Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 July 2021) | Viewed by 80372

Special Issue Editors

Department of BioScience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, 64100 Teramo, Italy
Interests: milk quality; fatty acid; lipids quality and lipid oxidation in animal products; gene expression; animal nutrition; sustainability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food and Agriculture, University of Teramo, Via Renato Balzarini 1, 64100 Teramo, TE, Italy
Interests: animal nutrition; animal product quality; sustainable animal production; rumen microbiota
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Animal products represent an important source of nutrients credited with inducing positive effects on consumer health, including proteins, vitamins, essential trace elements, and omega-3 fatty acids.

In the last two decades, household spending on food in industrialized countries has undergone a change in trend mainly due to socio-demographic transformations, changes in lifestyle, and greater attention to health. According to demographic forecasts, in industrialized countries, the population over 65 years of age in 2030 will reach up to 27% of the entire population. The significant aging of the population will determine a conditioning of the diets linked to the health needs of the older population, and manufacturing companies will be called to meet these requests by developing new strategies for the production of foods capable of satisfying the requests of each category of consumers.

In addition to this, it should be mentioned that, in recent years, consumers have been increasingly attentive to production methods and food quality, with particular attention to food products enriched with specific compounds credited with having high health value.

Due to this, today, the agro-food industry is strongly interested in the development of production models able to guarantee the production of foods with a more balanced nutritional profile and characterized by high sustainability both from an environmental and an economic point of view. With particular attention to this, novel strategies should be developed that focus on the use of agro-industrial byproducts as feed supplements for farm animals, from a perspective of valorizing matrices rich in bioactive compounds that could induce benefits for animal welfare and could be presumably transferred to animal products, increasing their commercial and health values.

In an attempt to improve the qualitative parameters of these products, numerous rearing protocols have been developed and optimized over time, and in this context, the aspects associated with animal nutrition have undoubtedly received the greatest attention.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to collect studies concerning the effect of feeding strategies on the chemical and nutritional quality of animal production with particular attention to the fatty acids profile, the oxidative stability, the development of volatile flavor compounds, and the increase in concentration of bioactive compounds or their secondary metabolites credited with several benefits for consumers’ health.

Prof. Giuseppe Martino
Dr. Ianni Andrea
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • animal nutrition
  • animal product quality
  • animal health status
  • fatty acid profile
  • lipid oxidation
  • volatile flavor compound
  • metallo-enzymes
  • gene expression
  • byproducts
  • sustainability

Published Papers (27 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Partial Replacement of Animal Fat with Full-Fat Almond in Broiler Chicken Diets: Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Profile, Cecal-Fecal Microflora Composition, and Foot-Pad Dermatitis
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3075; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113075 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of full-fat almonds (FFA) as an alternative protein and fat source for broiler feed on broiler productivity, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, cecal-fecal microflora, and foot-pad dermatitis (FPD). A total of 96, one-day-old broiler [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of full-fat almonds (FFA) as an alternative protein and fat source for broiler feed on broiler productivity, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, cecal-fecal microflora, and foot-pad dermatitis (FPD). A total of 96, one-day-old broiler chickens (Arbor Acres) with initial body weight 41.61 ± 0.36 g were placed in 16 cages. In each trial, four treatments were set up: a basal diet partially replacing animal fat with FFA 0% (Control, CON), a basal diet partially replacing animal fat with FFA 1% (T1), a basal diet partial replacing animal fat with FFA 2% (T2), a basal diet partially replacing animal fat with FFA 4% (T3). The experiment was conducted for a total of 4 weeks. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher (p < 0.05) in the T3 group of broilers at weeks 0 to 1 than in the CON group of broilers. From weeks 3 to 4, and for the entire experimental period, FCR was lower (p < 0.05) in the T3 group of broilers than in the CON and T1 groups of broilers. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of the ether extract (EE) was higher (p < 0.05) in the T3 group than in the other treatment groups, and AID of crude protein (CP) was higher (p < 0.05) in the T3 group than in the CON group. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of EE was lower (p < 0.05) in the CON group than in the other treatment groups, and the ATTD of CP and energy was higher (p < 0.05) in the T3 group of broilers than in the CON group of broilers. The AID and ATTD of total amino acids were higher (p < 0.05) in the T3 group than in the other treatment groups. Blood cholesterol levels were lower (p < 0.05) in the T3 group of broilers than in the CON and T1 groups of broilers, and higher (p < 0.05) in the CON group of broilers than in the T2 and T3 groups of broilers. The amount of E. coli in the cecal and fecal was lower (p < 0.05) in the T3 group than in CON and T1 groups. FPD score was higher (p < 0.05) in the T3 group of broilers than in the CON group of broilers. In conclusion, replacing a partial of animal fat with at least 4% FFA in broiler diets can increase growth performance and nutrient digestibility in broiler nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
16 pages, 3627 KiB  
Article
Designing Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles with the Co-Precipitation Technique to Improve Phosphorous Availability in Broiler Chicks
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2773; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102773 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2465
Abstract
Dicalcium phosphate (DP) is a mineral involved in the metabolism and development and is used as a dietary source of phosphorus (PT) for poultry. Our study objective is to design nano-dicalcium phosphate (NDP) by co-precipitation. The methodological procedure was divided into [...] Read more.
Dicalcium phosphate (DP) is a mineral involved in the metabolism and development and is used as a dietary source of phosphorus (PT) for poultry. Our study objective is to design nano-dicalcium phosphate (NDP) by co-precipitation. The methodological procedure was divided into two phases: (1) NDP synthesis, and (2) bird performance, digestibility, and Ca-P in chick’s tissues. The sizes of the NDP were 20–80 nm. NDP had the Ca: P ratio of 1:1.12. The birds were divided into control diet (available P (Pa) = 0.13%) and three supplementary P sources [Commercial (Calcium phosphate), analytical grade (DP) and nanoparticles (NDP)] with three Pa levels (0.24, 0.35, 0.46%). Supplementary P sources compared to the control treatment had the highest body weight gain (698.56 vs. 228; p < 0.05) and feed intake (FI) (965.18 vs. 345.82), respectively. The digestibility of PT (67%) improved with 0.35% NDP. The highest contents of PT -breast were with the levels of 0.35 and 0.46% NDP. The PT, ash, and diameters were higher (p < 0.05) with supplementary P compared to the control treatment. As conclusion, the use of 0.35% NDP was the ideal dose in the chicks for the digestibility, absorption values, and the amount of PT in the breast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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13 pages, 1498 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of a Lecithin Supplementation on Growth Performance, Meat Quality, Lipid Metabolism, and Cecum Microbiota of Broilers
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092537 - 29 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2157
Abstract
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of lecithin on the performance, meat quality, lipid metabolism, and cecum microbiota of broilers. One hundred and ninety-two one-day-old AA broilers with similar body weights (38 ± 1.0 g) were randomly assigned to two [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of lecithin on the performance, meat quality, lipid metabolism, and cecum microbiota of broilers. One hundred and ninety-two one-day-old AA broilers with similar body weights (38 ± 1.0 g) were randomly assigned to two groups with six replicates of sixteen birds each and were supplemented with 0 and 1 g/kg of lecithin for forty-two days. Performance and clinical observations were measured and recorded throughout the study. Relative organ weight, meat quality, lipid-related biochemical parameters and enzyme activities were also measured. Compared with broilers in the control group, broilers in the lecithin treatment group showed a significant increase in L* value and tenderness (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the abdominal adipose index of broilers was markedly decreased in lecithin treatment after 42 days (p < 0.05). In the lipid metabolism, broilers in the lecithin treatment group showed a significant increase in hepatic lipase and general esterase values at 21 days compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Lower Firmicutes and higher Bacteroidetes levels in phylum levels were observed in the lecithin treatment group after 21 and 42 days. The distribution of lactobacillus, clostridia, and rikenella in genus levels were higher in the lecithin treatment group after 21 and 42 days. No statistically significant changes were observed in performance, relative organ weight, or other serum parameters (p > 0.05). These results indicate that supplementation with lecithin significantly influence the lipid metabolism in broilers at 21 and 42 days, which resulted in the positive effect on the meat color, tenderness, and abdominal adipose in broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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14 pages, 1216 KiB  
Article
Effects of Ferulic Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Histochemical Characteristics of Muscle Fibers in Finishing Pigs
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082455 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3348
Abstract
FA dietary supplementation on the growth performance, carcass traits and histochemical characteristics of the Longissimus thoracis muscle from finishing pigs was investigated. Four hundred and twenty pigs were used in this study, and 105 animals (with five replicate pens and 21 pigs per [...] Read more.
FA dietary supplementation on the growth performance, carcass traits and histochemical characteristics of the Longissimus thoracis muscle from finishing pigs was investigated. Four hundred and twenty pigs were used in this study, and 105 animals (with five replicate pens and 21 pigs per pen) were assigned to one of four treatments: basal diet (BD) without additives (C−); BD + 10 ppm ractopamine hydrochloride + 0.97% lysine (C+); BD + 25 ppm of FA (FA); and BD + 25 ppm of FA + 0.97% lysine (FA-Lys). Dietary supplementation with FA or ractopamine increased both the average daily gain (14%) and loin muscle area (19%), while fat deposition decreased by 53%, in comparison with C− (p < 0.05). The growth performance of pigs treated with FA was similar to those of ractopamine (p > 0.05). The histochemical analysis showed that FA and C+ treatments induced a shift in muscle fiber types: from fast fibers to intermediate (alkaline ATPase) and from oxidative to glycolytic fibers. Muscle tissues from animals treated with FA or ractopamine had a lower cross-sectional area and a greater number of muscle fibers per area (p < 0.05). Findings regarding growth performance and carcass traits indicate that FA supplementation at 25 ppm without extra-lysine can replace the use of ractopamine as a growth promoter in finishing pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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14 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Can Yucca schidigera Be Used to Enhance the Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Gut Histomorphology, Cecal Microflora, Carcass Characteristic, and Meat Quality of Commercial Broilers Raised under Tropical Conditions?
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2276; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082276 - 02 Aug 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3518
Abstract
This study aims to study the effect of Yucca shidigera as a phytobiotic supplementation in enhancing the production performance of commercial broilers reared under tropical environments. A total of 300 male day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allocated into six treatment groups. [...] Read more.
This study aims to study the effect of Yucca shidigera as a phytobiotic supplementation in enhancing the production performance of commercial broilers reared under tropical environments. A total of 300 male day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allocated into six treatment groups. Treatment 1 broilers were fed with commercial diets without antibiotics. Treatment 2 broilers were fed with commercial diets added with 100 mg/kg oxytetracycline antibiotic. Treatment 3, 4, 5, and 6 were fed with the same commercial diets added with 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg Y. shidigera, respectively, without antibiotic. Throughout the six weeks study period, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly for each replicate to calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. In addition, the nutrient digestibility, gut histomorphology, cecal microflora population, carcass characteristics, and meat quality were determined. The results showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in the growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, gut histomorphology, carcass traits, and meat quality. Overall, T6 broilers supplemented with 100 mg/kg Y. shidigera demonstrated the best production performances as compared to the other treatment broilers. In summary, information from this study will be valuable for the usability of Y. schidigera, which could be developed as a feed additive to replace antibiotics in the poultry sector in the tropics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
12 pages, 588 KiB  
Article
Influences of Beta-Alanine and l-Histidine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Meat Quality, Carnosine Content, and mRNA Expression of Carnosine-Related Enzymes in Broilers
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2265; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082265 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3444
Abstract
The current study investigated the effect of dietary l-histidine and beta-alanine supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, carnosine content, and gene expression of carnosine-related enzymes in broilers. A two-factor design was adopted in this study. A total of 640 1-day-old male broilers [...] Read more.
The current study investigated the effect of dietary l-histidine and beta-alanine supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, carnosine content, and gene expression of carnosine-related enzymes in broilers. A two-factor design was adopted in this study. A total of 640 1-day-old male broilers were assigned to eight treatments with factorial arrangement containing four levels of l-histidine (0, 650, 1300, or 1950 mg/kg) and two levels of beta-alanine (0 or 1200 mg/kg) supplementation; 0 mg/kg histidine and/or 0 mg/kg were treated as control groups. Each treatment including eight replicates with 10 birds each and the feeding trial lasted for 42 days. Dietary supplementation with l-histidine and beta-alanine did not affect average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broilers during the grower (22–42 days) and the entire phase (1–42 days), compared with the control group (p > 0.05). The only exception was a significantly reduced ADG in the 1950 mg/kg l-histidine group in the starter period (1–21 days, p < 0.05). l-Histidine at 1950 mg/kg significantly decreased redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values of the meat at 45 min postmortem (p < 0.05), whereas it increased b* value and pH in breast muscle at 24 h postmortem. Moreover, dietary supplementation with beta-alanine alone or combination with l-histidine significantly increased ΔpH in breast muscle (p < 0.01). Dietary l-histidine markedly increased total superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) both in breast muscle (p < 0.01) and in plasma (p < 0.01), and it decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in breast muscle (p < 0.01). Dietary addition of beta-alanine, alone or combination, significantly increased T-AOC in breast muscle (p < 0.01) and markedly decreased MDA content both in breast muscle and in plasma (p < 0.01). Addition of l-histidine and beta-alanine significantly increased muscle peptide (carnosine and anserine) content (p < 0.05) and upregulated the expression of carnosine synthase, transporter of carnosine/ l-histidine, and l-histidine decarboxylase genes (p < 0.05), with greater change occurring in the combination group of 1300 mg/kg l-histidine and 1200 mg/kg beta-alanine. Overall, dietary l-histidine and beta-alanine could improve meat quality and antioxidant capacity, enhance the carnosine and anserine content, and upregulate the gene expression of carnosine synthesis-related enzymes in broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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16 pages, 762 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) Supplementation and Laying Hen Strain Effects on Eggs’ Lipid Profile and Stability
Animals 2021, 11(7), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071944 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1993
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of short-term dietary spirulina supplementation (1% and 3%) and the strain of laying hens (White Leghorn: WL and Rhode Island Red: RIR) on color, nutritional value, and stability of yolk. Egg weight was [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of short-term dietary spirulina supplementation (1% and 3%) and the strain of laying hens (White Leghorn: WL and Rhode Island Red: RIR) on color, nutritional value, and stability of yolk. Egg weight was not affected by any of the studied effects. Yolks from 3%-spirulina supplemented hens had higher retinol and lower α-tocopherol content (p = 0.0001) when compared to control. The supplementation with 1%-spirulina markedly decreased luminosity and increased redness (p = 0.0001) and yellowness (p = 0.0103). Short-term spirulina supplementation slightly modified the fatty acid composition of yolk. The C16-desaturase index increased with the algae, whereas other egg quality indices (hypocholesterolemic, thrombombogenic, n-6/n-3) were not modified. Hen strain mainly affected to the lipid profile. The RIR hens accumulated greater yolk retinol with supplementation doses of 3% (p < 0.05), while the WL hardly suffered changes in the accumulation. Also, yolks from RIR hens had lower C16:0 (p = 0.0001), C18:0 (p = 0.0001), saturated (SAT) (p = 0.0001), and thrombogenic index (p = 0.0001), C20:3n-6 (p = 0.0001), n-6/n-3 ratio (p = 0.003), Δ-6+5-desaturase (p = 0.0005), total elongase indices (p = 0.0001) when compared to WL. Moreover, RIR had higher monounsaturated (MUFA), Δ-9-desaturase and hypocholesterolemic indices (p < 0.05) than WL. A different response to spirulina supplementation was observed for C18:1n-9, MUFA, Δ-9-desaturase and thiesterase indices (p < 0.05) according to hen strain. Yolks from RIR had higher MUFA and Δ-9-desaturase indices than WL at 1%-spirulina supplementation, whereas these parameters were less affected in RIR supplemented with 3%. SAT and Δ-9-desaturase were significantly correlated (r = −0.38 and 0.47, respectively) with retinol content according to a linear adjustment (p < 0.05). Lipid oxidation of yolk was slightly modified by the dietary treatment or hen strain. It was detected a relationship between TBARS and α-tocopherol, C22:5n-3 or C22:6n-3 (p < 0.05). L* and a* were also inversely or positively related with yolk retinol content according to a linear response (p < 0.05). The administration of 1% of spirulina in diets of red hens would be an interesting alternative to get healthier eggs from the nutritional point of view, obtaining an adequate color and without modifications in other yolk quality traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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15 pages, 5479 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Response to Moderate and High Dose Supplementation of Astaxanthin in Laying Hens
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041138 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2859
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the impact of moderate and high dose dietary supplementation of astaxanthin on production performance, quality of eggs, and health status of laying hens. The experiment involved 480 laying hens, divided into four groups of eight replicates. The different [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluated the impact of moderate and high dose dietary supplementation of astaxanthin on production performance, quality of eggs, and health status of laying hens. The experiment involved 480 laying hens, divided into four groups of eight replicates. The different groups named A1, A2, A3, and A4 were allocated the same diet supplemented with Haematococcus pluvialis powder to provide 0, 21.3, 42.6, and 213.4 mg of astaxanthin per kilogram of feed, respectively. One-way ANOVA and linear and quadratic regression analysis were used to assess the differences between the groups. The results showed that the production performance of laying hens and the physical quality of eggs did not significantly differ between the groups (p > 0.05). Astaxanthin distribution in tissues was typical per bird, whereas the egg yolk coloration and astaxanthin concentration increased with the supplementation dose (p < 0.001). However, there was a decrease in concentration and coloration efficacy of astaxanthin at high dose supplementation (213.4 mg/kg) compared to moderate doses (21.3 and 42.6 mg/kg). Blood biochemical tests showed some discrepancies that were not ascribed to the effect of diets, and the increase in liver weight in the A4 group compared to others was equated with an adaptation of laying hens to the high dose supplementation. Astaxanthin improved superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and diminished malondialdehyde (MDA) content in both liver and serum; meanwhile, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in serum were similar between the moderate doses and high dose supplementation. Additionally, astaxanthin alleviated interleukin 2, 4, and 6 (IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6, respectively) in serum, showing the best effect in A3 and A4 groups. Besides, immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and IgM), as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and beta (TNF-α and TNF-β), were not much affected. It was concluded that although astaxanthin has no obvious adverse effect on the performance and health status of laying hens, it may not be valuable for egg fortification and health status improvement of laying hens at high dose supplementation. The high dose astaxanthin supplementation up to 213.4 mg/kg in the diet might be avoided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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12 pages, 3574 KiB  
Article
Effects of Bile Acids on Growth Performance and Lipid Metabolism during Chronic Heat Stress in Broiler Chickens
Animals 2021, 11(3), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030630 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3114
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate whether dietary bile acid (BA) supplements can improve growth performance and lipid metabolism in heat-stressed broiler chickens. A total of 288 Arbor Acres broilers were blocked by BW and then randomly allocated into 4 treatments at 21 days [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate whether dietary bile acid (BA) supplements can improve growth performance and lipid metabolism in heat-stressed broiler chickens. A total of 288 Arbor Acres broilers were blocked by BW and then randomly allocated into 4 treatments at 21 days of age. Birds reared under 32 °C had a higher cloacal temperature (p = 0.01), faster respiratory rate (p < 0.001), and a greatly reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI, p = 0.016), average daily gain (ADG, p = 0.006), final body weight (FBW, p = 0.008), and feed conversion rate (FCR, p = 0.004). In heat stress (HS) birds, the breast muscle rate (p = 0.006) and pH 24 h postmortem (p = 0.065) were lower, and the shear force was higher (p = 0.027). Dietary BA supplements tended to increase the breast muscle rate (p = 0.075) without affecting the growth performance and serum lipids (p > 0.05). Serum total bile acid (TBA) was roughly duplicated after BA supplements (p = 0.001). In the liver, total cholesterol was lower (p = 0.046), and triglycerides were higher (p = 0.04) in the HS birds, whereas the expression of SREBP-1c showed an increasing trend (p = 0.06). In contrast, dietary BA decreased triglycerides and the expressions of hepatic SREBP-1c and FAS in the liver (p < 0.05). In summary, mild HS causes hepatic lipid accumulation without obvious tissue damages, whereas BA has positive effects on relieving abnormal lipid metabolism, indicating that BA as a nutritional strategy has a certain potential in alleviating HS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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15 pages, 611 KiB  
Article
Supplementation Effect of Oleuropein Extract Combined with Betaine, Magnesium, and Vitamin E on Pigs’ Performance and Meat Quality Characteristics
Animals 2021, 11(2), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020443 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
This study evaluates the effect of the dietary combination of oleuropein extract (1200 mg/kg) and betaine (1000 mg/kg), magnesium oxide (600 mg/kg), and α–tocopheryl acetate (400 mg/kg), or a half-dose of these compounds, on pigs’ performance, oxidative status, and meat quality characteristics (drip [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the effect of the dietary combination of oleuropein extract (1200 mg/kg) and betaine (1000 mg/kg), magnesium oxide (600 mg/kg), and α–tocopheryl acetate (400 mg/kg), or a half-dose of these compounds, on pigs’ performance, oxidative status, and meat quality characteristics (drip loss, TBARS, and texture and fatty acid profile of intramuscular fat). Sixty-six barrows and females were slaughtered at 120 kg of BW. Performance and carcass yield were not changed by treatments. The high-dose mixture resulted in higher serum ferric reducing/antioxidant power (p = 0.0026), lower glucose (p = 0.03) and a tendency to have lower serum TBARS (p = 0.07) when compared to control. Percentage of drip loss, moisture content, intramuscular fat, or texture parameters were not modified by dietary treatments. Pigs supplemented with the high-dose mixture had higher PUFA (p = 0.0001), n-6 (p = 0.0001), n-3 (p = 0.0095) and lower MUFA (p = 0.0064) in the neutral lipid fraction of intramuscular fat. Free PUFA, mainly n-3 fatty acids (p = 0.0009), were also higher in the meat of pigs fed the high-dose mixture compared with the others. A higher mobilization (neutral to free fatty acids hydrolysis) of n-3 and MUFA fatty acids in the muscle from pigs fed the high-dose mixture was observed. However, dietary mixture supplementation tended to increase MUFA (p = 0.056) and decrease the total PUFA (p = 0.0074) proportions in muscle polar lipids. This specific fatty acid composition of meat from pigs supplemented with the high-dose mixture could be responsible for the higher meat lipid oxidation observed in this group when compared to the other groups. Consequently, the low-dose mixture would be more adequate for maintaining the oxidative status of pigs and, meat lipid stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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12 pages, 22500 KiB  
Article
Genomics Analysis of Bacillus megaterium 1259 as a Probiotic and Its Effects on Performance in Lactating Dairy Cows
Animals 2021, 11(2), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020397 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2596
Abstract
In this study, we isolated a novel bacterium, Bacillus megaterium 1259 (BM1259), from chicken manure. Whole-genome sequencing analysis showed that the BM1259 complete genome is composed of a 5,043,095 bp circular chromosome and three circular plasmids, and it encodes 5379 coding genes and [...] Read more.
In this study, we isolated a novel bacterium, Bacillus megaterium 1259 (BM1259), from chicken manure. Whole-genome sequencing analysis showed that the BM1259 complete genome is composed of a 5,043,095 bp circular chromosome and three circular plasmids, and it encodes 5379 coding genes and 182 RNA genes. Among these genes, a series of nitrate assimilation-related genes and pathways were identified, implying a potential role of BM1259 in nitrate metabolism. In addition, 24 lactating Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to four groups that were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) diet only (C), a TMR diet supplemented with 5 g/day of BM1259 (T1), a TMR diet supplemented with 10 g/day of BM1259 (T2), or a TMR diet supplemented with 15 g/day of BM1259 (T3). The results showed that supplementing dairy cows with 15 g/day of BM1259 increased 4% fat-corrected milk production. The molar proportion of propionate (C3) was significantly higher in T2 than in C. The C2:C3 ratio of T3 was higher than those of C and T2. No negative effect of BM1259 on blood indicators was detected. This study demonstrates BM1259 can be applied as a potential probiotic to improve nitrogen utilization and milk production in lactating dairy cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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12 pages, 1173 KiB  
Article
Effects of Diet Supplemented with Excess Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium on Growth Performance, Blood Parameters and Redox Status in Weaned Pigs
Animals 2021, 11(2), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020359 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2274
Abstract
The research was implemented to assess the safety of feeding excess of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ·Na2) to 108 Duroc × Landrace × Large White weaned pigs (BW = 8.38 ± 0.47 kg). Pigs were weaned at 28 d and randomly distributed [...] Read more.
The research was implemented to assess the safety of feeding excess of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ·Na2) to 108 Duroc × Landrace × Large White weaned pigs (BW = 8.38 ± 0.47 kg). Pigs were weaned at 28 d and randomly distributed to one of three diets with six replicates and six pigs per replicate (three males and three females). Pigs in the control group were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet (without growth promoter) while the two experimental diets were supplied with 7.5 and 75.0 mg/kg PQQ·Na2, respectively. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion (F:G), diarrhea incidence, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ index and general health were determined. Diets supplementation with 7.5 mg/kg PQQ·Na2 in weaned pigs could increase ADG during the entire experimental period (p < 0.05). And there was a tendency to decrease F:G (p = 0.063). The F:G of weaned pigs fed 7.5 and 75.0 mg/kg PQQ·Na2 supplemented diets was decreased by 9.83% and 8.67%, respectively, compared to the control group. Moreover, pigs had reduced diarrhea incidence (p < 0.01) when supplemented with PQQ·Na2. No differences were observed between pigs supplemented with 0.0, 7.5 and 75.0 mg/kg PQQ·Na2 diets on hematological and serum biochemical parameters as well as histological assessment of heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. At day 14, pigs had increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (p < 0.05), catalase (CAT) (p < 0.05) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (p < 0.05), and the serum concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased (p < 0.01) with PQQ·Na2 supplementation. At day 28, pigs had increased activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) (p < 0.01), GSH-Px (p < 0.01), CAT (p < 0.05) and T-AOC (p < 0.01), and serum concentration of MDA was lower (p < 0.01) with PQQ·Na2 supplementation. In conclusion, PQQ·Na2 can improve weaned pigs growth performance and serum antioxidant status. Meanwhile high PQQ·Na2 inclusion of 75.0 mg/kg does not appear to result in harmful effects on growth performance of pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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11 pages, 418 KiB  
Article
The Dietary Supplemental Effect of Nitroethanol in Comparison with Monensin on Methane Emission, Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Female Lambs
Animals 2021, 11(2), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020327 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1533
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplemental effects of 2-nitroethanol (NEOH) in comparison with monensin on methane (CH4) emission, growth performance and carcass characteristics in female lambs. Sixty female, small-tailed Chinese Han lambs (3.5 ± 0.3 month) were randomly [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplemental effects of 2-nitroethanol (NEOH) in comparison with monensin on methane (CH4) emission, growth performance and carcass characteristics in female lambs. Sixty female, small-tailed Chinese Han lambs (3.5 ± 0.3 month) were randomly allotted into three dietary treatment groups: (1) Control group, a basal control diet, (2) monensin group, the basal diet added with 40 mg/kg monensin, (3) NEOH group, the basal diet added with 277 mg/kg nitroethanol, and the feedlotting trial lasted for 70 days. Although dietary addition of monensin and NEOH did not affect nutrient digestibility of lambs, both monensin and NEOH decreased the calculated CH4 production (12.7% vs. 17.4% decrease; p < 0.01). In addition, the CH4 production represents less dietary energy loss in the monensin and NEOH group than in the control, indicating that monensin and NEOH are potent CH4 inhibitors that can reduce dietary energy loss. Dietary addition of monensin and NEOH decreased dry matter intake (p < 0.01); however, they increased the ADG of female lambs (p < 0.01). As a result, both monensin and NEOH increased feed conversion efficiency of the feedlotting lambs (p < 0.01), suggesting that feed energy saved from CH4 production promoted the feed efficiency and ADG in the present study. Except for the fact that NEOH addition increased the net muscle percentage to carcass weight (p = 0.03), neither monensin nor NEOH had a significant influence on carcass characteristics of female lambs (p > 0.05). From an economic point of view, NEOH and monensin caused a reduction in feed consumption costs, therefore resulting in a higher net revenue and economic efficiency than the control. In summary, dietary supplementation of NEOH in comparison with monensin presented a more promoting effect on energy utilization in female lambs by inhibiting rumen methanogenesis more efficiently, and NEOH improved the net revenue and economic efficiency more significantly than monensin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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13 pages, 582 KiB  
Article
Effects of Commercial Antioxidants in Feed on Growth Performance and Oxidative Stress Status of Weaned Piglets
Animals 2021, 11(2), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020266 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2922
Abstract
This work aimed to evaluate the effect of adding two different commercial antioxidants (AOX) products to pre-starter and starter diets using low vitamin E (Vit E as DL-α-tocopheryl acetate) levels on the growth performance and oxidative stress of piglets for the first six [...] Read more.
This work aimed to evaluate the effect of adding two different commercial antioxidants (AOX) products to pre-starter and starter diets using low vitamin E (Vit E as DL-α-tocopheryl acetate) levels on the growth performance and oxidative stress of piglets for the first six weeks post-weaning (PW). They were sorted by initial body weight (BW: 6.175 ± 0.931 kg) and randomly allotted to four dietary treatments (with six replicates per treatment): a positive control (PC) and a negative control (NC) diet, with normal and low dose of vitamin E (80 and 15 mg kg−1, respectively), both without AOX; the other two experimental diets with a low dose of vitamin E (LVE) plus LOXIDAN VD100 (LVE + AOX1) or LOXIDAN E Ros (LVE + AOX2). Growth data were recorded, and blood samples were taken, at the beginning (day 0) and at the end of each feeding period: pre-starter and starter (at days 14 and 42, respectively). No differences among dietary treatments were found with respect to growth performance in the pre-starter period (p ≥ 0.05). However, at the end of the starter period, a lower BW was found in piglets fed the NC diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Differences in daily gain and feed conversion ratio were also found either for the starter period or when the whole period was considered (p < 0.05), whereby piglets fed PC or LVE diets supplemented with AOX showed better growth performance compared to piglets fed the NC diet. Regarding Vit E (α-tocopherol) serum levels, there were no differences among treatments at day 0; but the serum values of this vitamin decreased in LVE diets at 14 and 42 days, but not in the PC. On day 42, the highest levels of α-tocopherol in liver were also found in piglets fed PC (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, in general, from a metabolic point of view and after checking the serum biochemical profile of piglets, there were no differences in other oxidative stress markers (p ≥ 0.05). The results showed that the AOX products used were able to compensate for the lower Vit E supply with respect to growth performance in the starter phase. The use of AOXs or usual levels of Vit E in feed constitutes a key factor in achieving optimal growth performance of piglets in the PW period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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18 pages, 701 KiB  
Article
A High Dietary Incorporation Level of Chlorella vulgaris Improves the Nutritional Value of Pork Fat without Impairing the Performance of Finishing Pigs
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122384 - 12 Dec 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2851
Abstract
The influence of a high inclusion level of Chlorella vulgaris, individually and supplemented with two carbohydrase mixtures, in finishing pig diets was assessed on zootechnical performance, carcass characteristics, pork quality traits and nutritional value of pork fat. Forty crossbred entire male pigs, [...] Read more.
The influence of a high inclusion level of Chlorella vulgaris, individually and supplemented with two carbohydrase mixtures, in finishing pig diets was assessed on zootechnical performance, carcass characteristics, pork quality traits and nutritional value of pork fat. Forty crossbred entire male pigs, sons of Large White × Landrace sows crossed with Pietrain boars, with an initial live weight of 59.1 ± 5.69 kg were used in this trial. Swines were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments (n = 10): cereal and soybean meal-based diet (control), control diet with 5% C. vulgaris (CV), CV diet supplemented with 0.005% Rovabio® Excel AP (CV + R) and CV diet supplemented with 0.01% of a four-CAZyme mixture (CV + M). Animals were slaughtered, after the finishing period, with a BW of 101 ± 1.9 kg. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits were not influenced (p > 0.05) by the incorporation of C. vulgaris in the diets. However, the inclusion of the microalga in finishing pig diets increased some lipid-soluble antioxidant pigments and n-3 PUFA, and decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of fatty acids, thus ameliorating the nutritional value of pork fat. Moreover, the supplementation of diets with the carbohydrase mixtures did not change (p > 0.05) neither animal performance nor meat quality traits, indicating their inefficacy in the increase of digestive utilization of C. vulgaris by pigs under these experimental conditions. It is concluded that the use of C. vulgaris in finishing pig diets, at this high incorporation level, improves the nutritional value of pork fat without compromising pig performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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17 pages, 875 KiB  
Article
Can Moderate Levels of Organic Selenium in Dairy Cow Feed Naturally Enrich Dairy Products?
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2269; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122269 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2475
Abstract
This work studied the effect of dairy cow ration supplementation with inorganic plus organic Se on metabolic status, milk yield, and the quality of milk and dairy products, especially its Se content. Twenty multiparous Holstein Friesian lactating cows were assigned to two feeding [...] Read more.
This work studied the effect of dairy cow ration supplementation with inorganic plus organic Se on metabolic status, milk yield, and the quality of milk and dairy products, especially its Se content. Twenty multiparous Holstein Friesian lactating cows were assigned to two feeding treatments. The cows were fed with 22.5 kg dry matter (DM) of total mixed ration (11.75 kg DM of forage plus 10.75 kg DM of concentrate) by head. There were two different concentrates with the same Se content (0.240 mg/kg of ration DM) but with different Se sources: The control (CON) was supplemented with inorganic Se (sodium selenite); and the other (IOSe) was supplemented with sodium selenite plus organic Se (Sel-Plex®), at 0.144 and 0.096 mg Se/kg of ration DM, respectively. The results indicated that, in general, the IOSe treatment did not modify the metabolic profile, and even decreased the total oxidant status (p < 0.05) and did not lead to a deterioration of quality and yield of milk. However, milk and cheese from IOSe had higher Se content (an increase of 29.7% and 38.2%, respectively) than CON (p < 0.01), but this effect was not observed in yogurt. In general, physical or sensorial parameters of cheeses did not show differences between treatments. Moderate inorganic plus organic Se supplementation may be more effective than inorganic Se, increasing the Se content in milk and cheese, without causing a deterioration in quality or productive parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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17 pages, 1152 KiB  
Article
Physical, Nutritional, and Sensory Properties of Cheese Obtained from Goats Fed a Dietary Supplementation with Olive Leaves
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2238; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122238 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical, nutritional, and sensory properties of cheese obtained from goats fed a dietary supplementation with olive leaves (OL). Thirty Saanen goats were randomly allocated into two groups of 15 goats each, (1) a control [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical, nutritional, and sensory properties of cheese obtained from goats fed a dietary supplementation with olive leaves (OL). Thirty Saanen goats were randomly allocated into two groups of 15 goats each, (1) a control group fed with a standard diet (CG), and (2) an experimental group (EG) fed an OL-enriched diet. The trial lasted for 30 days. The milk of each group was then collected and used to produce Caciotta cheese, which was analyzed at the beginning and at the end of the ripening period (60 days). The results showed a positive effect of dietary OL supplementation in improving the fatty acid profiles due to the significant increase of unsaturated fatty acids, mostly α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), with the consequent reduction of the ω-6/ω-3 ratio, a condition commonly associated with an increased health functionality of food products. Moreover, improved oxidative stability was observed in cheese during ripening, a presumable consequence of the transfer into the milk of dietary bioactive compounds, mainly polyphenols of high biological value, and credited as a marked antioxidant potential. Furthermore, reduced lipolytic action was observed in 60-day ripened cheese, even if no significant changes in sensory properties were evidenced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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12 pages, 258 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplementation of Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus Modulates Cholesterol Levels, Immune Response, and Productive Performance of Laying Hens
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1588; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091588 - 06 Sep 2020
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 3198
Abstract
This study examines the effect of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) on the cholesterol levels, immune response, and productive performance of laying hens. A total of 216, 40-week-old, commercial Hy-Line brown chicken layers were randomly assigned into four treatment groups (18 birds [...] Read more.
This study examines the effect of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) on the cholesterol levels, immune response, and productive performance of laying hens. A total of 216, 40-week-old, commercial Hy-Line brown chicken layers were randomly assigned into four treatment groups (18 birds × three replicates per group) and fed diet supplemented with 0 (control), 1 × 109, 21 × 109, and 31 × 109 colony forming units (CFUs) of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) per kg of feed for six consecutive weeks. Results show that plasma triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterols became lesser, while high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol became higher in LA-supplemented groups compared to the control. In addition, a significant reduction occurred in the liver and egg yolk cholesterol by LA supplementation. Moreover, the immunological parameters including antibody titer against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-wattle swelling test, and T- & B-lymphocyte proliferation were enhanced in laying hens supplemented with LA compared to the control hens. While the heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio decreased with LA supplementation, indicating low stress conditions in the treated hens. These positive effects for LA were further reflected on the productive performance of laying hens and improved egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and feed efficiency. Our findings indicate that LA probiotic could be recommended in laying hens’ diets for lowering egg yolk cholesterol with positive impacts on health and performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
14 pages, 1184 KiB  
Article
Low Dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA Ratio Regulates Meat Quality, Reduces Triglyceride Content, and Improves Fatty Acid Composition of Meat in Heigai Pigs
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091543 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2452
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with different n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios on growth performance, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in Heigai pigs. A total of 54 Heigai finishing pigs (body weight: 71.59 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with different n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios on growth performance, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in Heigai pigs. A total of 54 Heigai finishing pigs (body weight: 71.59 ± 2.16 kg) were randomly divided into three treatments with six replications (three pigs per replication) and fed diets containing different n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios: 8:1, 5:1, and 3:1. Pigs fed the dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 8:1 had the highest feed to gain ratio (p < 0.01), carcass weight (p < 0.05), redness a* (p < 0.01), and yellowness b* (p < 0.01). Fatty acid compositions in longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were significantly changed (p < 0.01). Notably, the meat from the pigs fed with the low dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio had higher n-3 PUFA contents (p < 0.01) and lower n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (p < 0.01). The triglyceride and total cholesterol contents were significantly decreased in SAT from the pigs fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 (p < 0.05) and 3:1 (p < 0.01). Reducing n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio upregulated the expression of HSL (p < 0.05), CPT1 (p < 0.01), and FABP4 (p < 0.01) but downregulated ATGL (p < 0.01) expression. These results demonstrate that the lower n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio regulates meat quality and enhances the deposition of n-3 PUFA in Heigai pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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14 pages, 974 KiB  
Article
Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides Modulate Gut Inflammatory Response and Improve Duodenal Villi Height in Post-Weaning Piglets Improving Feed Efficiency
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081283 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3857
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on gut health and performance in post-weaning piglets. In total, 40 piglets were divided into two experimental groups and fed a basal diet with (TRT) or without (CON) 0.2% [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on gut health and performance in post-weaning piglets. In total, 40 piglets were divided into two experimental groups and fed a basal diet with (TRT) or without (CON) 0.2% mannan oligosaccharides for 35 days. Growth performance was determined weekly and faecal microbial composition on days 0, 14 and 35. On day 36, histometrical evaluations were performed on duodenal, jejunal, ileal, and colon samples. mRNA gene expression of inflammation-related genes was evaluated in samples of ileal Peyer’s patches (IPP). MOS administration improved feed efficiency in the last two weeks of the trial (p < 0.05), and a decreased clostridia content was found in faeces at day 14 (p = 0.05). TRT piglets showed increased duodenal villi height (p < 0.05), and reduced mRNA levels of Tumour Necrosis Factor α (p < 0.05) and Toll-Like Receptor 4 (p < 0.01) in IPP. Our results suggest beneficial effects of MOS supplementation on gut morphology and the expression of inflammation-related genes in post-weaning piglets, accompanied by increased feed efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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12 pages, 278 KiB  
Article
Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Salix alba Bark on Performance, Oxidative Stress Parameters in Liver and Gut Microflora of Broilers
Animals 2020, 10(6), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10060958 - 31 May 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
The paper aimed to analyse the effect of dietary Salix alba L. bark powder (SAB) on broiler performance in terms of oxidative stress parameters in liver and gut microflora. One hundred and eighty Cobb 500 broiler chicks (14 days) were allotted to three [...] Read more.
The paper aimed to analyse the effect of dietary Salix alba L. bark powder (SAB) on broiler performance in terms of oxidative stress parameters in liver and gut microflora. One hundred and eighty Cobb 500 broiler chicks (14 days) were allotted to three homogeneous treatments (SAB 0%; SAB 0.025%; SAB 0.05%). The broilers were housed in an environmentally controlled space (10 replicates, six broilers/replicate). Compared to dietary control treatment (SAB 0%), the other treatments included 0.025% SAB (SAB 0.025%) and 0.05% SAB (SAB 0.05%). The results showed that SAB powder used in broiler diet had a high total phenolic content. Regarding the performance results, significant differences between experimental and control treatments were recorded only for average daily feed intake (35–42 days). The broilers fed with SAB powder had a significantly lower hepatic level of malondialdehide and glutathione, a higher total antioxidant capacity than those fed control treatment, and demonstrated a positive effect on the development of non-pathogenic bacteria (lactobacilli) but a decrease in the population of pathogenic ones (E. coli, staphylococci). Our findings suggested that dietary 0.05% SAB powder could be an effective solution to impede the oxidative stress in broiler liver and to improve gut microflora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
16 pages, 2254 KiB  
Article
Effects of Tributyrin Supplementation on Growth Performance, Insulin, Blood Metabolites and Gut Microbiota in Weaned Piglets
Animals 2020, 10(4), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040726 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 6307
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tributyrin supplementation on the production traits, the main metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty crossbred piglets (Large White × Landrace) were randomly divided into two experimental [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tributyrin supplementation on the production traits, the main metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty crossbred piglets (Large White × Landrace) were randomly divided into two experimental groups (six pens each; 10 piglets per pen): the control group (CTRL), that received a basal diet, and the tributyrin group (TRIB) that received the basal diet supplemented with 0.2% tributyrin. The experimental period lasted 40 days. Production traits were measured at days 14, 28 and 40. A subset composed of 48 animals (n = 4 for each pen; n = 24 per group) was considered for the evaluation of serum metabolic parameters and hair cortisol by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and faecal microbiota by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our results showed that the treatment significantly increased body weight (BW) at day 28 and day 40 (p = 0.0279 and p = 0.0006, respectively) and average daily gain (ADG) from day 28 to day 40 (p = 0.046). Gain to feed ratio (G:F) was significantly higher throughout the experimental period (p = 0.049). Even if the serum parameters were in the physiological range, albumin, albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio, glucose and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) fraction were significantly higher in the TRIB group. On the contrary, tributyrin significantly decreased the urea blood concentration (p = 0.0026), which was correlated with lean gain and feed efficiency. Moreover, serum insulin concentration, which has a regulatory effect on protein and lipid metabolism, was significantly higher in the TRIB group (p = 0.0187). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that tributyrin can be considered as a valid feed additive for weaned piglets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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17 pages, 2101 KiB  
Article
Effects of Microencapsulated Blend of Organic Acids and Essential Oils as a Feed Additive on Quality of Chicken Breast Meat
Animals 2020, 10(4), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040640 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3173
Abstract
The present study aims to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation based on a blend of microencapsulated organic acids (sorbic and citric) and essential oils (thymol and vanillin) on chicken meat quality. A total of 420 male Ross 308 chicks were randomly assigned [...] Read more.
The present study aims to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation based on a blend of microencapsulated organic acids (sorbic and citric) and essential oils (thymol and vanillin) on chicken meat quality. A total of 420 male Ross 308 chicks were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments: the control group was fed with conventional diet (CON), while the other group received the control diet supplemented with 0.5% of a microencapsulated blend of organic acids and essential oils (AVI). In breast meat samples, intramuscular fat content and saturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio were reduced by AVI supplementation (p < 0.05). Moreover, atherogenic (p < 0.01) and thrombogenic (p < 0.05) indices were lower in AVI than CON treatment. AVI raw meat showed a lower density of psychrotrophic bacteria (p < 0.05) at an initial time, and higher loads of enterococci after 4 days of refrigerated storage (p < 0.05). No contamination of Listeria spp., Campylobacter spp., and Clostridium spp. was found. TBARS values of the cooked meat were lower in the AVI treatment compared to CON (p < 0.01). Among colour parameters, a*, b* and C* values increased between 4 and 7 days of storage in AVI cooked meat (p < 0.05). Overall, organic acids and essential oils could improve the quality and shelf-life of poultry meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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17 pages, 4491 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplementation with Compound Probiotics and Berberine Alters Piglet Production Performance and Fecal Microbiota
Animals 2020, 10(3), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030511 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2731
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with compound probiotics and berberine (CPB) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in weaned piglets. A total of 200 piglets 35 days old were randomly allocated to 5 groups, 4 [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with compound probiotics and berberine (CPB) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in weaned piglets. A total of 200 piglets 35 days old were randomly allocated to 5 groups, 4 replications in each group, and 10 piglets in each replication. Group A was the basal diet; group B was supplemented with antibiotics and zinc oxide; groups C, D and E were supplemented with 0.06%, 0.12% and 0.18% CPB, respectively. The experimental period was 42 d. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion rate (FCR) among five groups (p > 0.05). However, mortality, diarrhea and rejection rates in the control group were higher than that in other groups. CPB could increase protein digestibility and serum IgG content (p < 0.05), while it could decrease serum urea nitrogen content and alkaline phosphatase activity (p < 0.05). Analysis of fecal microbiota showed that the relative abundances of Bacteroides and Firmicutes were increased, while the relative abundances of opportunistic pathogens such as Spirochaetae and Protebactreria were dramatically decreased in piglets fed with CPB or antibiotics, compared with the control group. Furthermore, CPB intervention increased the relative abundances of Prevotella_9, Megasphaera and Prevotella_2, while decreased the relative abundance of Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group. Correlation analysis revealed that there was good correlation between serum indexes and fecal microbiota. It was suggested that CPB might be a promising antibiotic alternative for improving piglet health and immunity, decreasing mortality by positively altering gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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13 pages, 253 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids from Different Sources on Growth Performance, Meat Quality, Muscle Fatty Acid Deposition, and Antioxidant Capacity in Broilers
Animals 2020, 10(3), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030508 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2434
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of dietary fatty acids from various sources on growth performance, meat quality, muscle fatty acid deposition and antioxidant capacity in broilers. 126 Arbor Acres broilers (1 d-old, initial body weight of 45.5 ± 0.72 g) were [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of dietary fatty acids from various sources on growth performance, meat quality, muscle fatty acid deposition and antioxidant capacity in broilers. 126 Arbor Acres broilers (1 d-old, initial body weight of 45.5 ± 0.72 g) were randomly assigned to three treatments with seven cages per treatment and six broilers per cage. The dietary treatments included: (1) corn–soybean meal basal diet containing 3% soybean oil (control diet, CTL); (2) basal diet + 1% microalgae + 1% linseed oil + 1% soybean oil (ML); (3) basal diet + 2% fish oil + 1% soybean oil (FS). The trial consisted of phase 1 (day 1 to 21) and 2 (day 22 to 42). Compared with CTL, broilers fed ML or FS diet showed improved (p < 0.05) average daily gain in phase 1, 2, and overall (day 1 to 42), as well as a decreased (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio in phase 1 and overall. On day 42, broilers supplemented with FS diet showed increased (p ≤ 0.05) the relative weights of pancreas and liver, as well as higher (p < 0.05) redness value in breast and thigh muscle compared with CTL. Broilers offered ML or FS diet had lower (p < 0.05) the relative weight of abdominal fat and total serum cholesterol content in phase 1, and increased (p < 0.05) contents of serum glucose, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosacagetaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity, as well as lower (p < 0.05) concentrations of malondialdehyde, n-6 PUFA, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in breast and thigh muscle compared with CTL. This research indicates that diets supplemented with fish oil or a combination of microalgae and linseed oil experience improved performance, antioxidant capacities and n-3 PUFA profile in muscle of broilers compared with traditional soybean oil supplemented diets Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
13 pages, 1488 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Dietary Protein and Prebiotic Inclusion on Liver and Spleen Gene Expression in Hy-Line Brown Caged Layers
Animals 2020, 10(3), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030453 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2396
Abstract
The ingredients of poultry feeds are chosen based on the least-cost formulation to meet nutritional requirements. However, this approach can lead to the introduction of anti-nutritional ingredients in the feed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of two diets [...] Read more.
The ingredients of poultry feeds are chosen based on the least-cost formulation to meet nutritional requirements. However, this approach can lead to the introduction of anti-nutritional ingredients in the feed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of two diets (with or without prebiotic) on homeostatic genes in the liver and spleen of laying hens. Hy-Line Brown layers were raised either on a soybean meal or cottonseed meal-based diets with and without an added prebiotic (yeast cell wall), totaling four experimental diets. A total of 120, 63-week old layers were housed individually in a wire cage system. We investigated differences in the expression of select homeostatic marker genes in the liver and spleen of hens from each treatment. We then used the ΔΔCT and generalized linear models to assess significance. Results show that the inclusion of prebiotic yeast cell-wall (YCW) increased the expression of the BAK gene in the liver tissue for both the soybean meal (SBM) and cottonseed meal (CSM) diets. For splenic tissue, the combination of YCW with the CSM diet increased the POR gene over six log2 fold. Altogether, our results suggest altered homeostasis, which can have consequences for health and performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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16 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Biological or Chemical-Synthesized Nano-Selenium Supplementation on Growing Rabbits Exposed to Thermal Stress
Animals 2020, 10(3), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030430 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 105 | Viewed by 4965
Abstract
The adverse influences of elevated ambient temperatures during the summer season on the rabbit industry have received increased global attention. Therefore, this study intended to compare the potential effects of nano-selenium (nano-Se) synthesized by biological (BIO) and chemical (CH) methods on growth performance, [...] Read more.
The adverse influences of elevated ambient temperatures during the summer season on the rabbit industry have received increased global attention. Therefore, this study intended to compare the potential effects of nano-selenium (nano-Se) synthesized by biological (BIO) and chemical (CH) methods on growth performance, carcass variables, serum metabolites, and inflammatory cytokines responses of growing rabbits in the summer season. Two hundred and fifty weaned rabbits (males, 35 days of age) were randomly divided into five treatment groups of 50 rabbits each (each group had five replicates with ten male rabbits). Treatment groups were fed a control diet and four controlled diets supplemented with nano-Se synthesized by biological method (BIO25 and BIO50, with a 25 and 50 mg of nano-Se/kg diet, respectively) and chemical method (CH25 and CH50, with a 25 and 50 mg of nano-Se/kg diet, respectively) for eight weeks. During 11 to 13 weeks of age, a gradual enhancement in live body weight (LBW), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was noticed with BIO25 and BIO50 treatments compared to those in the other groups. The carcass percentage was significantly higher (p < 0.01) for animals fed with BIO25 than the other groups. The other organ functions were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in heat-stressed groups compared to that of nano-Se groups. Increasing the level of only BIO from a 25 to a 50 mg/kg diet gave more improvement in the studied parameters. Additionally, the concentrations of serum urea, triglycerides (TG), and glutamyl transferase (GGT) were lower (p < 0.01) in both treated and untreated groups. Likewise, the supplementation with nano-Se (BIO25, BIO50, or CH25) significantly improved the antioxidant indices and inflammatory cytokines responses as indicated from serum metabolites. Based on the study results, nano-Se especially synthesized by the biological method at diet levels of 25 or 50 mg/kg improved the growth performance, kidney and liver functions, carcass traits, antioxidants indices, and inflammatory cytokines of growing rabbits during thermal stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
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