good availability and reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain and Internet of Things for Smart Applications)
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22 pages, 5388 KiB  
Article
Hyperledger Fabric Access Control for Industrial Internet of Things
by Dong-Her Shih, Ting-Wei Wu, Ming-Hung Shih, Guan-Wei Chen and David C. Yen
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 3125; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12063125 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2765
Abstract
The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) plays an important role in Industry 4.0, but the existing IIoT systems could be vulnerable to a single point of failure and malicious attacks, failing to provide reliable services. IIoT devices have some particularities, such as mobility, [...] Read more.
The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) plays an important role in Industry 4.0, but the existing IIoT systems could be vulnerable to a single point of failure and malicious attacks, failing to provide reliable services. IIoT devices have some particularities, such as mobility, limited performance, and distributed deployment, which are challenging to traditional centralized access control methods in the large-scale IIoT environment. To resolve the challenges, we propose an access control system for the Industrial Internet of Things. The system contains three smart contracts: device contract (DC), policy contract (PC), and access contract (AC). The device contract provides a method of storing the URL of the resource data generated by the equipment and a query method. The policy contract provides the function of managing the attribute-based access control (ABAC) of the administrator user. The access contract is the core program that implements the access control method for ordinary users. Combining ABAC and blockchain technology provides decentralized, fine-grained, and dynamic access control management for IIoT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain and Internet of Things for Smart Applications)
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15 pages, 2012 KiB  
Article
A Fog Computing Model for VANET to Reduce Latency and Delay Using 5G Network in Smart City Transportation
by Abdul Majid Farooqi, M. Afshar Alam, Syed Imtiyaz Hassan and Sheikh Mohammad Idrees
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(4), 2083; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12042083 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3409
Abstract
Connected vehicles are a vital part of smart cities, which connect over a wireless connection and bring mobile computation and communication abilities. As a mediator, fog computing resides between vehicles and the cloud and provides vehicles with processing, storage, and networking power through [...] Read more.
Connected vehicles are a vital part of smart cities, which connect over a wireless connection and bring mobile computation and communication abilities. As a mediator, fog computing resides between vehicles and the cloud and provides vehicles with processing, storage, and networking power through Vehicular Ad-hoc networks (VANET). VANET is a time-sensitive technology that requires less time to process a request received from a vehicle. Delay and latency are the notorious issues of VANET and fog computing. To deal with such problems, in this work, we developed a priority-based fog computing model for smart urban vehicle transportation that reduces the delay and latency of fog computing. To upgrade the fog computing infrastructure to meet the latency and Quality of Service (QoS) requirements, 5G localized Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) servers have also been used, which resulted tremendously in reducing the delay and the latency. We decreased the data latency by 20% compared to the experiment carried using only cloud computing architecture. We also reduced the processing delay by 35% compared with the utilization of cloud computing architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain and Internet of Things for Smart Applications)
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14 pages, 1011 KiB  
Article
Electronic Voting System Using an Enterprise Blockchain
by Camilo Denis González, Daniel Frias Mena, Alexi Massó Muñoz, Omar Rojas and Guillermo Sosa-Gómez
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020531 - 6 Jan 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5665
Abstract
Conventional electronic voting systems use a centralized scheme. A central administration of these systems manages the entire voting process and has partial or total control over the database and the system itself. This creates some problems, accidental or intentional, such as possible manipulation [...] Read more.
Conventional electronic voting systems use a centralized scheme. A central administration of these systems manages the entire voting process and has partial or total control over the database and the system itself. This creates some problems, accidental or intentional, such as possible manipulation of the database and double voting. Many of these problems have been solved thanks to permissionless blockchain technologies in new voting systems; however, the classic consensus method of such blockchains requires specific computing power during each voting operation. This has a significant impact on power consumption, compromises the efficiency and increases the system latency. However, using a permissioned blockchain improves efficiency and reduces system energy consumption, mainly due to the elimination of the typical consensus protocols used by public blockchains. The use of smart contracts provides a secure mechanism to guarantee the accuracy of the voting result and make the counting procedure public and protected against fraudulent actions, and contributes to preserving the anonymity of the votes. Its adoption in electronic voting systems can help mitigate part of these problems. Therefore, this paper proposes a system that ensures high reliability by applying enterprise blockchain technology to electronic voting, securing the secret ballot. In addition, a flexible network configuration is presented, discussing how the solution addresses some of the security and reliability issues commonly faced by electronic voting system solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain and Internet of Things for Smart Applications)
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28 pages, 6599 KiB  
Article
IoT Blockchain Data Veracity with Data Loss Tolerance
by Kwai Cheong Moke, Tan Jung Low and Dodo Khan
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 9978; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11219978 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
Recent years have witnessed the advancement of the Internet of Things (IoT) and its emergence as a technology that could revolutionize many businesses. It helps considerably in creating data-driven business models with the insights it provides. IoT systems are deployed in data collection, [...] Read more.
Recent years have witnessed the advancement of the Internet of Things (IoT) and its emergence as a technology that could revolutionize many businesses. It helps considerably in creating data-driven business models with the insights it provides. IoT systems are deployed in data collection, monitor processes, provide insights and allow businesses to make data-driven productivity improvements. However, IoT systems are often experiencing data loss due to inevitable failures ranging from devices, networks, to the application layer, especially in scarce infrastructure resources environments. Data loss might be unrecoverable in many circumstances. As such, this research presents a blockchain based IoT model (framework) with the aim of circumventing data loss. We envisioned IoT blockchain technology in enhancing data veracity with data loss tolerance. That is, to have blockchain enhancing the IoT data veracity by leveraging on the features existed in its peer-to-peer network (P2P) and distributed ledger storage technology (DLT). Additionally, the edge computing of IoT blockchain technology is also conceptually workable; with intelligent small computing resources, it opens up a new era of bringing the intelligence of data collection, connectivity, computation and storage into the edge/device layer. A novel IoT blockchain strength monitoring system is also been studied to further enhance data veracity; this is achieved through a capacitance monitoring on the IoT blockchain system. The empirical results show that the proposed IoT blockchain with a strength monitoring model can alleviate data loss and thus enhance data veracity with data loss tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain and Internet of Things for Smart Applications)
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