Emerging Technologies and Advances in Wireless and 6G Communication

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2024 | Viewed by 954

Special Issue Editor

1. Instituto de Telecomunicações, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
2. Department of Sciences and Technologies, Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa, 1169-023 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: cellular communications; 5G and beyond; massive-MIMO; millimeter-wave communications; block transmission techniques; NOMA
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The future digital society, in the scope of increasing automation, namely the digital society of 2030 and beyond, comprises more and more connected devices (IoT), including sensors, vehicles, aerial drones, data, etc. While 5G supports autonomous vehicles, the increasing number of sensors per vehicle requires higher-speed communications and lower latencies. Society and organizations demand new services to be included in 6G, including the following:

  • Augmented reality and extended reality;
  • Artificial-intelligence-infused applications;
  • Wireless brain-computer interactions;
  • Holographic services;
  • The integration of communications with localization, mapping, and remote control;
  • Emerging eHealth applications;
  • Improved autonomous vehicles;
  • More efficient support of IoT, namely smart cities and smart houses, supporting an extremely high number of low-power devices;
  • Support of flying vehicles and increased mobility speed.

In addition, 6G aims to have higher energy efficiency and more efficient strategies of energy-harvesting so that the autonomy of user equipment can be increased despite its demanding applications.

These new services and capabilities to be supported by 6G continue to require more efficient networks, such as increased data rate, lower latency, more efficient spectral efficiency, increased energy efficiency, and improved network capacity. Some of the foreseen requirements for 6G include the following:

  • Nomadic peak data rate of at least 1 Tbps (100 times higher than 5G);
  • Mobile data rate of 1 Gbps (10 times higher than 5G);
  • Energy efficiency 10 to 100 times better than 5G;
  • Spectral efficiency 5 to 10 times better than 5G.

While 5G requirements are achieved based on mm-Wave and m-MIMO, 6G must incorporate new concepts such as passive antennas, namely reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS). In order to achieve potential gains (coverage, interference cancellation, secrecy, spectral efficiency, etc.), there is a need to estimate the channel characteristics, and this is difficult to achieve with passive elements. Recently, active antennas, such as large intelligent antenna systems (LIS), also referred to as ultra massive MIMO (UL-MIMO) or extremely large antenna arrays (ELAA), have been employed to achieve such gain desiderates; however, the complexity also increases with the employment of these processes. In terms of frequency bands, 6G is revolutionary, as it includes visible light communications (VLC) and terahertz bands (100 GHz–10 THz), enabling data rates in the order of hundreds of Gbps. VLC is a mature communication technique well suited for short-range coverage, though susceptible to interferences, such as from the sun.

This Special Issue aims to provide an overview of 6G communications and beyond, in terms of network, services, and requirements, while describing advances in networks, services and transmission techniques foreseen for future versions. All new ideas about how to improve performance, capacity, and/or spectrum efficiency of transmission techniques for 6G and beyond, while keeping computational cost at an acceptable level, are most welcome. Contributions to this Special Issue should provide an overview of how the proposed schemes bring added value to the advances in cellular communications in terms of performance, services and/or advanced requirements.

Dr. Mário Marques da Silva
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • 6G and beyond
  • advances in cellular communications
  • LIS antenna systems
  • RIS antenna systems
  • terahertz bands

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

25 pages, 6048 KiB  
Article
System-Level Assessment of Massive Multiple-Input–Multiple-Output and Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces in Centralized Radio Access Network and IoT Scenarios in Sub-6 GHz, mm-Wave, and THz Bands
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14031098 - 28 Jan 2024
Viewed by 749
Abstract
In this article, we investigate in different scenarios the feasibility of using massive multiple-input–multiple-output (mMIMO) with reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) to increase the throughput and coverage with high energy efficiency, considering sub-6 GHz, mmWave, and THz bands. With that objective, a centralized radio [...] Read more.
In this article, we investigate in different scenarios the feasibility of using massive multiple-input–multiple-output (mMIMO) with reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) to increase the throughput and coverage with high energy efficiency, considering sub-6 GHz, mmWave, and THz bands. With that objective, a centralized radio access network (C-RAN) suitable for beyond fifth-generation (B5G) systems is considered, where we integrate the base stations (BSs) with multiple RISs and IoT devices or user equipment. RISs with a large number of quasi-passive reflecting elements constitute a low-cost approach capable of shaping radio wave propagation and improving wireless connectivity. We consider a scenario where multiple RISs are combined with mMIMO in the uplink in order to provide connectivity to a smart city (with thousands of active low-power IoT devices), wirelessly, in the 3.6 GHz and 28 GHz bands. We also address a scenario where RISs are adopted with mMIMO in the downlink so as to offer connectivity to a stadium with a pitch, (and thousands of active users’ equipment) in the 28 GHz band. Finally, we also studied the connectivity at 100 GHz of a factory in which several RIS panels, replacing most of the BSs equipped with mMIMO, assure improved throughput and coverage. We concluded that RISs are capable of improving the performance in any of these analyzed scenarios at the different frequency bands, justifying that they are a key enabling technology for 6G. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies and Advances in Wireless and 6G Communication)
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