Advances in Fusion Engineering and Design Volume II

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Physics General".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2024 | Viewed by 2802

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
Interests: Monte Carlo method; Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques; Radiation transport; Fusion neutronics; Radiation damage; Radiation shielding analyses; Nuclear analyses; Activation calculations; Nuclear fusion facilities ITER, IFMIF-DONES, DEMO; Neutronics analyses; Deuteron accelerators; Deuteron beam; Liquid lithium target; Nuclear heating; Neutron flux.
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We believe that this century activities in the thermonuclear fusion field are going to reach an unprecedented level of engineering and technological achievements. Scientific fundamental hypotheses and theories now have a chance to be realized not only in computational models but also in real fusion devices and facilities. Advances in design solutions are implemented in the construction of large-size ITER tokamak. This is a very exciting time when fusion dreams come true. Normally, to speed-up the R&D processes we participated in face-to-face fusion conferences. However, now we are limited by online communications, and the need for broader and open communications is evident. In order to present your achievements in computational and experimental fusion science and technology, we at the MDPI Open Access journal "Applied Sciences" decided to organize a Special Issue with the rather broad title “Advances in Fusion Engineering and Design”. Writing your paper, please keep in mind that a particular type of thermonuclear system does not limit the scope of this Special Issue. It could be a tokamak (e.g. ITER, DEMO, JET, ARIES-ST, JT-60SA), stellarator (Helias, W7X), laser-based facility NIF, or an accelerator-driven system like IFMIF-DONES. Important is to present the innovative results which are advancing the development of fusion facilities. These results being compiled in one Special Issue and wider disseminated with open-access will be targeted on fusion specialists, readers MDPI journals, and qualified audience. By showing the progress in solving actual engineering tasks of fusion devices design, we are going to promote fusion as a realistic source of energy.

Topics for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Applied science of magnetic and inertial fusion energy;
  • Advances in fusion technology and engineering;
  • Design studies for fusion experiments and devices;
  • Progress in blanket designs (shielding and breeding);
  • Plasma facing components and use of beryllium;
  • Plasma material interactions;
  • Liquid metals in blanket design;
  • Fusion fuel cycle and tritium technology;
  • Plasma heating and current drive systems;
  • Plasma enabling technology;
  • Development of plasma diagnostics;
  • Test facilities for materials and components;
  • Materials and nuclear technologies;
  • Fusion neutronics;
  • Thermal hydraulics for fusion components;
  • System analysis and model integration;
  • Magnets in fusion devices;
  • Advances in fusion safety;
  • Waste management for fusion facilities;
  • Fusion enterprise / private fusion companies / new concepts.

Dr. Arkady Serikov
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fusion technology
  • fusion engineering and design
  • neutronics
  • thermal hydraulics
  • system analysis
  • computer modelling
  • model integration
  • blankets
  • liquid-metal blankets
  • MHD thermofluids
  • breeding blankets
  • materials
  • magnets
  • fusion fuel cycle
  • tritium
  • plasma facing components
  • beryllium
  • plasma material interactions
  • plasma
  • plasma heating
  • ITER
  • DEMO
  • JET
  • ARIES-ST
  • JT-60SA
  • Helias
  • W7X
  • NIF
  • IFMIF-DONES
  • diagnostics
  • fusion safety
  • waste management
  • private fusion

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 1757 KiB  
Article
Optimized Water Distillation Layout for Detritiation Purpose
by Vincenzo Narcisi and Alessia Santucci
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041328 - 6 Feb 2024
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Tritium permeation constitutes a key issue for the future EU-DEMO, especially in the Breeding Blanket (BB) where fusion energy must be delivered to the Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) and where tritium must be bred. Currently, the mitigation strategy of the tritium permeation [...] Read more.
Tritium permeation constitutes a key issue for the future EU-DEMO, especially in the Breeding Blanket (BB) where fusion energy must be delivered to the Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) and where tritium must be bred. Currently, the mitigation strategy of the tritium permeation from BB into primary coolant is based on the adoption of anti-permeation barriers and on the operation of the Coolant Purification System (CPS). This system must ensure a tritium removal rate from the primary coolant equal to the BB permeation rate at a target tritium-specific activity inside the PHTS. In the case of the Water-Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) BB, water distillation was selected as the most promising technology for the primary coolant detritiation due to its intrinsic simplicity and safety. Nevertheless, power consumption was recognized as a relevant concern. For this reason, the present work aims at investigating possibilities to reduce power consumption of the water CPS implementing Heat Pump-Assisted Distillation (HPAD) concepts. To do this, a review of the HPADs developed in the chemical industry was carried out, and the best options for the water CPS were identified based on qualitative considerations. Then, a quantitatively assessment of the best solution in terms of power consumption and tritium inventory was performed with the commercial numerical tool Aspen Plus. Finally, the Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR) concept was recognized as the most promising solution, ensuring a power saving of around 80% while keeping a limited tritium inventory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fusion Engineering and Design Volume II)
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11 pages, 2743 KiB  
Article
Main Nuclear Responses of the DEMO Tokamak with Different In-Vessel Component Configurations
by Jin Hun Park and Pavel Pereslavtsev
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14020936 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Research and development of the DEMOnstration power plant (DEMO) breeder blanket (BB) has been performed in recent years based on a predefined DEMO tritium breeding ratio (TBR) requirement, which determines a loss of wall surface due to non-breeding in-vessel components (IVCs) which consume [...] Read more.
Research and development of the DEMOnstration power plant (DEMO) breeder blanket (BB) has been performed in recent years based on a predefined DEMO tritium breeding ratio (TBR) requirement, which determines a loss of wall surface due to non-breeding in-vessel components (IVCs) which consume plasma-facing wall surface and do not contribute to the breeding of tritium. The integration of different IVCs, such as plasma limiters, neutral beam injectors, electron cyclotron launchers and diagnostic systems, requires cut-outs in the BB, resulting in a loss of the breeder blanket volume, TBR and power generation, respectively. The neutronic analyses presented here have the goal of providing an assessment of the TBR losses associated with each IVC. Previously performed studies on this topic were carried out with simplified, homogenized BB geometry models. To address the effect of the detailed heterogeneous structure of the BBs on the TBR losses due to the inclusion of the IVCs in the tokamak, a series of blanket geometry models were developed for integration in the latest DEMO base model. The assessment was performed for both types of BBs currently developed within the EUROfusion project, the helium-cooled pebble bed (HCPB) and water-cooled lead–lithium (WCLL) concepts, and for the water-cooled lead and ceramic breeder (WLCB) hybrid BB concept. The neutronic simulations were performed using the MCNP6.2 Monte Carlo code with the Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion File (JEFF) 3.3 data library. For each BB concept, a 22.5° toroidal sector of the DEMO tokamak was developed to assess the TBR and nuclear power generation in the breeder blankets. For the geometry models with the breeder blanket space filled only with blankets without considering IVCs, the results of the TBR calculations were 1.173, 1.150 and 1.140 for the HCPB, WCLL and WLCB BB concepts, respectively. The TBR impact of all IVCs and the losses of the power generation were estimated as a superposition of the individual effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fusion Engineering and Design Volume II)
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20 pages, 3764 KiB  
Article
Potential of Radioactive Isotopes Production in DEMO for Commercial Use
by Pavel Pereslavtsev, Christian Bachmann, Joelle Elbez-Uzan and Jin Hun Park
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(1), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14010442 - 3 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1332
Abstract
There is widespread use of nuclear radiation for medical imagery and treatments. Worldwide, almost 40 million treatments are performed per year. There are also applications of radiation sources in other commercial fields, e.g., for weld inspection or steelmaking processes, in consumer products, in [...] Read more.
There is widespread use of nuclear radiation for medical imagery and treatments. Worldwide, almost 40 million treatments are performed per year. There are also applications of radiation sources in other commercial fields, e.g., for weld inspection or steelmaking processes, in consumer products, in the food industry, and in agriculture. The large number of neutrons generated in a fusion reactor such as DEMO could potentially contribute to the production of the required radioactive isotopes. The associated commercial value of these isotopes could mitigate the capital investments and operating costs of a large fusion plant. The potential of producing various radioactive isotopes was studied from material pieces arranged inside a DEMO equatorial port plug. In this location, they are exposed to an intensive neutron spectrum suitable for a high isotope production rate. For this purpose, the full 3D geometry of one DEMO toroidal sector with an irradiation chamber in the equatorial port plug was modeled with an MCNP code to perform neutron transport simulations. Subsequent activation calculations provide detailed information on the quality and composition of the produced radioactive isotopes. The technical feasibility and the commercial potential of the production of various isotopes in the DEMO port are reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fusion Engineering and Design Volume II)
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