Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics in Human Health

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2024 | Viewed by 13186

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Targu Mures, Targu Mures 540000, Romania
Interests: counseling in physical education; physical education; physical wellness; proactive behavior; education through sports; recreation; active lifestyle
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Guest Editor
Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Interests: sports biomechanics; movement analysis; kinesiology; equipment and technology; training and exercise
Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Targu Mures, Targu Mures 540000, Romania
Interests: counseling in physical education; sport counseling; physical wellness; proactive behavior; education through sports; active lifestyle
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The study of the biomechanics of technical skills specific to different physical and sports activities is part of the dynamic trend of scientific research in the field of sports science and physical education. Studying the physiological aspects and the effects produced by practicing physical exercise has a major impact on the development of human physical potential and on the optimization of health.

The biomechanical analysis complemented by the analysis of functional parameters, through the use of innovative evaluation tools, is a current trend in the research of human biological potential. Expanding the knowledge of the biomechanical characteristics and peculiarities of specific physical activities, sports branches or tests will contribute to the scientific management of sports training and methodologies for improving physical fitness.

The main purpose of this Special Issue is to publish relevant interdisciplinary research with high scientific quality focused on identifying aspects of biomechanics and exercise physiology in order to improve human sports potential. We are particularly interested in identifying the biomechanical aspects in relation to the specifics of physical and sports activities, as well as the changes in health status and physiological parameters induced by physical effort specific to different physical activities. The studies can target short, medium or long-term effects, targeting physical activities and those specific to performance sports.

All manuscripts will be reviewed by experts in the field and should be submitted by 20 June 2023. We invite papers that describe the following:

  • Functional and metabolic changes in relation to the intensity of the effort;
  • Analysis of biomechanics, kinematics and human motion;
  • Assessments and analyzes of technical biomechanics in team and individual sports;
  • Physiological responses to training tasks in athletes;
  • Physical effort and physiological reactions of the human body.

Prof. Dr. Adela Badau
Dr. Philip X. Fuchs
Dr. Dana Badau
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • exercise physiology
  • sports performance
  • sports training
  • physical activity
  • biomechanics of movement
  • kinematics and human motion
  • exercises and public health
  • individual sports, team sports
  • physical fitness
  • kinematic assessments
  • assessment of physiological effects in sports and physical activity

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 4182 KiB  
Article
Influence of Perturbation’s Type and Location on Treadmill Gait Regularity
by Michalina Błażkiewicz and Anna Hadamus
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14020493 - 5 Jan 2024
Viewed by 646
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to investigate how —external perturbations caused by a treadmill belt’s acceleration (Acc) and deceleration (Dec) during the Initial-Contact (Initial), Mid-Stance (Mid), and Pre-Swing (ToeOff) phases affect gait regularity in young adults. Methods: Twenty-one healthy young females walked on a [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to investigate how —external perturbations caused by a treadmill belt’s acceleration (Acc) and deceleration (Dec) during the Initial-Contact (Initial), Mid-Stance (Mid), and Pre-Swing (ToeOff) phases affect gait regularity in young adults. Methods: Twenty-one healthy young females walked on a treadmill in a virtual environment (Motek GRAIL), in which four unexpected perturbations were applied to the left belt at the Initial, Mid, and ToeOff stages. Sample entropy (SampEn) was calculated for the center of mass (CoM) displacements for six perturbation scenarios in three directions—anterior–posterior (AP), medial–lateral (ML), and vertical (vert)—with SampEn vector lengths (m) ranging from 2 to 10. Results: The CoM displacement exhibited its highest regularity (low SampEn values) in the AP and vert directions during Dec–ToeOff, across all m values. Similarly, this pattern was observed in the ML direction, but exclusively for m = 2 and 4. The least-regular CoM trajectories (high SampEn values) were for Dec–Mid in the AP direction, across all m values. This trend persisted in the ML direction only for m = 2 and 4. However, the most irregular CoM displacements in the ML direction occurred during Dec–ToeOff for the remaining m values. Vertical CoM displacements exhibited the highest irregularities during Dec–Initial for m ≥ 4. Conclusions: Evaluating the regularity of CoM displacements using SampEn can be a useful tool for assessing how gait perturbations are handled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics in Human Health)
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10 pages, 1389 KiB  
Article
The Squat One Repetition Maximum May Not Be the Best Indicator for Speed-Related Sports Performance Improvement in Elite Male Rugby Athletes
by Yeunchang Jeong, Hyung-Pil Jun, Yu-Lun Huang and Eunwook Chang
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14010031 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
In the strength and conditioning field, a variety of training exercises are being applied to improve speed-related performance, but there is a lack of traditional strength training guides that can be used for training effectiveness. The aim of this study was to assess [...] Read more.
In the strength and conditioning field, a variety of training exercises are being applied to improve speed-related performance, but there is a lack of traditional strength training guides that can be used for training effectiveness. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a six-week traditional strength training program on elite rugby players and explore the relationships between the one repetition maximum (1RM) of traditional strength exercises and athletic performance. Twenty elite rugby players (age = 30.5 ± 1.5 years, mass = 96.7 ± 16.6 kg, height = 179.3 ± 6.0 cm) completed the strength training program, and 1RM values for bench press, squat, deadlift, and power clean, along with athletic performance metrics (20 m and 40 m sprints, vertical jump, broad jump, Bronco test, L-run), were measured before and after the training period. Medium effect sizes were observed in the deadlift (p = 0.04, d = 0.49) and bench press (p = 0.019, d = 0.57) 1RM, while the squat exhibited a very large effect size (p < 0.001, d = 2.08). Both before and after training, greater power clean 1RM demonstrated a strong correlation with each athletic performance test. However, bench press 1RM, both pre-and post-training, did not significantly associate with functional performances (p > 0.05). Notably, power clean 1RM showed the strongest correlation with athletic performance; despite being the most significant improvement in squat 1RM after the six-week training period, it was not associated with athletic performance outcomes in rugby players. This study underscores the varied impact of specific strength exercises on athletic performance, emphasizing the distinct role of power clean 1RM in predicting speed-related performance in male rugby players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics in Human Health)
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13 pages, 1003 KiB  
Article
Examining the Link between Isokinetic Strength Metrics and Ball Speed in Women’s Soccer
by Cengiz Ölmez, Nadhir Hammami, Büşra Yücelsoy, Soukaina Hattabi, Pedro Forte, Andrew Sortwell, Mehrzia Amani Khezami and Alparslan İnce
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12217; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212217 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 921
Abstract
The shot performance of female soccer players is one of the most critical factors in winning a soccer match. It is essential to thoroughly clarify the kinetic factors that can improve shot performance. This study explores the connections between ball velocity post-shooting and [...] Read more.
The shot performance of female soccer players is one of the most critical factors in winning a soccer match. It is essential to thoroughly clarify the kinetic factors that can improve shot performance. This study explores the connections between ball velocity post-shooting and isokinetic knee extension (EXT) and flexion (FLX) strength performances among female soccer players. Thirteen voluntary players from professional leagues took part in the research study. The study analyzed the average and peak concentric (Con) and eccentric (Ecc) torques, isometric (Iso) strength performances at angular velocities of 60°/s, 180°/s and 300°/s, the time required to reach peak torque, and ball velocities during shooting. The relationships among these variables were investigated separately for the dominant (D) and non-dominant (ND) legs. The analysis unveiled significant correlations between ball velocities and D-EXT (Absolute) peak torque at an angular velocity of 60°/s (r = 0.597; p < 0.05), D-%IPS (r = −0.580; p < 0.05), and ND-FLX (Absolute) average torque (r = 0.559; p < 0.05). Moreover, notable associations were observed between ball velocities and ND-EXT (Absolute) (r = 0.581; p < 0.05), as well as ND-FLX (Absolute) (r = 0.602; p < 0.05) average torques at an angular velocity of 180°/s. Additionally, significant relationships were found between ball velocities and peak (r = 0.664; p = 0.013) and average (r = 0.660; p = 0.014) torques generated during ND-EXT (Absolute) at an angular velocity of 300°/s. However, the connections between the time to reach peak torque, eccentric and isometric forces, and ball velocities were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The results of the study indicate that enhancing concentric isokinetic strength development at 60°/s, 180°/s, and 300°/s angular velocities, along with balanced strengthening of the ND extremity, holds paramount importance in elevating shot performance among female soccer players, particularly in the context of rapid shot strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics in Human Health)
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10 pages, 520 KiB  
Article
Examining Physiological Changes during Counter-Strike: Global Offensive (CS:GO) Performance in Recreational Male Esports Players
by Dorota Sadowska, Tomasz Sacewicz, Kinga Rębiś, Tomasz Kowalski and Justyna Krzepota
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11526; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011526 - 20 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
While the training of professional sports athletes and the factors determining sports success are based on well-established scientific research, esports training and markers of esports performance are not yet fully recognized or explored. Knowledge of the psychophysiological responses of the athlete’s body to [...] Read more.
While the training of professional sports athletes and the factors determining sports success are based on well-established scientific research, esports training and markers of esports performance are not yet fully recognized or explored. Knowledge of the psychophysiological responses of the athlete’s body to esports competition is the necessary foundation for rational training management. The aim of the present study was to evaluate physiological stress while playing Counter-Strike: Global Offensive (CS:GO). Selected cardiovascular, hormonal, and biochemical indices were monitored to assess differences in stress responses between winners and losers. Twenty-two male players participated in the study (age 22.0 ± 2.0 years, CS:GO training experience 7.0 ± 2.2 years, training load 24.6 ± 11.5 h per week). Each player played two games during the CS:GO competition. The CS:GO tournament induced an increase in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure, and blood cortisol levels (C), and a decrease in the nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) index based on the fractal correlation properties, called alpha1, of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA-alpha1). In contrast, no changes were observed in blood levels of testosterone (T) and lactate (BLa). It was found that changes in physiological indices in players while playing CS:GO did not differentiate between winners and losers. The changes in the physiological parameters recorded during play indicate that CS:GO tournaments induce significant physiological arousal and can be considered a stressor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics in Human Health)
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11 pages, 1485 KiB  
Article
Frameworks of Movement Sciences
by Mitsumasa Miyashita
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(14), 8296; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13148296 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 754
Abstract
This article is composed of two parts. In the first part, a review is conducted on how research concerning human movement has been performed on Japanese subjects with newly developed methods in the last 60 years. In the second part, the frameworks of [...] Read more.
This article is composed of two parts. In the first part, a review is conducted on how research concerning human movement has been performed on Japanese subjects with newly developed methods in the last 60 years. In the second part, the frameworks of human movement sciences, such as exercise physiology, biomechanics, sports performance, and health, are proposed mainly based on the research results obtained by the author and his colleagues. It is expected that this article will be helpful to researchers in the fields of physical education, sports, and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics in Human Health)
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13 pages, 805 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Multicomponent Exercise Protocols Order on the Maximum Voluntary Contraction of Older Women
by António Miguel Monteiro, Sandra Rodrigues, Sérgio Matos, Samuel Encarnação, José Eduardo Teixeira, Tiago M. Barbosa, Filipe Rodrigues and Pedro Forte
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(14), 8044; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13148044 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 758
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of exercise order in multicomponent training (MCT) on the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of older women. A total of 91 older women, ranging in age from 60 to 85 years, were randomly assigned [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of exercise order in multicomponent training (MCT) on the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of older women. A total of 91 older women, ranging in age from 60 to 85 years, were randomly assigned to either Group A or Group B. Group A performed a warm up followed by aerobic training and resistance training, whereas Group B followed a warm up followed by resistance training and aerobic training. A control group (CG) did not engage in any exercise interventions. Statistical analysis was conducted using one-way ANOVA for between-group comparisons, and ANOVA was used for repeated measures. The results revealed that Group A demonstrated significant increases in MVC for knee extensors (KEs) between M1 and M3 (p < 0.001) and between M2 and M3 (p < 0.001). Similarly, Group A exhibited significant increases in MVC for knee flexors (KFs) between M1 and M3 (p = 0.001) and between M2 and M3 (p < 0.001). Both Group A and Group B demonstrated significant increases in MVC for elbow flexors (EFs) between M1 and M3 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, Group B showed a significant increase in hand grip strength (HGS) between M1 and M3 (p < 0.001). Overall, the findings suggest that initiating MCT with aerobic training followed by resistance training is the most effective approach for improving muscle strength in older women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics in Human Health)
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9 pages, 1098 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Effect of Age on Force Production and Symmetry during Water Exercises: Differences between Young Adults and Older Women
by Catarina C. Santos, Susana Soares and Mário J. Costa
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7904; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137904 - 5 Jul 2023
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Participants from across the age span participate in water fitness sessions. This challenges instructors to create proper exercise prescriptions. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of age on force production and symmetry during water exercises. Twenty-six women were categorized [...] Read more.
Participants from across the age span participate in water fitness sessions. This challenges instructors to create proper exercise prescriptions. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of age on force production and symmetry during water exercises. Twenty-six women were categorized into two groups: (i) young adult (n = 13; 23.61 ± 1.15 years) and (ii) older (n = 13; 67.38 ± 3.48 years). Women performed a horizontal upper limbs adduction during an incremental protocol comprising four music cadences increased every 30 s (105, 120, 135, and 150 b∙min−1). A differential pressure system composed of two sensors was used to measure the in-water force and to estimate the symmetry index. Young adults showed higher in-water forces (43–67 N) when compared with their older counterparts (31–55 N). No differences were observed between groups for the symmetry index. The cadences of 105–120 and 120–135 lead to different in-water force of the dominant limb in both groups, while the force of the non-dominant limb showed mix-findings. In conclusion, water fitness instructors should be aware that the same music cadence may trigger different kinetic behaviors in different ages, but without impairing symmetry when exercising at 120–135 b∙min−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics in Human Health)
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12 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
The Effects of 6-Month Multi-Component Exercise Intervention on Body Composition in Aged Women: A Single-Arm Experimental with Follow-Up Study
by Filipe Rodrigues, José Eduardo Teixeira, António Miguel Monteiro and Pedro Forte
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 6163; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13106163 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
Multicomponent exercise programs, which combine multiple modalities such as aerobic exercises, strength training exercises, flexibility exercises, and balance exercises, can help to promote healthy aging and prevent chronic diseases in aged women. Thus, the goal of this study is to examine if a [...] Read more.
Multicomponent exercise programs, which combine multiple modalities such as aerobic exercises, strength training exercises, flexibility exercises, and balance exercises, can help to promote healthy aging and prevent chronic diseases in aged women. Thus, the goal of this study is to examine if a multicomponent exercise program could improve body composition in community-dwelling aged women. A 6-month single-arm quasi-experimental research was conducted using a multicomponent exercise program for older adults. The sample included 38 women with a mean age of 63.50 years (SD = 6.47 years). Body composition and anthropometric measurement was conducted from baseline (T1), after intervention (T2), and follow-Up (T3). In addition, after exercise intervention, a significant difference with moderate to large effects was reported for fat mass [η2p = 0.374, p < 0.001)], bone density [η2p = 0.374, p < 0.05)], percentage of water [η2p = 0.374, p < 0.001)], and a metabolic equivalent task [η2p = 0.374, p < 0.05]. Additionally, a significant large effect size between T1 and T2 was verified. However, body composition indicators seem to decrease below baseline levels after concluding exercise intervention (T3). Muscle mass decreased significantly after exercise intervention and mean scores were lower compared to baseline data (T1). Thus, a positive effect of the multicomponent exercise program on body composition was established in this group of community-dwelling aged women. However, the relative improvement in body fat and muscle mass were lost after the exercise program’s conclusion for values below the baselines. Avoiding detraining periods is, therefore, fundamental to maintaining the normal relative body composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics in Human Health)
18 pages, 2124 KiB  
Article
Effect of 12 Weeks of the Plyometric Training Program Model on Speed and Explosive Strength Abilities in Adolescents
by Artan R. Kryeziu, Astrit Iseni, Dragos Florin Teodor, Horia Croitoru and Dana Badau
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13052776 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4154
Abstract
This study examined the effect of two different follow-ups of a plyometric program on improving speed and explosive strength. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify the 12-week effect of the plyometric program on the development of speed and explosive strength [...] Read more.
This study examined the effect of two different follow-ups of a plyometric program on improving speed and explosive strength. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify the 12-week effect of the plyometric program on the development of speed and explosive strength in adolescents. The research was conducted on a sample of 195 male adolescent participants aged 15 years ± 6 months, who were divided into two groups, the first group of the plyometric group (PG) 90 adolescents s participated in plyometric training sessions three times a week for 12 weeks, while the control group (CG) 105 adolescents only attended their regular lessons in Physical Education. Tests of study: sprint (S) 30 m speed; S80 m speed; S100 m speed; Standing long jump; Standing triple jump; Vertical Jump. The results presented between the measurement pre- and post-plyometric program in the group (PG) have resulted in favor of this group over the control group (CG), and it has also been identified that there are significant differences in the indicators of speed and explosive strength at the level (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a 12-week plyometric program has shown significant increases in speed and explosive strength indicators in teenagers, and the same model can be used in elite athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics in Human Health)
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