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Advanced Applications of Bioencapsulation Technologies

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020) | Viewed by 28767

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
CNR-IMM, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: nano-magnetism; nanomedicine; nanoparticles
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute of Nanotechnology, CNR NANOTEC, Campus ECOTEKNE, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: nano- and biomaterials; nanoformulations; 3D cell cancer models
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of bioencapsulation technologies is a critical issue in numerous fields, including the agri-food sector and energetic industries up to medicine, in which the design of medical devices and the advent of tissue engineering and of new therapeutic approaches poses urgent questions about the biointerface.

The interaction of a living being with any types of materials, regardless of their structure, size, and final use, presupposes the establishment of biocoating methods that modulate the biological response on one hand, and the bioaffinity and the functionality of the material itself on the other.

Commonly, in tissue engineering interested in developing three-dimensional scaffolds that host cells to promote their growth rather than their differentiation, the support provided by the scaffold includes not only the structural matrix, the mechanical forces, and the permeability to nutrients, but also the chemical stimuli derived by the substrate/membrane interaction. In this sense, effective surface functionalization is of paramount importance.

Moreover, bioencapsulation may serve to create a protective shell around the cell membrane to limit the communication among different types of cells, as it happens in the case of transplanted cells to reduce the immune response of the host organism.

Thus, the term bioencapsulation technology can be generally applied to those chemical and physical approaches aimed at developing a biomimetic interface that faces and regulates the interactions between living beings (such as bacteria, human cells or more complex entities, like tissues and organs) and a counterpart that may be either another living being or an artificial body.

This Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences, “Advanced Applications of Bioencapsulation Technologies”, aims to cover recent advances in the encapsulation of biological compounds or entities for applications in medicine and biology.

Dr. Alessandra Quarta
Dr. Riccardo Di Corato
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bioencapsulation
  • Biocoatings
  • Polymers
  • Tissue engineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Drug delivery
  • Cell-based therapy
  • Biosensors

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 211 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on Advanced Applications of Bioencapsulation Technologies
by Alessandra Quarta and Riccardo Di Corato
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(21), 10959; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122110959 - 29 Oct 2022
Viewed by 965
Abstract
Bioencapsulation involves the envelopment of bioactive compounds or cells to host and protect them from chemical/physical degradation and biological attack from hazardous species or undesired immune responses [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Bioencapsulation Technologies)

Research

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13 pages, 3393 KiB  
Article
Chitosan-Based Delivery Systems Loaded with Glibenclamide and Lipoic Acid: Formulation, Characterization, and Kinetic Release Studies
by Luminita-Georgeta Confederat, Iuliana Motrescu, Mihaela Iustina Condurache, Sandra Constantin, Alexandra Bujor, Cristina Gabriela Tuchilus and Lenuta Profire
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7532; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217532 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2169
Abstract
Glibenclamide and lipoic acid are two drugs frequently recommended for the management of diabetes mellitus, and so, the development of a new formulation containing both substances has a great benefit in terms of efficiency and compliance, acting also as a multi-target drug system. [...] Read more.
Glibenclamide and lipoic acid are two drugs frequently recommended for the management of diabetes mellitus, and so, the development of a new formulation containing both substances has a great benefit in terms of efficiency and compliance, acting also as a multi-target drug system. Accordingly, the aim of this study was the formulation and physicochemicalcharacterization of new polymeric systems based on chitosan (CS) in whose matrix were encapsulated glibenclamide (Gly) and lipoic acid (LA). The polymeric systems were prepared as microparticles (CS–Gly, CS–LA, and CS–Gly–LA) through ionic gelation method, using pentasodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as crosslinking agent. The polymeric systems obtained were characterized in terms of particle size and morphology, IR spectroscopy, entrapment efficiency and drug loading, swelling degree, and therelease of the active substances from the chitosan matrix. The polymeric systems obtained were stable systems; the presence of glibenclamide and lipoic acid into the polymer matrix were proved by IR spectroscopy. The entrapment efficiency was 94.66% for Gly and 39.68% for LA. The developed polymeric systems proved a favorable swelling degree and drug release profile, the percentage of release being 88.68% for LA and 75.17% for Gly from CS–Gly–LA systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Bioencapsulation Technologies)
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12 pages, 1686 KiB  
Communication
Comparison of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Photothermia and Magnetic Hyperthermia: Effects of Clustering and Silica Encapsulation on Nanoparticles’ Heating Yield
by Sebastjan Nemec, Slavko Kralj, Claire Wilhelm, Ali Abou-Hassan, Marie-Pierre Rols and Jelena Kolosnjaj-Tabi
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7322; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207322 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 4924
Abstract
Photothermal therapy is gathering momentum. In order to assess the effects of the encapsulation of individual or clustered superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) on nanoparticle light-to-heat conversion, we designed and tested individual and clustered SPIONs encapsulated within a silica shell. Our study compared [...] Read more.
Photothermal therapy is gathering momentum. In order to assess the effects of the encapsulation of individual or clustered superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) on nanoparticle light-to-heat conversion, we designed and tested individual and clustered SPIONs encapsulated within a silica shell. Our study compared both photothermia and magnetic hyperthermia, and it involved individual SPIONs as well as silica-encapsulated individual and clustered SPIONs. While, as expected, SPION clustering reduced heat generation in magnetic hyperthermia, the silica shell improved SPION heating in photothermia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Bioencapsulation Technologies)
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14 pages, 4364 KiB  
Article
Development of Injectable Thermosensitive Chitosan-Based Hydrogels for Cell Encapsulation
by Antonella Stanzione, Alessandro Polini, Velia La Pesa, Alessandro Romano, Angelo Quattrini, Giuseppe Gigli, Lorenzo Moroni and Francesca Gervaso
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6550; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186550 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4436
Abstract
The three-dimensional complexity of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) suggests switching from 2D to 3D culture systems for providing the cells with an architecture more similar to the physiological environment. Reproducing the three-dimensionality in vitro can guarantee beneficial effects in terms of cell [...] Read more.
The three-dimensional complexity of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) suggests switching from 2D to 3D culture systems for providing the cells with an architecture more similar to the physiological environment. Reproducing the three-dimensionality in vitro can guarantee beneficial effects in terms of cell growth, adhesion, proliferation, and/or their differentiation. Hydrogels have the same tailorable physico-chemical and biological characteristics as ECM materials. In this study, we propose a thermoresponsive chitosan-based hydrogel that gels thanks to the addition of organic and inorganic salt solutions (beta-glycerolphosphate and sodium hydrogen carbonate) and is suitable for cell encapsulation allowing obtaining 3D culture systems. Physico-chemical analyses showed that the hydrogel formulations jellify at physiological conditions (37 °C, pH 7.4), are stable in vitro up to three weeks, have high swelling ratios and mechanical stiffness suitable for cellular encapsulation. Moreover, preliminary biological tests underlined the pronounced biocompatibility of the system. Therefore, these chitosan-based hydrogels are proposed as valid biomaterials for cell encapsulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Bioencapsulation Technologies)
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17 pages, 6040 KiB  
Article
Design of Antibody-Functionalized Polymeric Membranes for the Immunoisolation of Pancreatic Islets
by Anna Cavallo, Ugo Masullo, Alessandra Quarta, Alessandro Sannino, Amilcare Barca, Tiziano Verri, Marta Madaghiele and Laura Blasi
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 6056; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10176056 - 1 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1966
Abstract
An immunoencapsulation strategy for pancreatic islets aimed to reduce the risk of rejection in transplanted patients due to the immune response of the host organism is proposed. In this sense, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel functionalized with an immunosuppressive antibody (Ab), such as [...] Read more.
An immunoencapsulation strategy for pancreatic islets aimed to reduce the risk of rejection in transplanted patients due to the immune response of the host organism is proposed. In this sense, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel functionalized with an immunosuppressive antibody (Ab), such as Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 Ig (CTLA4-Ig), would act as both passive and active barrier to the host immune response. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, a photopolymerizable-PEG was conjugated to the selected antibody and the PEG-Ab complex was used to coat the islets. Moreover, to preserve the antigen-recognition site of the antibody during the conjugation process, a controlled immobilization method was setup through the attachment of the His-tagged antigen to a solid support. In detail, a gold-coated silicon wafer functionalized with 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid was used as a substrate for further modification, leading to a nickel(II)-terminated ligand surface. Then, the immobilized antigen was recognized by the corresponding antibody that was conjugated to the PEG. The antibody-PEG complex was detached from the support prior to be photopolymerized around the islets. First, this immobilization method has been demonstrated for the green fluorescent protein (GFP)–anti-green fluorescent protein (Anti-GFP) antigen-antibody pair, as proof of principle. Then, the approach was extended to the immunorelevant B7-1 CTLA-4-Ig antigen-antibody pair, followed by the binding of Acryl-PEG to the immobilized constant region of the antibody. In both cases, after using an elution protocol, only a partial recovery of the antibody-PEG complex was obtained. Nevertheless, the viability and the functional activity of the encapsulated islets, as determined by the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) assay, showed the good compatibility of this approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Bioencapsulation Technologies)
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13 pages, 2381 KiB  
Article
Encapsulation of Dual Emitting Giant Quantum Dots in Silica Nanoparticles for Optical Ratiometric Temperature Nanosensors
by Elisabetta Fanizza, Haiguang Zhao, Simona De Zio, Nicoletta Depalo, Federico Rosei, Alberto Vomiero, M. Lucia Curri and Marinella Striccoli
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2767; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082767 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2817
Abstract
Accurate temperature measurements with a high spatial resolution for application in the biomedical fields demand novel nanosized thermometers with new advanced properties. Here, a water dispersible ratiometric temperature sensor is fabricated by encapsulating in silica nanoparticles, organic capped PbS@CdS@CdS “giant” quantum dots (GQDs), [...] Read more.
Accurate temperature measurements with a high spatial resolution for application in the biomedical fields demand novel nanosized thermometers with new advanced properties. Here, a water dispersible ratiometric temperature sensor is fabricated by encapsulating in silica nanoparticles, organic capped PbS@CdS@CdS “giant” quantum dots (GQDs), characterized by dual emission in the visible and near infrared spectral range, already assessed as efficient fluorescent nanothermometers. The chemical stability, easy surface functionalization, limited toxicity and transparency of the silica coating represent advantageous features for the realization of a nanoscale heterostructure suitable for temperature sensing. However, the strong dependence of the optical properties on the morphology of the final core–shell nanoparticle requires an accurate control of the encapsulation process. We carried out a systematic investigation of the synthetic conditions to achieve, by the microemulsion method, uniform and single core silica coated GQD (GQD@SiO2) nanoparticles and subsequently recorded temperature-dependent fluorescent spectra in the 281-313 K temperature range, suited for biological systems. The ratiometric response—the ratio between the two integrated PbS and CdS emission bands—is found to monotonically decrease with the temperature, showing a sensitivity comparable to bare GQDs, and thus confirming the effectiveness of the functionalization strategy and the potential of GQD@SiO2 in future biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Bioencapsulation Technologies)
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13 pages, 2086 KiB  
Article
Water-in-Water Emulsion as a New Approach to Produce Mesalamine-Loaded Xylan-Based Microparticles
by Bartolomeu S. Souza, Henrique R. Marcelino, Francisco Alexandrino, Jr., Silvana C. C. Urtiga, Karen C. H. Silva, Daniel C. F. Soares and Eryvaldo S. T. Egito
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3519; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173519 - 27 Aug 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2591
Abstract
The water-in-water emulsion method has been reported as a technique able to prepare microparticles without using harmful solvents. However, there are few reports showing the encapsulation of small molecules into microparticles produced within this technique. The probable reason relays on the rapid diffusion [...] Read more.
The water-in-water emulsion method has been reported as a technique able to prepare microparticles without using harmful solvents. However, there are few reports showing the encapsulation of small molecules into microparticles produced within this technique. The probable reason relays on the rapid diffusion of these molecules from the discontinuous phase to the continuous phase. In the present study, xylan microparticles containing mesalamine were produced and the doubled crosslinking approach, used to promote higher encapsulation rates, was disclosed. To achieve this goal, a 23 full factorial design was carried out. The results revealed that all formulations presented spherical-shaped microparticles. However, at specific conditions, only few formulations reached up to 50% of drug loading. In addition, the new xylan-based microparticles formulation retained almost 40% of its drug content after 12 h of a dissolution assay likely due to the degree of crosslinking. Thus, the doubled crosslinking approach used was effective on the encapsulation of mesalamine and may pave the way to successfully produce other polysaccharide-based carriers for clinical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Bioencapsulation Technologies)
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11 pages, 3569 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Pharmaceutical Excipients for Applying to Spray-Dried Omega-3 Powder
by Chan-Joo Hwang, Young-Guk Na, Hyun Wook Huh, MinKi Kim, Hong-Ki Lee and Cheong-Weon Cho
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061177 - 20 Mar 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4383
Abstract
Omega-3 fatty acid plays a role in protecting cells in the human body, maintaining the structure of the cell, and helping smooth metabolism. Also, it inhibits the formation of blood clotting and is effective in enhancing the formation of bone. However, the instability [...] Read more.
Omega-3 fatty acid plays a role in protecting cells in the human body, maintaining the structure of the cell, and helping smooth metabolism. Also, it inhibits the formation of blood clotting and is effective in enhancing the formation of bone. However, the instability due to fatty acid oxidation and a fishy smell are the reasons it is avoided by people. In this study, we tried to obtain the omega-3 powder through spray-drying method using a variety of binders and surfactants for improving the limit of omega-3 fatty acid. First of all, an olive oil was used instead of omega-3 for optimization of the preparation of spray-dried omega-3 powder. Through the screening of binders and surfactants, γ-cyclodextrin and hydrogenated lecithin were chosen as a binder and a surfactant, respectively. Omega-3-loaded spray-dried powder was obtained, eventually. The morphology of omega-3-loaded spray-dried powder was spherical of 310 nm and the DHA amount was 98%. This study suggested that the transformation of omega-3 fatty acid into solid state by spray-drying using a binder and a surfactant was successively performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Bioencapsulation Technologies)
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Review

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20 pages, 3714 KiB  
Review
Chirality at the Nanoparticle Surface: Functionalization and Applications
by Muhammad Shajih Zafar and Andrea Ragusa
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5357; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155357 - 3 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3795
Abstract
Chiral molecules, such as amino acids and carbohydrates, are the building blocks of nature. As a consequence, most natural supramolecular structures, such as enzymes and receptors, are able to distinguish among different orientations in space of functional groups, and enantiomers of chiral drugs [...] Read more.
Chiral molecules, such as amino acids and carbohydrates, are the building blocks of nature. As a consequence, most natural supramolecular structures, such as enzymes and receptors, are able to distinguish among different orientations in space of functional groups, and enantiomers of chiral drugs usually have different pharmacokinetic properties and physiological effects. In this regard, the ability to recognize a single enantiomer from a racemic mixture is of paramount importance. Alternatively, the capacity to synthetize preferentially one enantiomer over another through a catalytic process can eliminate (or at least simplify) the subsequent isolation of only one enantiomer. The advent of nanotechnology has led to noteworthy improvements in many fields, from material science to nanomedicine. Similarly, nanoparticles functionalized with chiral molecules have been exploited in several fields. In this review, we report the recent advances of the use of chiral nanoparticles grouped in four major areas, i.e., enantioselective recognition, asymmetric catalysis, biosensing, and biomedicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Bioencapsulation Technologies)
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