Translation of Laboratory Knowledge to the Daily Practice of Sports Science: Interpretation of Training and Physiological Adaptations

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 September 2024 | Viewed by 17599

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Guest Editor
Sports Science Program, School of Life and Health Sciences, University of Nicosia, Nicosia 1700, Cyprus
Interests: Athletic Performance; Sports Science; Resistance Training; Sports Physiology; Olympic Weightlifting; Track & Field; Strength-Power Training; Exercise & Health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Sports Performance Laboratory, School of Physical Education and Sports Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 57668 Athens, Greece
Interests: strength & conditioning; exercise physiology; biochemistry of exercise; muscle morphology; muscle metabolism; muscle damage; neuromuscular system; training; training adaptations; performance; body functionality; sports nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is widely accepted that the recognition of athletic and health-related weaknesses during laboratory and field measurements is a key factor for designing training programs to improve athletic performance, human functionality and health. Now, researchers and coaches have a plethora of laboratory and field tools to evaluate human body performance, physical fitness and functionality, but the translation and the transfer of these results into daily practice and the design of effective training programs are still challenging issues for many coaches. Another problem that many coaches face during longitudinal training programs is how to use the laboratory results, either those focused on the evaluation of human body/athletic performance, fitness and functionality, or those focused to provide insights regarding the physiological status (i.e., muscle biopsies, muscle architecture, body composition analysis, blood tests, etc.) of participants during the design and implementation of the training programs. In addition, coaches need assistance to monitor the training-induced and physiological-performance adaptations following training programs or to adjust training parameters accordingly in order to achieve the most beneficial adaptations to their athletes/trainees. Finally, a hot topic in the area of sports science is how the acute physiological–biochemical responses after different training sessions may or may not predict adaptations after longitudinal training interventions, and whether they can be used to distinguish responders to a training program from non-responders. Consequently, the purpose of the current Special Issue is to address and highlight the above issues in a wide range of populations including, but not limited to, athletes of various sports, and sedentary individuals and patients (such as elderly individuals, patients with cardiometabolic issues, myopathies, myasthenia, etc). We welcome different types of manuscript submissions, including original research articles, reviews systematic reviews and meta-analyses that provide novel and applied information-based outcomes on these topics.

Dr. Nikolaos Zaras
Dr. Spyridon Methenitis
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • body composition
  • muscle architecture characteristics
  • muscle fiber-type composition
  • functionality and health
  • strength/power resistance training
  • rate of force development
  • laboratory/field evaluations
  • non-communicable chronic diseases
  • elderly and Sedentary individuals
  • acute/long-term training interventions

Published Papers (15 papers)

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12 pages, 549 KiB  
Article
Differences in Physical Indexes between Football Players of Different Playing Positions and Correlation to the Weekly Training Load
by Lazaros Vardakis, Marianthi Koutsokosta, Yiannis Michailidis, Athanasios Mandroukas, Andreas Stafylidis, Vasilis Kanaras, Charalampos Bamplekis, Andreas Fousekis, Konstantinos Stamatelos, Ioannis Metaxas, Charalambos Zelenitsas, Panagiotis Topalidis, Angelos E. Kyranoudis and Thomas I. Metaxas
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(11), 4469; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14114469 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 428
Abstract
The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the differences on physical indexes between players of different playing positions and (b) to reveal the correlations between their physical parameters and the running profile within the weekly microcycles. The subjects (n [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the differences on physical indexes between players of different playing positions and (b) to reveal the correlations between their physical parameters and the running profile within the weekly microcycles. The subjects (n = 44) were separated into five positions: central defenders (n = 7), wide defenders (n = 9), midfielders (n = 13), wingers (n = 8) and strikers (n = 7), and all of them belonged to a professional 1st division European team during the 2020–21 and 2021–22 seasons. An incremental treadmill protocol was used to assess the VO2max, vVO2max and the vRER in the last week before the regular season. Then, during the first semesters, external load data were collected for two consecutive seasons to analyze the running profiles of the different positions. There were no differences on physical parameters between the players of various positions, but interestingly there were different correlations with the external load during the microcycles. Central defenders did not show any correlation. For the other positions, correlations were found between respiratory exchange ratio (vRER) and metabolic power efforts (MPWEF) (p = 0.028, r = 0.721) for wide defenders, between vRER and medium intensity accelerations (ACC2) (p = 0.004, r = 0.741) for midfielders, medium intensity decelerations (DEC2) (p = 0.01, r = 0.685), metabolic power zone 5 (MPW5) (p = 0.016, r = 0.652), MPWEF (p = 0.005, r = 0.725), and also between maximal rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max) and high intensity decelerations (DEC3) (p = 0.045, r = 0.564), metabolic power zone 4 (MPW4) (p = 0.026, r = 0.614), MPW5 (p = 0.017, r = 0.646), MPWEF (p = 0.01, r = 0.685). A correlation between velocity on VO2max (vVO2max) and ACC2 (p = 0.038, r = 0.733), MPW5 (p = 0.005, r = 0.873), and MPWEF (p = 0.009, r = 0.84) was found for the wingers. Finally, there was a correlation between vRER and MPWEF (p = 0.026, r = 0.866), and between vVO2max and high intensity accelerations (ACC3) (p = 0.03, r = 0.801) for the strikers. Our study supports that the external load of players in different positions during the training sessions is correlated with their physical indexes. These correlations are determined mostly by their tactical role, but not from their physical level, as there were no differences. Full article
11 pages, 1867 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Aerobic Capacity, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test among Elite Young Football Players: Differences between Playing Positions
by Yiannis Michailidis
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(8), 3413; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14083413 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 622
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to investigate (a) the relationship between the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1) and a laboratory test for measuring maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), (b) the relationships between anthropometric characteristics and variables of the two [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to investigate (a) the relationship between the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1) and a laboratory test for measuring maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), (b) the relationships between anthropometric characteristics and variables of the two aerobic tests (field and laboratory), and (c) differences in performance and anthropometric characteristics among five different playing positions. The study involved 27 U17 young soccer players (16.0 ± 0.6 years). They randomly underwent a maximal laboratory treadmill test to measure VO2max and the YYIR1 test. Pearson correlation was used to find potential correlations, and a one-way ANOVA was used to find differences between playing positions. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The results showed that height was moderately negatively correlated (r = −0.455, p = 0.017) as well as body mass (r = −0.395, p = 0.042). Significant positive correlation was observed between vVO2max and the distance covered in YYIR1 (r = 0.393, p = 0.042). Finally, no differences were observed between playing positions in any anthropometric characteristic or in any variable of the two aerobic tests (laboratory or field) (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the YYIR1 test is not suitable for estimating VO2max. Additionally, the lack of differences between playing positions may be due to the limited specialization of the training load received by the players until this age. Full article
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9 pages, 212 KiB  
Article
A New Method for Evaluating the Reactive Strength Index in Track and Field Sprinting: Relationships with Muscle Architecture
by Simone Ciacci, Federico Nigro and Sandro Bartolomei
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(8), 3232; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14083232 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 456
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to assess a new reactive strength index (RSI RUN) based on contact time and stride length measured in sprint running and then to correlate this index with sprint performance, muscle architecture and echo intensity of the [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to assess a new reactive strength index (RSI RUN) based on contact time and stride length measured in sprint running and then to correlate this index with sprint performance, muscle architecture and echo intensity of the vastus lateralis. Participants included ten elite and sub-elite sprinters (age 24.4 ± 3.1 years, height 177.5 ± 7.7 cm, mass 69.8 ± 11.7 kg) who were tested with a vertical drop jump (VDJ) and a horizontal drop jump (HDJ) from a 30 cm high box, a 20 m straight-leg running drill (SLR) and a 60 m sprint. A nearly perfect correlation (r = from −0.90 to −0.96, p < 0.01) was detected between RSI RUN and sprint performance (30 m, 60 m and 100 m sprint time), and a very large correlation (r = from −0.72 to −0.77, p < 0.05) was found between the traditional RSI from vertical drop jump (RSIDJV) and sprint performance. In addition, the RSI RUN was more correlated to sprint performance than other RSI indices studied in previous research. The echo intensity of the vastus lateralis (VLEI) was largely correlated with maximum running speed (r = from 0.76 to 0.87, p < 0.05) and the RSI RUN (r = −0.80, p < 0.05). No significant correlations were noted between echo intensity and other RSIs. In conclusion, the RSI RUN and VLEI seem to be good predictors for track and field sprinting performance. Full article
12 pages, 2686 KiB  
Article
A New Flexometric Method to Evaluate Range of Movement: A Validity and Reliability Study
by Gerard Moras Feliu, Jose Gisbert-Orozco, Jacob González, Jairo Vazquez-Guerrero, Sergio Rodríguez-Jiménez, Sara González-Millan and Bruno Fernández-Valdés
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(8), 3226; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14083226 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Hip range of movement (ROM) impairments could affect individuals’ quality of life. The aim of this study is to describe a new flexometric method (FM) as a means to estimate hip ROM and to determine its concurrent validity and inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. [...] Read more.
Hip range of movement (ROM) impairments could affect individuals’ quality of life. The aim of this study is to describe a new flexometric method (FM) as a means to estimate hip ROM and to determine its concurrent validity and inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Hip ROM was measured by performing the straight leg raise test (SLR) and hip abduction test (HA). The WIMU system is the gold standard. ROM was calculated in degrees using a trigonometric function based on values derived from measurements with a flexometer. The SLR and the HA showed high concurrent validity and good inter- and intra-rater reliability with an interclass correlation coefficient value that was at all times > 0.9. The minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence level for inter- and intra-rater reliability was equal to or greater than 5.7° in SLR-Right, 5.6° in SLR-Left, 5.1° in HA, 6.3° in SLR-Right, 4.9° in SLR-Left, and 5.4° in HA, respectively. This study suggests that the FM is a valid and reliable tool for assessing hip ROM. Due to its convenience and cost-effectiveness, this method could be widely used to measure the ROM of several joints in field-based tests. Full article
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11 pages, 2247 KiB  
Article
Progression of Sprint Interval Training Set Performance and Physiological Responses during a Six-Week Training Period
by Gavriil G. Arsoniadis and Argyris G. Toubekis
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 2097; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14052097 - 2 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1555
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the progression and the effect of sprint interval training (SIT) on swimmers’ performance and physiological responses during and after a 6-week period. Eight swimmers (age: 16.7 ± 4.2 years) performed maximum efforts for (a) 200 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the progression and the effect of sprint interval training (SIT) on swimmers’ performance and physiological responses during and after a 6-week period. Eight swimmers (age: 16.7 ± 4.2 years) performed maximum efforts for (a) 200 and 400 m front crawl for the determination of critical speed (CS), (b) four 50 m repetitions (4 × 50 m) and a 100 m test before (Pre) and after (Post) the 6-week training period. SIT was applied three times per week including two sets of 4 × 50 m sprints starting every 2 min. Pre and Post swimming time (T), blood lactate (BL), heart rate (HR), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were evaluated. CS increased by 4.4 ± 5.2% (p = 0.01) after 6 weeks. The Pre vs. Post values of T in 4 × 50 and 100 m and BL were unchanged (T: d = 0.05, 0.09, p = 0.14, 0.47, respectively; BL: d = 0.12, p = 0.42), while HR was decreased (d = 0.24, p = 0.04). The progression of T in 4 × 50 m training sprints was unchanged (p = 0.25) while BL increased in weeks 3 (9.4 ± 5.9%) and 5 (13.9 ± 7.8%) compared to week 1 (p = 0.01). SIT improved the swimmers’ aerobic endurance. The lactate response progressively increased despite similar SIT performance during the 6-week period. Full article
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11 pages, 1429 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Efficacy of Eccentric Half-Squats for Post-Activation Performance Enhancement in Jump Ability in Male Jumpers
by Theodoros M. Kannas, Georgios Chalatzoglidis, Elli Arvanitidou, Nicolas Babault, Christos Paizis and Fotini Arabatzi
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14020749 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1288
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to investigate effect of post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) induced by the eccentric half-squat exercise on vertical jump performance in male jumpers. The jumping height, peak power, and work were measured and evaluated in twenty male jumpers [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate effect of post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) induced by the eccentric half-squat exercise on vertical jump performance in male jumpers. The jumping height, peak power, and work were measured and evaluated in twenty male jumpers (age: 21.2 ± 1.7 years, height: 191.1 ± 3.3 cm, body mass: 81.56 ± 7.3 kg) who participated in the national championship last year. Participants performed five eccentric half-squats at 85% of their one-repetition maximum (1 RM), with a knee angle below 90°, followed by immediate and 2 min delayed jump assessments using the Squat Jump (SJ) and Countermovement Jump (CMJ) tests. Results showed that this specific PAPE protocol did not significantly improve jump performance for the SJ (Height: ES = 0.613, p = 0.462, Work: ES = 0.124, p = 0.231, Power: ES = 0.382, p = 0.125) or CMJ (Height: ES = 0.523, p = 0.368, Work ecc: ES = 0.133, p = 0.505 (only main effect time p < 0.05), Work con: ES = 0.114, p = 0.101, Power ecc: ES = 0.134, p = 0.177, Power con: ES = 0.182, p = 0.195, Leg stiffness: ES = 0.095, p = 0.358) tests. Factors such as stimulus specificity, rest intervals, muscle length, and the balance between potentiation and fatigue may explain these results. This study highlights the complexity of PAPE responses and suggests that a single set of eccentric squats with a short rest may not improve jump performance in male jumpers. Further research is required to optimize the interplay between conditioning stimuli and rest periods to maximize PAPE effects in athletic performance enhancement. Full article
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13 pages, 3502 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ball Inclusion in Drop Vertical Jump Test on Performance and Movement Variability in Basketball Players
by Sara González-Millán, Toni Caparrós, Víctor Toro-Román, Víctor Illera-Domínguez, Lluís Albesa-Albiol, Gerard Moras, Carla Pérez-Chirinos Buxadé and Bruno Fernández-Valdés
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14020505 - 6 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess and compare performance and movement variability (MV) in both bilateral and unilateral vertical drop jumps (DVJs) under conditions involving the incorporation or exclusion of ball catching. Twelve amateur basketball players were recruited for participation in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess and compare performance and movement variability (MV) in both bilateral and unilateral vertical drop jumps (DVJs) under conditions involving the incorporation or exclusion of ball catching. Twelve amateur basketball players were recruited for participation in the study (seven females and five males). Participants performed three jumps in each of the six conditions analyzed in randomized order: bilateral DVJ without (BNB) and with ball (BB); unilateral DVJ right leg without (RNB) and with ball (RB); and unilateral DVJ left leg without (LNB) and with ball (LB). MV and DVJ performance parameters were analyzed with an accelerometer and a force platform. MV was quantified using the sample entropy (sample entropy; SampEn) derived from the acceleration of the lower back. Differences between the different DVJ conditions were determined with the Wilcoxon test, with a significance level set at p < 0.05. The comparisons were also assessed via standardized mean differences (Cohen’s d). No significant differences were observed in jump height, contact time and reactive strength index between conditions. However, the RB condition reported higher MV compared to RNB (effect size = 0.79; p = 0.016). Similarly, LNB showed greater MV compared to RNB (effect size = −0.62; p = 0.042). The inclusion of the ball in the DVJ increased the MV in the bilateral condition and in the right leg, but not in the unilateral condition with the left leg. The asymmetry between legs (right vs. left) in MV values in NOBALL conditions was higher (≈15%) compared to the BALL condition (≈5%). Full article
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18 pages, 2978 KiB  
Article
The Profile of the Internal Load of Amateur Soccer Players during Official Matches with Formation 1-4-3-3 and Relationships with Indexes of External Load
by Yiannis Michaildis, Thomas Bagkos, Vasilis Kaldaras, Ioannis Gissis and Thomas Ι. Metaxas
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(1), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14010258 - 27 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 530
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the internal load of amateur soccer players during official championship matches when playing with the 1-4-3-3 formation. Additionally, the possible relationship between internal load variables and external load indices was explored. The study involved 18 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the internal load of amateur soccer players during official championship matches when playing with the 1-4-3-3 formation. Additionally, the possible relationship between internal load variables and external load indices was explored. The study involved 18 amateur soccer players, and the Polar Team Pro GPS system was used to record external load and heart rate (HR) during official championship matches. Internal load was assessed using %HRmax and Edward’s training impulse (TRIMPEdw). External load indices included total distance (TD), pace (distance/min), number of sprints, distance covered in different speed zones, accelerations (>2 m/s2), and decelerations (<−2 m/s2). Players were categorized as central defenders (CD), side defenders (SD), central midfielders (CM), side midfielders (SM), and forwards (F). The results indicated no differences in internal load indices among playing positions. During matches, SM performed the most sprints, while CD performed the fewest (p < 0.05). CD covered the shortest distances in speed zones >7.20 km/h, whereas CM and SM covered the longest distances (p < 0.05). Additionally, CD had fewer accelerations and decelerations compared to SM (p < 0.05). In the first half, differences were observed in pace (distance/min) (p < 0.05), but not in the second half. Between halves, differences in %HRmax were observed for all positions, while TRIMPEdw differed in CM and F. CM showed the most differences between halves. Throughout the matches, a high correlation was found between %HRmax and pace (distance/min), while TRIMPEdw correlated with TD, as well as distances in high-speed zones (14.40–25.19 km/h). This suggests that TRIMPEdw is a comprehensive indicator dependent on volume (TD) and on high-intensity actions, which are crucial in soccer, influencing players’ and teams’ performances. Therefore, for assessing the internal load of amateur soccer players, TRIMPEdw may be a more useful indicator. This study provides valuable information for coaches of amateur soccer teams using the 1-4-3-3 formation regarding running profiles, accelerations/decelerations, and the profile of internal load in each playing position. This information can be used to individualize training based on players’ playing positions. Full article
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13 pages, 626 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Local Vibration Durations on Knee Extensors’ Maximal Isometric Strength
by Nicolas Amiez, Stella Zografou, Tom Timbert, Alain Martin, Spyridon Methenitis, Nicolas Babault and Christos Paizis
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11376; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011376 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1993
Abstract
The prolonged application (>20 min) of local vibration (LV) on muscles or tendons is known to reduce maximal isometric strength. However, the effect of short vibration durations (≤6 min) is still unknown. In fourteen participants, the changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) [...] Read more.
The prolonged application (>20 min) of local vibration (LV) on muscles or tendons is known to reduce maximal isometric strength. However, the effect of short vibration durations (≤6 min) is still unknown. In fourteen participants, the changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) were measured after 1, 3, and 6 min of rest (CONT) or local vibration (LV) over the quadricipital tendon (frequency: 100 Hz; amplitude: 0.5 mm). Before and after each condition, the amplitude of the twitch induced by a 100 Hz potentiated electrical doublet (PDPOT); the relative electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis and rectus femoris muscle during the MVIC (RMSMVIC.M−1); the torque developed 50 ms after the onset of contraction (T50); and the voluntary activation level (VAL) were evaluated. None of the three LV durations significantly changed the MVIC compared with the control condition (p = 0.379). The indices of central (i.e., VAL, T50, RMSMVIC.M−1) and peripheral (e.g., PDPOT) fatigue were unaffected (p > 0.147). In conclusion, a short-duration LV (≤6 min) on a voluminous muscle group does not impair maximal force production or induce any central or peripherical fatigue. Full article
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15 pages, 1341 KiB  
Article
Functional Capacity Profile of the Cervical Joint in Young Adults: Sex-Related Differences
by Christos Batatolis, Konstantina Karatrantou, Vaggelis Gymnopoulos and Vassilis Gerodimos
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11326; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011326 - 15 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
The functional capacity of the cervical spine plays a central role in healthy living. The aim of this study was to examine the sex-related effect on cervical strength, range of motion (ROM), and the musculoskeletal pain profile in young physically active individuals. A [...] Read more.
The functional capacity of the cervical spine plays a central role in healthy living. The aim of this study was to examine the sex-related effect on cervical strength, range of motion (ROM), and the musculoskeletal pain profile in young physically active individuals. A total of 30 males and 30 females (21.53 ± 1.15 years old), without injury or chronic pain at the cervical joint, participated in the study. ROM (forward flexion, extension, lateral flexion-rotation), maximal isometric strength (forward flexion, extension, lateral flexion), and musculoskeletal pain were assessed using an electronic goniometer, a handheld dynamometer, and the Nordic questionnaire, respectively. The results revealed that: (a) females had higher ROM during extension and lateral flexion than males (p < 0.05); (b) males had higher absolute strength than females in all movement directions, and higher relative strength/body mass (at forward flexion) and flexion/extension ratio (p < 0.05); (c) ROM and strength were not significantly different between right and left sides (p > 0.05); (d) a large proportion (43.3%) of the participants had cervical pain; and (e) cervical strength showed a significant small negative correlation with pains (p < 0.05; r = −0.225 to −0.345). In conclusion, the derived reference values may be used by health and fitness professionals to extensively evaluate the cervical spine and to design specific exercise programs for injury prevention and rehabilitation. Full article
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9 pages, 723 KiB  
Article
Influences of Sex on Muscle Architecture and Performance in Elite Field Hockey Players
by Sandro Bartolomei, Alessio D’Amico, Filippo Treno, Matteo Cortesi, Stefano Pagliara and Sergio Mignardi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11314; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011314 - 15 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare muscle architecture and performance between male and female elite Field Hockey players and to investigate the relationships between echo intensity and performance. Twenty-one male (24.3 ± 3.6 y; 75.1 ± 8.5 kg; 176.8 ± 6.4 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare muscle architecture and performance between male and female elite Field Hockey players and to investigate the relationships between echo intensity and performance. Twenty-one male (24.3 ± 3.6 y; 75.1 ± 8.5 kg; 176.8 ± 6.4 cm) and nineteen female players (27.4 ± 3.9 y; 61.2 ± 7.4 kg; 164.4 ± 4.9 cm) were tested for muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity (EI) of trapezius (Trap) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles. Participants were also assessed for bench press power, and 30 m sprint. Results showed a higher VLMT and TrapMT in male players compared to female players (+22.1%; p = 0.004 and +25.8%; p = 0.001 for VLMT and TrapMT, respectively). A lower VLEI was detected in male players compared to female players (−20.7%; p = 0.001), while no significant differences were detected for TrapEI. Male players were faster than female players in a 30 m sprint and more powerful at the bench press (p < 0.001). Significant correlations were detected between VLEI and 30 m sprint (r = 0.74) in female players only. Results indicate that differences exist between male and female elite Field Hockey players in the EI of lower body muscles, while these differences are not present in the upper body muscles. EI, together with other sprint and power assessments, may represent an important parameter for elite Field Hockey players. Full article
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15 pages, 2088 KiB  
Article
Countermovement Rebound Jump: A Comparison of Joint Work and Joint Contribution to the Countermovement and Drop Jump Tests
by Jiaqing Xu, Anthony Turner, Thomas M. Comyns, John R. Harry, Shyam Chavda and Chris Bishop
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 10680; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131910680 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2825
Abstract
The kinetic analysis of joint work and joint contribution provides practitioners with information regarding movement characteristics and strategies of any jump test that is undertaken. This study aimed to compare joint works and contributions, and performance metrics in the countermovement jump (CMJ), drop [...] Read more.
The kinetic analysis of joint work and joint contribution provides practitioners with information regarding movement characteristics and strategies of any jump test that is undertaken. This study aimed to compare joint works and contributions, and performance metrics in the countermovement jump (CMJ), drop jump (DJ), and countermovement rebound jump CMRJ. Thirty-three participants completed 18 jumps across two testing sessions. Jump height and strategy-based metrics (time to take-off [TTTO], countermovement depth [CM depth], and ground contact time [GCT]) were measured. Two-way analysis of variance assessed systematic bias between jump types and test sessions (α = 0.05). Reliability was evaluated via intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] and coefficient of variation [CV]. Jump height and strategy-based metrics demonstrated good to excellent reliability (ICC = 0.82–0.98) with moderate CV (≤8.64%). Kinetic variables exhibited moderate to excellent reliability (ICC = 0.64–0.93) with poor to moderate CV (≤25.04%). Moreover, apart from TTTO (p ≤ 0.027, effect size [ES] = 0.49–0.62) that revealed significant differences between jump types, CM depth (p ≤ 0.304, ES = 0.27–0.32) and GCT (p ≤ 0.324, ES = 0.24) revealed nonsignificant trivial to small differences between three jumps in both sessions. Finally, the negative and positive hip and knee works, and positive ankle contribution measured in the CMRJ showed significant differences from the CMJ and DJ (p ≤ 0.048, g ≤ 0.71), with no significant difference observed in other kinetic variables between the three jump actions (p ≥ 0.086). Given the consistent joint works and joint contributions between jump types, the findings suggest that practitioners can utilize the CMRJ as a viable alternative to CMJ and DJ tests, and the CMRJ test offers valuable insights into movement characteristics and training suggestions. Full article
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11 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Effects of Non-Alcoholic Beer after Running in Three Consecutive Days on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Muscle Damage Biomarkers
by Eduardo Piedrafita, Héctor Gutiérrez, Carlos Valero-Campo, Pablo J. Bascuas, Juan Rabal-Pelay, Ana Vanessa Bataller-Cervero and César Berzosa
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(17), 9795; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13179795 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Running recovery is challenging for several body systems and can be improved by nutritional focus. Non-alcoholic beer is a widely used post-exercise beverage for its antioxidant and energetic properties. After three consecutive days of 1 h submaximal running (80% HRmax), antioxidant enzyme activity [...] Read more.
Running recovery is challenging for several body systems and can be improved by nutritional focus. Non-alcoholic beer is a widely used post-exercise beverage for its antioxidant and energetic properties. After three consecutive days of 1 h submaximal running (80% HRmax), antioxidant enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidase [GPx], glutathione reductase [GR], catalase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity as a muscle damage blood marker, and lower limb thermographic values were determined in order to observe possible changes in 20 subjects divided into two groups: control (n = 10) and NAB (n = 10). NAB drank 10 mL/kg of non-alcoholic beer post-exercise (both groups drank water ad libitum). Non-alcoholic beer did not show statistically significant changes compared to water. Regarding the effect size, the NAB group had a medium increase in thermography values (15′Post-15′Pre) on days 1 and 2 compared to the control group; a large increase in LDH activity (both 60′Post-0′Post and 60′Post-Pre) on day 2, and a medium increase (60′Post-0′Post) on day 3; a medium decrease in GR (60′Post-Pre) on days 1 and 3; and a large (60′Post-0′Post) and medium (60′Post-Pre) decrease in GPx on day 3. These findings support the idea that non-alcoholic beer is not an appropriate recovery beverage after 1 h running for three consecutive days. Full article
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Article
Musculoskeletal Asymmetries in Young Soccer Players: 8 Weeks of an Applied Individual Corrective Exercise Intervention Program
by Eleni Theodorou, Marios Tryfonidis, Nikolaos Zaras and Marios Hadjicharalambous
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6445; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116445 - 25 May 2023
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Abstract
Introduction: In youth soccer, for examining injury prevention and exercise performance, most of the interventional studies concerning corrective postural asymmetries have applied general intervention programs, ignoring the specific individual corrective needs of each youth player separately. The aim, therefore, of the present study [...] Read more.
Introduction: In youth soccer, for examining injury prevention and exercise performance, most of the interventional studies concerning corrective postural asymmetries have applied general intervention programs, ignoring the specific individual corrective needs of each youth player separately. The aim, therefore, of the present study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of an individualized corrective exercise intervention program on musculoskeletal asymmetries in young soccer players. Materials and Methods: Eighty young male soccer players (age: 14.4 ± 1.2 years; body height: 166.3 ± 9.6 cm; body mass: 59.1 ± 11.5 kg) participated in the current laboratory-based study. A battery of postural and musculoskeletal asymmetry evaluations were initially performed. After the completion of the initial assessment, each player was provided with an individual musculoskeletal asymmetry corrective exercise intervention program which lasted for 8-weeks, with the aim of restoring muscular asymmetries. Following the application of the intervention program, a re-evaluation of their musculoskeletal asymmetries was performed. Results: There was a significant improvement in the primary angle of trunk rotation (r = −0.56, p < 0.001), hamstring flexibility (right: r = −0.55, p < 0.001; left: r = −0.48, p < 0.001), hip external rotation (right: r = −0.46, p < 0.001; left: r = −0.26, p = 0.020), hip internal rotation (right: r = −0.26, p = 0.021; left: r = −0.35, p = 0.002), the opened-eyes Stork Test (right: r = −0.33, p = 0.003: left: r = −0.33, p = 0.003), the closed-eyes Stork Test (right: r = −0.39, p < 0.001; left: r = −0.43, p < 0.001), the Thomas test [right: (χ2(3) = 52.281, p = 0.001, γ^ = −0.751; left: (χ2(3) = 45.832, p = 0.001, γ^ = −0.696)] and of ankle prone passive dorsiflexion (flexed knees) (χ2(2) = 13.019, p = 0.005, V = 0.285). Conclusions: An 8-week individual corrective intervention exercise program may improve postural and musculoskeletal asymmetry status in young male soccer players. Full article
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15 pages, 1849 KiB  
Systematic Review
Impact of Prolonged Sitting Interruption on Blood Glucose, Insulin and Triacylglycerol in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Yelei Dong, Yang Pan, Xianliang Zhang, Qiang He, Si Chen, Litao Du and Shuting Yin
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(8), 3201; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14083201 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Background: Physical activity (PA) and/or exercise improves postprandial cardiometabolic risk markers; however, the optimal exercise intensity, frequency, and dose remain unclear. We aimed to (1) compare the acute metabolic effects of interrupted prolonged sitting with PA bouts of different frequencies and durations on [...] Read more.
Background: Physical activity (PA) and/or exercise improves postprandial cardiometabolic risk markers; however, the optimal exercise intensity, frequency, and dose remain unclear. We aimed to (1) compare the acute metabolic effects of interrupted prolonged sitting with PA bouts of different frequencies and durations on blood glucose, insulin, and triacylglycerol responses, and (2) compare the effects of the different types and different times of PA breaks on these measures. Methods: A literature search was carried out using four databases. Network meta-analysis (NMA) and paired meta-analysis were performed to estimate the total standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: According to the NMA, compared to prolonged sitting, every 30 min interruption had the highest probability (SUCRA) of being the best intervention for improving blood glucose (SUCRA = 81.8%, SMD = −1.18, 95%CI: −1.72, −0.64) and insulin (SUCRA = 77.5%, SMD = −0.98, 95%CI: −1.36, −0.60). Additionally, every 20 min interruption also significantly lowered blood glucose (SMD = −0.89, 95%CI: −1.52, −0.27) and insulin (SMD = −0.94, 95%CI: −1.41, −0.46). Pairwise meta-analysis suggested that frequent breaks by light-intensity PA significantly lowered glucose (SMD = −1.45, 95%CI: −2.32, −0.57) and insulin (SMD = −1.04, 95%CI: −1.53, −0.55). The same was found for frequent breaks by moderate-to-vigorous PA, which also significantly lowered glucose (SMD = −0.6, 95%CI: −0.83, −0.37) and insulin (SMD = −0.53, 95%CI: −0.73, −0.32). Conclusions: According to the NMA, performing short bouts of PA every 30 min is the most effective prolonged sitting intervention for improving blood glucose and insulin. More evidence is needed to determine the optimal type and time of PA breaks for braking sedentary sitting. PROSPERO Registration: CRD42022340036. Full article
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