Diagnosis and Pathogenesis of Animal Pathogenic Microorganisms

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2024) | Viewed by 5685

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via F. Delpino 1, 80137 Naples, Italy
Interests: phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antibiotic resistance; bacterial infections in domestic animals; canine coronavirus; bovine herpesvirus-1; Malassezia pachydermatis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via F. Delpino 1, 80137 Naples, Italy
Interests: veterinary bacteriology; bacterial infections in domestic animals; Staphylococcus pseudintermedius infections; antimicrobial susceptibility testing; antimicrobial resistance genes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Animal pathogens have drawn attention in the fields of both the livestock and public health for their impacts worldwide on socio-economics, food safety and security, and human health. Antibiotic resistance is the main concern with regard to public health, and veterinary practitioners often have a limited choice of antimicrobials due to antimicrobial resistance issues and human health concerns.

However, infectious animal diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms, not only bacteria but also viruses or yeast, negatively impact the health and well-being of domestic animals, wildlife, livestock, and human populations. For this reason, the One Health approach is necessary, which involves several in-depth studies aimed at determining the causes or risk factors, implementing the commonly available prevention methods and effective strategies, and evaluating the impact of the measures taken.

Diagnostics represents an important step for correct pathogen detection, the successful treatment of animal infection, and management in clinic, farm and field conditions. Current techniques employed to diagnose pathogens include classical plate-based methods and conventional biochemical methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR have also been proposed for the diagnosis and identification of relevant infectious diseases in animals. However, there is a strong interest in developing new, swift, point-of-care biosensing systems for the early detection of animal diseases with high sensitivity and specificity, particularly in field analysis.

The aim of this Special Issue of Animals is to provide a collection of articles detailing the latest knowledge on infectious diseases in animals. We encourage the submission of original research or review papers from different areas, including the development of rapid screening methods for bacteriological and virological diagnostics (e.g., home-made ELISA, biosensors, and oligoprobes) or test kits for the diagnosis of mycological infections. Descriptions of new and emerging pathogens (exposure, adhesion, invasion, infection, and transmission) and new disease prevention methods, as well as innovative therapies, are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Luisa De Martino
Dr. Francesca Paola Nocera
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • diagnosis
  • pathogenesis
  • infectious diseases
  • bacteria
  • virus
  • fungi
  • control diseases

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3577 KiB  
Article
SARS-CoV-2 Infection Dynamics in the Pittsburgh Zoo Wild Felids with Two Viral Variants (Delta and Alpha) during the 2021–2022 Pandemic in the United States
by Deepanker Tewari, Ryan Miller, Julia Livengood, Leyi Wang, Mary Lea Killian, Felipe Bustamante, Candy Kessler, Nagaraja Thirumalapura, Karen Terio, Mia Torchetti, Kristina Lantz and Justin Rosenberg
Animals 2023, 13(19), 3094; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13193094 - 04 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported in multiple animal species besides humans. The goal of this study was to report clinical signs, infection progression, virus detection and antibody response in a group of wild felids housed in adjacent but [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported in multiple animal species besides humans. The goal of this study was to report clinical signs, infection progression, virus detection and antibody response in a group of wild felids housed in adjacent but neighboring areas at the Pittsburgh Zoo. Initially, five African lions (Panthera leo krugeri) housed together exhibited respiratory clinical signs with viral shedding in their feces in March of 2021 coinciding with infection of an animal keeper. During the second infection wave in December 2021, four Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and a Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) showed clinical signs and tested positive for viral RNA in feces. In infected animals, viral shedding in feces was variable lasting up to 5 weeks and clinical signs were observed for up to 4 weeks. Despite mounting an antibody response to initial exposure, lions exhibited respiratory clinical signs during the second infection wave, but none shed the virus in their feces. The lions were positive for alpha variant (B.1.1.7 lineage) during the first wave and the tiger and lynx were positive for delta variant (AY.25.1. lineage) during the second wave. The viruses recovered from felids were closely related to variants circulating in human populations at the time of the infection. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the park did not show either the clinical signs or the antibody response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Pathogenesis of Animal Pathogenic Microorganisms)
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13 pages, 482 KiB  
Article
Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates Recovered from the Uterus of Mares with Fertility Problems
by Francesca Paola Nocera, Linda Maurizi, Angelo Masullo, Mauro Nicoletti, Antonietta Lucia Conte, Francesca Brunetti, Luisa De Martino, Carlo Zagaglia and Catia Longhi
Animals 2023, 13(10), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13101639 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Escherichia coli is the bacterial pathogen most frequently associated with mare infertility. Here, we characterized 24 E. coli strains isolated from mares which presented signs of endometritis and infertility from a genotypic and phenotypic point of view. The majority of the isolates belonged [...] Read more.
Escherichia coli is the bacterial pathogen most frequently associated with mare infertility. Here, we characterized 24 E. coli strains isolated from mares which presented signs of endometritis and infertility from a genotypic and phenotypic point of view. The majority of the isolates belonged to phylogenetic group B1 (9/24, 37.5%). Regarding antibiotic resistance profiles, 10 out of 24 (41.7%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Moreover, 17 out of 24 (70.8%) were strong or moderate biofilm producers, and of these eight were MDR strains. Interestingly, 21 out of 24 (87.5%) E. coli strains were phenotypically resistant to ampicillin and 10 of them were also resistant to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid. Regarding the presence of selected virulence factors, 50% of the examined strains carried at least three of them, with fimH detected in all strains, and followed by kpsMTII (11/24, 45.9%). No strain was able to invade HeLa cell monolayers. No relevant differences for all the investigated characteristics were shown by strains that grew directly on plates versus strains requiring the broth-enrichment step before growing on solid media. In conclusion, this work provides new insight into E. coli strains associated with mares’ infertility. These results broaden the knowledge of E. coli and, consequently, add useful information to improve prevention strategies and therapeutic treatments contributing to a significant increase in the pregnancy rate in mares. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Pathogenesis of Animal Pathogenic Microorganisms)
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14 pages, 1911 KiB  
Article
Development of a Multiplex Crystal Digital RT-PCR for Differential Detection of Classical, Highly Pathogenic, and NADC30-like Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
by Feng Long, Yating Chen, Kaichuang Shi, Yanwen Yin, Shuping Feng and Hongbin Si
Animals 2023, 13(4), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13040594 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European genotype) and PRRSV type 2 (North American genotype) are prevalent all over the world. Nowadays, the North American genotype PRRSV (NA-PRRSV) has been widely circulating in China and has caused huge economic losses [...] Read more.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European genotype) and PRRSV type 2 (North American genotype) are prevalent all over the world. Nowadays, the North American genotype PRRSV (NA-PRRSV) has been widely circulating in China and has caused huge economic losses to the pig industry. In recent years, classical PRRSV (C-PRRSV), highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), and NADC30-like PRRSV (NL-PRRSV) have been the most common circulating strains in China. In order to accurately differentiate the circulating strains of NA-PRRSV, three pairs of specific primers and corresponding probes were designed for the Nsp2 region of C-PRRSV, HP-PRRSV, and NL-PRRSV. After optimizing the annealing temperature, primer concentration, and probe concentration, a multiplex real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and a multiplex Crystal digital RT-PCR (cdRT-PCR) for the differential detection of C-PRRSV, HP-PRRSV, and NL-PRRSV were developed. The results showed that the two assays illustrated high sensitivity, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 3.20 × 100 copies/μL for the multiplex qRT-PCR and 3.20 × 10−1 copies/μL for the multiplex cdRT-PCR. Both assays specifically detected the targeted viruses, without cross-reaction with other swine viruses, and indicated excellent repeatability, with coefficients of variation (CVs) of less than 1.26% for the multiplex qRT-PCR and 2.68% for the multiplex cdRT-PCR. Then, a total of 320 clinical samples were used to evaluate the application of these assays, and the positive rates of C-PRRSV, HP-PRRSV, and NL-PRRSV by the multiplex qRT-PCR were 1.88%, 21.56%, and 9.69%, respectively, while the positive rates by the multiplex cdRT-PCR were 2.19%, 25.31%, and 11.56%, respectively. The high sensitivity, strong specificity, excellent repeatability, and reliability of these assays indicate that they could provide useful tools for the simultaneous and differential detection of the circulating strains of C-PRRSV, HP-PRRSV, and NL-PRRSV in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Pathogenesis of Animal Pathogenic Microorganisms)
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Review

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13 pages, 572 KiB  
Review
Blackleg: A Review of the Agent and Management of the Disease in Brazil
by Ananda Iara de Jesus Sousa, Cleideanny Cancela Galvão, Prhiscylla Sadanã Pires and Felipe Masiero Salvarani
Animals 2024, 14(4), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14040638 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 957
Abstract
The genus Clostridium is an important group of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria with a sporulation capacity and wide distribution in different environments, including the gastrointestinal tracts of healthy and diseased animals and humans. Among the pathogenic species of the genus, Clostridium [...] Read more.
The genus Clostridium is an important group of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria with a sporulation capacity and wide distribution in different environments, including the gastrointestinal tracts of healthy and diseased animals and humans. Among the pathogenic species of the genus, Clostridium chauvoei stands out as a histotoxic agent. It causes significant myonecrosis such as blackleg, a disease with high lethality, especially in young cattle, and is responsible for significant livestock losses worldwide. The pathogenicity of the disease is complex and has not yet been fully elucidated. Current hypotheses cover processes from the initial absorption to the transport and deposition of the agent in the affected tissues. The virulence factors of C. chauvoei have been divided into somatic and flagellar antigens and soluble antigens/toxins, which are the main antigens used in vaccines against blackleg in Brazil and worldwide. This review provides important information on the first and current approaches to the agent C. chauvoei and its virulence factors as well as a compilation of data on Brazilian studies related to blackleg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Pathogenesis of Animal Pathogenic Microorganisms)
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