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Applied Biomechanics in Sports Performance, Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 12007

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Physical Education and Sport Area, Faculty of Education, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain
Interests: sports performance analysis; sports technology; biomechanics; notational analysis; sports physiology; exercise testing; physical training; strength and conditioning; rowing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I am pleased to present this Special Issue about applied biomechanics in sports performance, injury prevention and rehabilitation. Improvements in modern technology devices have allowed sport scientists to collect more and more detailed information on sports fields and movement performance analysis. The availability of a wide range of kinetic and kinematic parameters has produced significant improvements in our capacity to analyse various aspects of sports performance.

In addition, biomechanical studies have enabled the development of efficient movement patterns, proper postural habits and energy conservation through the economy of movement. Proper biomechanical analysis can help athletes detect these potential problems before injury occurs, allowing athletes to make conscious changes in the way they move and reduce the risk of injury. Finally, the study of biomechanics is used in physical therapy to quantitively measure the changes in movement that have occurred and design programmes to help return movement to normal or improve the athlete's ability to control their body movement.

The main objective of this Special Issue is to cover the latest advances in biomechanics applied to improve sports performance, prevent the risk of injury or facilitate optimal rehabilitation in athletes.

Dr. Alfonso Penichet-Tomás
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sport performance
  • biomechanical analysis
  • sports technology
  • clinical biomechanics
  • kinematic
  • kinetic
  • motor rehabilitation
  • movement training
  • prevention
  • rehabilitation

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 976 KiB  
Article
Effect of a Short-Term Combined Balance and Multidirectional Plyometric Training on Postural Balance and Explosive Performance in U-13 Male and Female Soccer Athletes
by George Ioannou, Evangelos Kanioris and Maria-Elissavet Nikolaidou
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(10), 4141; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14104141 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 519
Abstract
This study’s aim is to examine the effect of a combined balance and multidirectional plyometric training intervention on postural balance ability and lower limb explosive performance in U-13 male and female soccer athletes. Twenty pre-adolescent (age: 12.6 ± 1.6 years) soccer athletes followed [...] Read more.
This study’s aim is to examine the effect of a combined balance and multidirectional plyometric training intervention on postural balance ability and lower limb explosive performance in U-13 male and female soccer athletes. Twenty pre-adolescent (age: 12.6 ± 1.6 years) soccer athletes followed a 6-week training intervention combining balance exercises, dynamic stabilization tasks and multidirectional plyometric exercises at a frequency of twice/week for 20–25 min, based on a progressive increase in exercise difficulty from phase A (week 1–3) to phase B (week 4–6). Pre- and post-training measurements were carried out to assess the following: (a) static balance performance in single (left, right)-legged and two-legged quiet stance trials with eyes open and eyes closed (two trials per stance and vision condition of 30 s duration) and (b) lower limb explosive performance in countermovement and squat jumps without arm swing (three trials/jump). The vertical GRF was recorded by a customized force plate (Wii, 1.000 Hz, Biovision) and offline, CoP and explosive performance parameters were calculated. The overall results showed that the static balance ability of athletes remained unaffected, while restricting their vision deteriorated their postural control. The lower limb explosive performance showed a trend for improvement; however, inter-individual variations in athletes’ responses might have obscured any effect. Full article
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13 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Injury Incidence in Traineras: Analysis of Traditional Rowing by Competitive Level and Gender
by Patxi León-Guereño, Alfonso Penichet-Tomas, Arkaitz Castañeda-Babarro and Jose M. Jimenez-Olmedo
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(9), 3805; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14093805 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 447
Abstract
The growing interest in “Traineras”, a traditional competitive rowing modality prevalent in Northern Spain, underscores the need for a comprehensive analysis of the injury incidence associated with this sporting practice. Despite rowing’s significance in the international sports arena and its inclusion since the [...] Read more.
The growing interest in “Traineras”, a traditional competitive rowing modality prevalent in Northern Spain, underscores the need for a comprehensive analysis of the injury incidence associated with this sporting practice. Despite rowing’s significance in the international sports arena and its inclusion since the beginnings of the modern Olympic Games, research into injuries in this sport, especially in traditional modalities such as Traineras, has been limited. This study aimed to identify and describe the predominant injuries among Traineras rowers, analyzing their epidemiology, characteristics, affected body regions, and diagnoses, further differentiated by competitive level and gender. A retrospective survey completed by 773 rowers (24% women, 76% men) participating in various leagues (ACT, ARC1, ARC2, LGT1, LGT2, ETE, and LGT-F) during the season revealed that 68.2% suffered from at least one injury, predominantly due to overuse (91.1% in men, 83.1% in women). The most affected regions were the lower back and shoulders, with the main diagnoses being muscle cramps and tendinitis, showing statistically significant differences between sexes. The findings of this study not only provide a deeper understanding of the etiology and origin of injuries in this sport but also lay the groundwork for developing specific injury prevention plans, thereby contributing to the safety and optimal performance of athletes. Full article
11 pages, 1622 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Concussions on Static Postural Stability
by Mandy Kirkham, Sachini N. K. Kodithuwakku Arachchige, Leanza Driscoll, Brennan Smith, Paul Brewer and Saori Hanaki
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 2885; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14072885 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1163
Abstract
Concussions among the athletic population are extremely common, which could lead to postural instabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of concussions on postural stability in young healthy adults. The static postural stability of thirty volunteers (age 21.63 ± [...] Read more.
Concussions among the athletic population are extremely common, which could lead to postural instabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of concussions on postural stability in young healthy adults. The static postural stability of thirty volunteers (age 21.63 ± 2.50 years; height 1.70 ± 0.14 m; weight 75.00 ± 15.58 kg; 17 with a history of concussions) was assessed using a force platform during three tests: baseline stability test, clinical test of sensory interaction and balance test, and unilateral stability test. Postural sway variables during each test were statistically analyzed using an independent t-test between the concussion group (CONC) and no concussion (NO CONC) groups. Two secondary analyses were performed with the CONC group: individuals who had one concussion (ONCE) vs. who had multiple concussions (MULTIPLE) and individuals who had their last concussion in 2023–2018 (RECENT) and in 2017–2011 (OLD). The CONC, MULTIPLE, and RECENT groups demonstrated greater postural sway than the NO CONC, SINGLE, and OLD groups. Concussions cause postural decrements in young healthy adults compared to their counterparts with no history of concussions. The results of the study exhibit that concussions could lead to imbalances, which is decisive in athletes’ performance and injury risk during play. Full article
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11 pages, 1364 KiB  
Article
Acute Effect of Velocity-Based Resistance Training on Subsequent Endurance Running Performance: Volume and Intensity Relevance
by Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Santiago A. Ruiz-Alias, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Sergio Miras-Moreno, Felipe García-Pinillos and Aitor Marcos-Blanco
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 2736; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14072736 - 25 Mar 2024
Viewed by 899
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the acute effect of four back squat velocity-based training (VBT) protocols in terms of intensity (60% vs. 80% of the one repetition maximum [1RM]) and volume (10% vs. 30% threshold for velocity loss in the set) on the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the acute effect of four back squat velocity-based training (VBT) protocols in terms of intensity (60% vs. 80% of the one repetition maximum [1RM]) and volume (10% vs. 30% threshold for velocity loss in the set) on the maximal aerobic speed (MAS) estimated from a running track test (RTT) in recreationally trained young adult men and women. Twenty participants (eleven men and nine women) undertook five randomized protocols in separate occasions: (i) RTT alone (control condition); (ii) VBT with 60% 1RM and a 10% velocity loss followed by RTT (VBT60–10 + RTT); (iii) VBT with 60% 1RM and a 30% velocity loss followed by RTT (VBT60–30 + RTT); (iv) VBT with 80% 1RM and 10% velocity loss followed by RTT (VBT80–10 + RTT); (v) VBT with 80% 1RM and 30% velocity loss followed by RTT (VBT80–30 + RTT). All VBT protocols involved three sets with three minutes of rest. The MAS was higher for RTT (control) than VBT60–30 + RTT (p < 0.001; Δ = 3.8%), VBT60–10 + RTT (p = 0.006; Δ = 2.8%), VBT80–10 + RTT (p = 0.008; Δ = 2.7%), and VBT80–30 + RTT (p = 0.019; Δ = 1.9%). No protocol × sex interaction was noted (p = 0.422). Therefore, regardless of sex, MAS is acutely impaired after VBT, especially if the training sets are performed with a low relative load and a high velocity loss threshold. Full article
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15 pages, 2104 KiB  
Article
Concurrent Sprint Swimming Interval and Dryland Training: Performance and Biomechanical Variable Changes within a Mesocycle
by Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Ioannis Chalkiadakis and Argyris G. Toubekis
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 2403; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14062403 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of concurrent dryland and sprint swimming interval training (SIT), and of SIT only, on swimmers’ performance and biomechanical variables before, during, and following 6 weeks of training. Twenty-four swimmers (age: 16.5 ± 2.9 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of concurrent dryland and sprint swimming interval training (SIT), and of SIT only, on swimmers’ performance and biomechanical variables before, during, and following 6 weeks of training. Twenty-four swimmers (age: 16.5 ± 2.9 years) were assigned to three groups of equal performance level and applied concurrent dryland and SIT three times per week, as follows: (i) maximum strength (three sets × four repetitions, load 90% of one-repetition maximum) [1RM]) prior to SΙT (group: G-MS); (ii) muscular endurance (2 sets × 20 repetitions, load 55% of 1RM) prior to SΙT (group: G-ME); and (iii) SΙT only (consisting of 2 series of 4 × 50 m sprints (group: G-CON)). Performance time, stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL), and stroke index (SI) were measured during 4 × 50 m sprints. For pre- vs. post-performance time, SR, SL, and SI were similar between groups (p > 0.05). SR increased in G-MS and G-ME in week 6 vs. week 1 (p = 0.02), while SL and SI were similar between groups (p > 0.05). Concurrent dryland compared with sprint interval swimming training on the same day may progressively increase SR within a 6-week period, and all types of training improved front crawl efficiency following a mesocycle of training. Full article
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17 pages, 3530 KiB  
Article
Differences in Nurses’ Upper-Body Posture in Manual Patient Handling—A Qualitative Case Study
by Julia Katharina Gräf, Andreas Argubi-Wollesen, Ann-Kathrin Otto, Nora Steinemann, Klaus Mattes and Bettina Wollesen
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14062295 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 728
Abstract
(1) Background: In the context of nursing challenges and workforce shortages, nurses experience significant physical and psychological strain due to manual patient handling. (2) Methods: This study investigates differences in nurses’ upper body postures, patient turning acceleration, and perceived exertion during a typical [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In the context of nursing challenges and workforce shortages, nurses experience significant physical and psychological strain due to manual patient handling. (2) Methods: This study investigates differences in nurses’ upper body postures, patient turning acceleration, and perceived exertion during a typical repositioning process within two repositioning maneuvers. (3) Results: The results reveal variations in positioning duration, upper-body posture angles, and turning acceleration between nurses and sequences. Nurse 2 exhibits more extreme postures (e.g., lateral flexion p < 0.001) and accelerations (e.g., shoulder p < 0.001) but reports lower perceived exertion (p = 0.03). (4) Discussion: These findings emphasize the need for ergonomic adherence and targeted training to enhance patient repositioning. Comprehensive solutions are necessary for patient and nurse comfort, particularly in cases of higher patient weights. Against the background of ergonomic body posture, this study highlights the potential of innovative tools and ongoing research to alleviate physical strain and enhance patient care. Full article
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13 pages, 1790 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Slope and Gate Offset on Movement Variability and Performance in Slalom Skiing
by Carla Pérez-Chirinos Buxadé, Gerard Moras Feliu, Sílvia Tuyà Viñas, Michela Trabucchi, Dani Gavaldà Castet, Josep Maria Padullés Riu and Bruno Fernández-Valdés Villa
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041427 - 9 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Adaptability to all types of terrain changes, slopes, and course settings is a key aspect related to the coordinative ability that elite skiers possess. In recent years, several studies have analyzed coordinative aspects of different motor actions via the assessment of movement variability [...] Read more.
Adaptability to all types of terrain changes, slopes, and course settings is a key aspect related to the coordinative ability that elite skiers possess. In recent years, several studies have analyzed coordinative aspects of different motor actions via the assessment of movement variability (MV), an indicator of the motor control that assesses movement regularity. The aims of this study were (a) to evaluate the influence of different slopes and slalom (SL) gate offsets on MV and performance and (b) to assess the relationship between MV and performance. Four SL courses were set: a flat-turned (FT), a steep-turned (ST), a flat-straighter (FS), and a steep-straighter (SS). Five elite alpine skiers (21.2 ± 3.3 years, 180.2 ± 5.6 cm, 72.8 ± 6.6 kg) completed several runs at maximum speed for each SL course. A total of 77 runs were obtained. The use of an IMU accelerometer attached to the lower back of skiers measured MV through entropy. The skiers’ performance was evaluated with the total time of each run. The one-way repeated measures analysis revealed that the steepness of the slope significantly increases skiers’ MV, concretely between FS and ST courses (p = 0.004). Differences at the 10% level have been found between FS and SS and FT and ST courses (p= 0.055 and p = 0.078, respectively). For a given slope, turned courses (FT and ST) tend to produce a higher MV. In addition, faster times correlate with lower MV (r = 0.587, p = 0.01). It has been observed that both steeper and turned courses produce greater MV and that the best performing skiers have lower MV. Determining MV through entropy can be used to assess skiers’ expertise regarding different types of slopes and gate offsets. Full article
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12 pages, 1975 KiB  
Article
Assessing Isometric Quadriceps and Hamstring Strength in Young Men and Women: Between-Session Reliability and Concurrent Validity
by Frederik H. Mellemkjær, Pascal Madeleine, Jens E. Nørgaard, Martin G. Jørgensen and Mathias Kristiansen
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14030958 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1611
Abstract
This study assessed the between-session reliability of the FysioMeter H-station when measuring isometric quadriceps and hamstrings strength and H/Q (hamstring/quadriceps) ratio, and the concurrent validity when compared to an isokinetic dynamometer (ID). Sixteen young males and three females (25.6 ± 1.7 years old) [...] Read more.
This study assessed the between-session reliability of the FysioMeter H-station when measuring isometric quadriceps and hamstrings strength and H/Q (hamstring/quadriceps) ratio, and the concurrent validity when compared to an isokinetic dynamometer (ID). Sixteen young males and three females (25.6 ± 1.7 years old) performed maximum quadriceps and hamstring contractions using the H-station and the Humac NORM ID over two sessions. Between-session reliability was evaluated by comparing scores from the first and the second session. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing scores from the H-station with the Humac NORM ID. The H-station showed excellent relative reliability for the quadriceps, hamstring, and the H/Q ratio with ICC2.1 ranging from 0.89 to 0.91. The relative reliability of the Humac NORM was good to moderate for the quadriceps, hamstring, and the H/Q ratio with ICC2.1 ranging from 0.89 to 0.91. Acceptable absolute reliability of the H-station was found across quadriceps, hamstring, and H/Q measures (coefficient of variance (CV) = 7.2 to 9.3%, limit of agreement (LOA) = 20.0 to 24.3%). The validity of the H-station was large for hamstring strength (r = 0.79) and moderate for quadriceps strength (r = 0.69) and H/Q ratio (r = 0.39) compared to the Humac NORM ID. Bland–Altman plots showed LOAs ranging from 37.9 to 59.5%. The results indicate that the H-station can be used to make reliable assessments of relative changes in maximum isometric quadriceps and hamstring strength. Full article
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12 pages, 574 KiB  
Article
RObotic-Assisted Rehabilitation of Lower Limbs for Orthopedic Patients (ROAR-O): A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Letizia Castelli, Chiara Iacovelli, Siria Ciccone, Valerio Geracitano, Claudia Loreti, Augusto Fusco, Lorenzo Biscotti, Luca Padua and Silvia Giovannini
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(24), 13208; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132413208 - 12 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
Osteoarthritis is a common chronic condition in the elderly population and, with falls, represents a major public health problem. Patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis often have poor balance, which is considered an important risk factor for falls. In recent years, there has [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis is a common chronic condition in the elderly population and, with falls, represents a major public health problem. Patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis often have poor balance, which is considered an important risk factor for falls. In recent years, there has been increasing research supporting the use of robotic rehabilitation to improve function after total knee and hip replacement. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of robotic balance rehabilitation on elderly patients who have undergone hip and knee replacement, with the aim of reducing the risk of falls and improving balance and walking, as well as motor function, fatigue, and overall quality of life. Twenty-four elderly patients with knee or hip replacement underwent robotic balance treatment with the Hunova® platform or conventional treatment three times a week for four weeks. Patients underwent an assessment of balance, walking, autonomy, quality of life and fatigue. Patients who underwent rehabilitation with Hunova® showed an improvement in dynamic balance (p = 0.0039) and walking (p = 0.001) and a reduction in both motor (p = 0.001) and cognitive (p = 0.05) fatigue. The study found that specific treatment for balance disorders in these patients could improve balance and reduce the risk of falling. Full article
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11 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
The Landing Biomechanics in Youth Female Handball Players Does Not Change When Applying a Specific Model of Game and Weekly Training Workload
by Michal Lehnert, Jan Bělka, Karel Hůlka, Ondřej Sikora and Zdeněk Svoboda
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(23), 12847; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132312847 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 589
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the effects of competitive match play and subsequent training during typical competitive microcycle on landing biomechanics in female youth handball players. A group of 11 elite female youth players (age: 14.3 ± 0.6 years; stature: 165.9 ± 8.1 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore the effects of competitive match play and subsequent training during typical competitive microcycle on landing biomechanics in female youth handball players. A group of 11 elite female youth players (age: 14.3 ± 0.6 years; stature: 165.9 ± 8.1 cm; body mass: 58.4 ± 10.6 kg; maturity offset: 0.4 ± 0.8 years) were tested prior to a competitive match, immediately after the match, 48 h after the match, 96 h after the match, and before the next match. The players performed two analyzed trials of a single leg (preferred) counter movement jump. The “Landing Error Scoring System” (LESS) was used to analyze the participants’ landing biomechanics. Results: There was no significant effect of a competitive handball match on LESS (Z = 0.28; p = 0.78). No statistically significant difference in LESS was found between the first and the last measurement (Z = 1.01; p = 0.31). No significant main effect of time was found for landing biomechanics in the observed eight-day period (χ2 = 4.02; p = 0.40). The results of the study indicate that a model of weekly loading during in-season, including competitive match play, does not decrease lower limb biomechanics during landing and does not contribute to an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in female youth handball players during a competitive microcycle. Full article
9 pages, 1083 KiB  
Communication
Antagonist Coactivation of Muscles of Ankle and Thigh in Post-Stroke vs. Healthy Subjects during Sit-to-Stand Task
by Liliana Pinho, Andreia S. P. Sousa, Cláudia Silva, Christine Cunha, Rubim Santos, João Manuel R. S. Tavares, Soraia Pereira, Ana Rita Pinheiro, José Félix, Francisco Pinho, Filipa Sousa and Augusta Silva
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(23), 12565; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132312565 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 793
Abstract
This study aims to analyse the coactivation of antagonist muscles of the thigh and ankle during the sit-to-stand task in post-stroke subjects, specifically during forward and antigravity sub-phases. A group of 18 healthy subjects and another with 18 subjects with a history of [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyse the coactivation of antagonist muscles of the thigh and ankle during the sit-to-stand task in post-stroke subjects, specifically during forward and antigravity sub-phases. A group of 18 healthy subjects and another with 18 subjects with a history of stroke participated voluntarily in this study. Bilateral surface electromyography (EMGs) of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles were collected synchronously with ground reaction forces (GRF) during the sit-to-stand task. The magnitude of electromyographic (EMG) activity was analysed during forward translation and antigravity sub-phases which were determined through GRF signals. The coactivation was calculated to quantify the degree of antagonist coactivation according to the role of the muscles during the task. Statistically significant values were found between antagonist coactivation on both sub-phases of the sit-to-stand task when comparing healthy and post-stroke subjects (healthy with ipsilesional (IPSI); healthy with contralesional (CONTRA); and healthy with IPSI and with CONTRA limbs) in all muscle pairs analysed (p < 0.01), except on thigh muscles (p > 0.05), in the antigravity sub-phase. When comparing IPSI with CONTRA sides in post-stroke subjects, no statistically significant differences were found. Increased values of antagonist coactivation were observed in post-stroke subjects compared to healthy subjects (both IPSI and CONTRA limb) in the two sub-phases analysed. The forward sub-phase CONTRA limb showed higher antagonist coactivation compared to IPSI, while in the antigravity sub-phase, IPSI antagonist coactivation was higher than in the CONTRA. In conclusion, post-stroke subjects presented an antagonist coactivation more dysfunctional at the ankle joint muscles compared to the thigh segment. So, it seems that the distal segment could express more accurately the central nervous system dysfunction in post-stroke subjects, despite the need for further studies to achieve a better spatiotemporal understanding of the variability on coactivation levels. Full article
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0 pages, 5554 KiB  
Article
Smartphone-Based Video Analysis for Guiding Shoulder Therapeutic Exercises: Concurrent Validity for Movement Quality Control
by Maria Lopes, Ana S. C. Melo, Bruno Cunha and Andreia S. P. Sousa
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12282; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212282 - 13 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
Neuromuscular re-education through therapeutic exercise has a determinant role in chronic shoulder pain rehabilitation. Smartphones are an interesting strategy to extend the rehabilitation to a home-based scenario as it can increase the attraction and involvement of users by providing feedback. Objective: To analyze [...] Read more.
Neuromuscular re-education through therapeutic exercise has a determinant role in chronic shoulder pain rehabilitation. Smartphones are an interesting strategy to extend the rehabilitation to a home-based scenario as it can increase the attraction and involvement of users by providing feedback. Objective: To analyze the concurrent validity of a smartphone’s application based on 2D video analysis against the gold-standard 3D optoelectronic system for assessing movement quality during upper limb therapeutic exercises. Methods: Fifteen young adults were evaluated while executing two different shoulder exercises with a smartphone’s 2D video and a 3D optoelectronic system simultaneously in two conditions: (1) with the supervision and instructions of a physiotherapist (guided exercise), and (2) without the feedback of the physiotherapist (non-guided exercise). The data obtained during the guided and non-guided exercises were compared to calculate the movement quality index based on the approximation of the non-guided exercise to the guided exercise for the head, trunk, and shoulder’s range of movement. The agreement of the movement quality index assessed with the smartphone application and the optoelectronic system was carried out through Bland–Altman analysis. Results: The Bland–Altman analysis indicates the range of agreement and bias tendency. This tendency demonstrates that the percentage of difference between the two methods increases as the movement quality index decreases. Conclusions: There is agreement between the movement quality evaluated by a gold-standard method and the developed application, although the proposed method appears to have less sensitivity for evaluating movements with lower quality index. Full article
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