Automotive Safety and Security Engineering: From Theories to Practices

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Transportation and Future Mobility".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2024) | Viewed by 16273

Special Issue Editors

Military University of Technology, Institute of Vehicle and Transportation, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2 Street, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: vehicle testing and modeling; active and passive vehicle safety; vehicle testing; tire testing; testing and modeling of non-pneumatic tires; crash tests; safety of persons with disabilities
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Automotive Engineering and Transport, Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
Interests: research and modeling of driver behavior; active and passive safety of vehicles; EV and BEV road vehicle testing; vehicle diagnostics; drive system; vehicle operation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Transport, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa, Poland
Interests: vehicle dynamics; vehicle safety; accident analysis, accident reconstruction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We live in a time of breakthrough transformation in the construction of vehicles in terms of their energy sources and intensive development of means to increase the vehicle's safety. Despite significant progress in the construction of new cars and in security engineering, the improvement of road safety is still unsatisfactory. The number of accidents and their victims, as well as related economic and social costs (and other aspects of sustainable road transport), remain unsatisfactory. In this context, research related to improving vehicle construction (and their dynamic properties) and security engineering of traffic is extremely important. These factors are critical to problems related to the safety of the cars and traffic, including interaction in the vehicle-human-environment. Despite many publications in the world literature dealing with these problems, we see a strong need to exchange knowledge and experience as part of a thematically integrated set of articles.

We invite scientists, specialists, and industry representatives to publish their achievements on various topics related to the issues covered in the title of this special issue. The main topic is general automotive engineering including vehicle construction, innovative vehicle structures, active and passive safety systems, vehicle (and its teams) testing and security engineering of traffic. An important aspect for these threads should be vehicle dynamics including stability, safety and handling in various traffic conditions. We also expect articles that will be related to the problems of analysis and reconstruction of road accidents, road safety, ecological issues and energy consumption of modern car design solutions, the operation of classic, hybrid, and electric vehicles (including diagnostics), the role and behavior of drivers (including the elderly and people with disabilities), vehicle autonomy, vehicle communication systems (including VTx), road infrastructure and traffic control.

Prof. Dr. Jerzy Jackowski
Prof. Dr. Rafał Stanisław Jurecki
Prof. Dr. Guzek Marek
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • vehicle construction
  • vehicle safety
  • vehicle dynamics and stability
  • vehicle control systems
  • security engineering
  • driver testing and modelling
  • tests and properties of tires
  • comfort of vehicles
  • accident analysis and reconstruction
  • crash tests and crashworthiness
  • persons with disabilities in vehicles
  • ecology, energy and fuel consumption

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 4558 KiB  
Article
Stability Analysis of Lane-Keeping Assistance System for Trucks under Crosswind Conditions
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(17), 9891; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13179891 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 783
Abstract
To enhance the control accuracy of lane-keeping assistance systems for trucks encountering crosswind-induced lateral deviations to improve the lateral stability of the vehicle, this study proposes a control strategy based on a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) using a path-tracking preview model. First, the [...] Read more.
To enhance the control accuracy of lane-keeping assistance systems for trucks encountering crosswind-induced lateral deviations to improve the lateral stability of the vehicle, this study proposes a control strategy based on a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) using a path-tracking preview model. First, the lateral deviation is calculated using the path-tracking preview model. Then, an observer for the vehicle’s sideslip angle is designed using a vehicle lateral tracking deviation model and a Kalman filter controller, and this is used to solve the deviation of the sideslip angle. Finally, a feedforward controller is designed based on the LQR controller and a linear two-degrees-of-freedom vehicle model to eliminate steady-state errors arising from LQR optimization, thereby obtaining the steering angle of the vehicle when subjected to crosswind conditions. Comparing the test results of the sideslip angle, yaw rate, and lateral acceleration demonstrates that this strategy effectively improves the control accuracy of lane-keeping under crosswind conditions. The proposed method is validated through hardware-in-the-loop experiments on a test bench, yielding results consistent with simulations. Full article
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15 pages, 4181 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of the Correlation between the Wear and the Braking System Efficiency of a Vehicle
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(14), 8139; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13148139 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 917
Abstract
The growing number of vehicles leads to increasingly intense and congested traffic, which will additionally put demand on the braking system, and drivers behave more aggressively. As a result, the braking system must be durable and efficient. For this purpose, the study of [...] Read more.
The growing number of vehicles leads to increasingly intense and congested traffic, which will additionally put demand on the braking system, and drivers behave more aggressively. As a result, the braking system must be durable and efficient. For this purpose, the study of the braking system behavior in conditions of intense and moderate traffic is required to increase the safety of traffic participants—respectively, to demonstrate the need for more frequent replacement of some braking system elements. Thus, a series of successive tests were performed on a vehicle, through which the degree of wear of the brake pads and discs was monitored periodically, resulting in the efficiency evolution of the braking system. The tests were carried out both in the laboratory (on a dynamometer) and in traffic to establish the efficiency of the braking system according to some parameters considered essential. The experimental tests showed that the recommendations regarding the frequency of replacement of brake pads and discs are inconsistent with their actual wear. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to establish the braking system efficiency of a vehicle, subject to testing depending on the vehicle mass, travel speed, distance driven, and braking time, based on experimental tests, on stand and in-traffic, according to the road safety regulations. The validation of the braking system efficiency of the tested vehicle was done by measuring the stopping distance and time in relation to the initial speed, the mass of the vehicle, the number of kilometers traveled, and conditions of intense and moderate traffic. Full article
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26 pages, 15274 KiB  
Article
Vehicle Control Strategy Evaluation Based on the Driving Stability Region
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6703; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116703 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
Vehicle stability control strategies can improve driving safety effectively; however, there is still a lack of unified evaluation criteria for different control strategies. This paper proposes a vehicle control strategy evaluation method based on the driving stability region and is analyzed by using [...] Read more.
Vehicle stability control strategies can improve driving safety effectively; however, there is still a lack of unified evaluation criteria for different control strategies. This paper proposes a vehicle control strategy evaluation method based on the driving stability region and is analyzed by using direct yaw moment control (DYC) and four-wheel steering (4WS) as examples. Firstly, the five-degree-of-freedom (5DOF) vehicle system models including DYC and 4WS are established, and the effectiveness of the control strategies is verified by nonlinear analysis methods; the dynamic characteristics of the system are also analyzed. Following this, a hybrid algorithm combining the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) methods is used to solve the system equilibrium points, and the driving stability regions under different control strategies are obtained. Finally, the driving stability regions are tested based on the CarSim and Simulink simulations, and the control performance is evaluated. The results indicate that DYC and 4WS can improve vehicle stability and expand the range of driving stability regions. When the initial longitudinal velocity is below 30 m/s, the driving stability regions under DYC and 4WS expand to different extents compared to the original driving stability region. The expanded driving stability regions show that the stability region of the vehicle with DYC is larger than that of 4WS; thus, the control effect of DYC is better than that of 4WS. The proposed method can be used to evaluate the effective range of different control strategies. Full article
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27 pages, 6369 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Impact of Selected Parameters of Tractor-Semitrailer Set on the Braking Safety Indicators
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(9), 5336; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13095336 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
With the continuous development of road transport of goods, the issue of safety risks related to the movement of trucks and road trains remains an essential element of the overall road safety system. One of the persistent problems is the braking of such [...] Read more.
With the continuous development of road transport of goods, the issue of safety risks related to the movement of trucks and road trains remains an essential element of the overall road safety system. One of the persistent problems is the braking of such kits, especially in emergencies on the road. The work aims to show how typical changes in operating conditions can affect the basic indicators illustrating the safety of braking (effectiveness indicators, stability symptoms). A simulation method was applied for the analysis, which used a relatively simple (quasi-static) model of the tractor-semitrailer set’s rectilinear motion and models of the braking system and the longitudinal forces in the tyre-road surface contact. Calculations were made for the selected truck-trailer set in nominal condition and for several deviations from the nominal state, such as loading the trailer (load value, location of the semi-trailer’s centre of gravity), reduced surface adhesion, and selected faults of the semitrailer braking system. The results were compared for several qualitative and quantitative criteria for the evaluation of braking safety. Attention was drawn to the problem of the forces in the coupling (which determine the possibility of jack-knifing phenomena), the order of axle locking, and the braking distance. The presented results show that the change of operating conditions as above compared to the nominal condition visibly deteriorates the effectiveness of the braking process. The greatest threat, both related to the braking efficiency and the increase in the force in the coupling, is associated with the lack of braking of the semitrailer axle or a significant reduction in its load. The weight and location of the load’s centre of gravity considerably impact braking safety. In addition to the negative impact on the braking distance or increase in the horizontal force in the coupling, it changes the order of locking the axle. ABS reduces the risk associated with braking safety but does not eliminate it. At the same time, it has been shown that using relatively simple calculation tools makes it possible to indicate the risks related to the braking safety of such articulated vehicles. Full article
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29 pages, 8326 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Functionality of Vehicle Crumple Zones Recovered after a Traffic Accident
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1686; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031686 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3678
Abstract
It is fairly common for a used vehicle to have a history of damage related to traffic accidents. Post-accident repair of a vehicle is associated with both technical and economic challenges. Safe operation is mentioned primarily in the technical requirements that restrict further [...] Read more.
It is fairly common for a used vehicle to have a history of damage related to traffic accidents. Post-accident repair of a vehicle is associated with both technical and economic challenges. Safe operation is mentioned primarily in the technical requirements that restrict further use of the vehicle. Here, forecasting the behaviour of the restored safety elements during another traffic accident should be addressed from the theoretical perspective. During a collision, the longitudinal members lose local stability due to the compressive impact load and partially absorb the impact energy due to the plastic deformations taking place during buckling. Recent research has placed a considerable focus on the analysis of this process, and guidelines have been developed for the design of these elements. However, the accumulated data on the effect of potential operational damages and the behaviour of the damaged elements during a traffic accident are insufficient. Moreover, no theoretical models have been developed, and the experimental investigations are insufficient. Investigating changes in the properties of elements of the crumple zone by using materials of different mechanical characteristics or changing the geometry is the essential part of this paper and forms the basis for the study of key deformation properties of the elements. This study designed numerical models allowing for forecasting of the longitudinal member and other structural elements of the vehicle in case of collision with an obstacle. The methodology was designed to forecast the amount of energy absorbed by the thin-walled sections used in the vehicle safety cage and the course of deformation under impact loads that caused stability loss. The effect of potential damages, such as geometric deviations and changes in the characteristics of materials and fabricated joints, was identified on the deformation of the restored safety elements. Full article
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16 pages, 3631 KiB  
Article
Study of Loads Acting on the Load during the Sudden Braking of a Vehicle
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031559 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
This article presents the results of a study of the braking process in terms of assessing the longitudinal loading condition of transported cargo. The existing methods of securing cargo do not take into consideration the type of vehicle used to transport the cargo. [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of a study of the braking process in terms of assessing the longitudinal loading condition of transported cargo. The existing methods of securing cargo do not take into consideration the type of vehicle used to transport the cargo. This may result in cargo not being transported in compliance with the principles of proper cargo protection. This paper discusses the differences in maximum deceleration values achieved by different types of vehicles that are structurally suitable for freight transport. As a result of these differences in deceleration values, the values of forces acting on the transported cargo are also different. This paper presents and analyses the results of road tests that entailed the heavy braking of two vehicles structurally suitable for freight transport. One of them was a delivery vehicle, while the other was a semi-trailer truck. The experiment was carried out in six measurement series. Four of them were performed on an asphalt pavement, while the other two on a concrete pavement. One series included ten brake tests. Deceleration values registered during the tests were later used to determine the values of coefficient Cx, which were then compared with standardised values. It has been shown that failure to take into account in the selection process of cargo securing equipment, vehicle category, and type and condition of the pavement can result in cargo displacement and even traffic incidents. Full article
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19 pages, 3468 KiB  
Article
Modelling Driver’s Behaviour While Avoiding Obstacles
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010616 - 02 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
This article presents a short description of mathematical driver models. In the literature, there are no models that are generally considered fully satisfactory for use in analysing drivers’ behaviour in emergencies. This paper presents a concept of model, which includes two sub-models related [...] Read more.
This article presents a short description of mathematical driver models. In the literature, there are no models that are generally considered fully satisfactory for use in analysing drivers’ behaviour in emergencies. This paper presents a concept of model, which includes two sub-models related to the driver’s defensive manoeuvres—avoiding the obstacle and braking. This article describes a model used for a simple road situation—a single obstacle (pedestrian) appearing on the road in front of the vehicle. In the model, the method of artificial potential fields was used, but it was enriched with the concept of safety zones around the vehicle and obstacles for three variants of the proposed shape, namely a rectangle, a circle, and an ellipse. In the simulations, parameters important for the model’s operation were used. The proposed model can be used for the simulation of human behaviour in specialised programs for accident reconstruction and in the future in assistant systems. Full article
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11 pages, 5707 KiB  
Article
An Investigation of the Influence of Temperature and Technical Condition on the Hydraulic Shock Absorber Characteristics
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(24), 12765; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122412765 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2499
Abstract
The paper presents issues related to the operation of hydraulic shock absorbers. The primary objective was to determine the influence of temperature and the technical condition on the damping properties of a twin-tube hydraulic shock absorber. Three units (one new and two used) [...] Read more.
The paper presents issues related to the operation of hydraulic shock absorbers. The primary objective was to determine the influence of temperature and the technical condition on the damping properties of a twin-tube hydraulic shock absorber. Three units (one new and two used) of the same type of a shock absorber were used for testing. During the tests, the shock absorber was subjected to sinusoidal excitation at fixed values of frequency and displacement amplitudes. There are few low-temperature tests of shock absorbers available in the literature; thus, great emphasis was placed on this aspect of the study. The characteristics of the shock absorbers were determined from a temperature of −30 °C until a steady-state temperature was reached at a given excitation. The resistance force at this temperature is about 2.5 times higher than at 20 °C. The study shows that such high forces can lead to the failure of shock absorber components (especially the valves). The amount of energy dissipated in a single operating cycle of a shock absorber decreases non-linearly with the increase of the temperature. Understanding the temperature dependence of the shock absorber in combination with the cooling curve allows for the steady-state temperature to be estimated at a given excitation. The study also shows that the installation of used shock absorbers in vehicles is not acceptable. Although there are no external signs of wear, their characteristics can differ significantly from those of new shock absorbers. Full article
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17 pages, 15971 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Operating Safety of Tractor-Trailer under Crosswind in Cold Mountainous Areas
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(24), 12755; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122412755 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1248
Abstract
To investigate the driving safety of tractor-trailers under extreme conditions in cold mountainous areas, this paper used numerical simulation software to construct a driving scenario of cold mountainous road, to simulate and analyze the driving safety of tractor-trailers under different wind speed and [...] Read more.
To investigate the driving safety of tractor-trailers under extreme conditions in cold mountainous areas, this paper used numerical simulation software to construct a driving scenario of cold mountainous road, to simulate and analyze the driving safety of tractor-trailers under different wind speed and driving speed conditions, and then the critical deriving speed for safe driving was obtained. Four main factors were considered: low adhesion coefficient, strong crosswind, road radius, driving speed, lateral acceleration, and vertical load-deflection rate (LTR) were selected as the main safety response indexes for the determination of sideslip and rollover. The results show that strong crosswinds have an obvious effect on the tractor-trailer sideslip, and the safe operating speed range of the tractor-trailer is from 0 to 30 km/h, with the value of safe driving speed decreasing as the wind speed increases; the speed range where sideslip occurs is from 30 to 37 km/h, with the dangerous driving speed also decreasing as the wind speed increases; accidents when the driving speed exceeds 38 km/h. In addition, simulation experiments show that tractor-trailers generally skid first without rollover on a combination of curved road sections with a low coefficient of adhesion and super-elevation. Finally, the driving simulator was used to test the driving conditions of the tractor-trailer on the cold curved slope combination section with different crosswind speeds, and the experimental results proved the validity of the simulation’s safe speed threshold. Full article
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