Exploring the Epidemiology, Pathogenicity, and Therapeutic Options of Staphylococcus spp.

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Bacterial Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2024) | Viewed by 21640

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Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via F. Delpino 1, 80137 Naples, Italy
Interests: veterinary bacteriology; bacterial infections in domestic animals; Staphylococcus pseudintermedius infections; antimicrobial susceptibility testing; antimicrobial resistance genes
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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Turin, Largo P. Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy
Interests: clinical bacteria; antibiotic-resistance; veterinary bacterial diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Staphylococci are the main inhabitants of skin and mucosa of both animals and humans, in which these opportunistic Gram-positive bacteria can be responsible for a great variety of infections, including pyoderma, otitis, abscesses, mastitis, urinary tract infections, and wound infections. 

Over the last decade, both coagulase positive Staphylococci (CoPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) have become critically opportunistic animal pathogens, frequently being the primary etiological agent of infections such as otitis and pyoderma in small animals. Furthermore, the potential zoonotic transmission of these pathogens should not be underestimated, with animals acting as reservoirs for humans.

The recent emergence and rapid dissemination of multidrug-resistant staphylococcal strains, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius, showing more and more often resistance to the antibiotic agents licensed for use in small and farm animal practice, represent a relevant threat to animal and public health. In the last decade, the antibiotic resistance issue has become increasingly relevant, underlining the need of a continuous surveillance of both methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococci, as well as the development of new and alternative therapeutic options. 

This Special Issue aims at establishing a collection of papers exploring the occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. in small animals, livestock, wildlife and humans, the pathogenic mechanisms involved in the onset of the infection, the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, the diagnostic tools, and the new alternative treatment approaches to prevent and limit the dissemination of multidrug-resistant strains. 

We look forward to receiving research articles, review articles, and short communications on this topic still to be explored.

Dr. Francesca Paola Nocera
Prof. Dr. Patrizia Nebbia
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Staphylococcus spp.
  • transmission
  • pathogenesis of infections
  • antibiotic resistance
  • methicillin resistance
  • therapy
  • zoonotic diseases
  • One Health

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 959 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Potential of Essential Oils and Silver Nanoparticles against Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Isolates
by Gabriele Meroni, Giulia Laterza, Alexios Tsikopoulos, Konstantinos Tsikopoulos, Sara Vitalini, Barbara Scaglia, Marcello Iriti, Luigi Bonizzi, Piera Anna Martino and Alessio Soggiu
Pathogens 2024, 13(2), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13020156 - 9 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1121
Abstract
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an emergent zoonotic agent associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). This work aimed to describe the antibacterial activity of four essential oils (EOs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against 15 S. pseudintermedius strains isolated from pyoderma. The four EOs, namely Rosmarinus officinalis [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an emergent zoonotic agent associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). This work aimed to describe the antibacterial activity of four essential oils (EOs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against 15 S. pseudintermedius strains isolated from pyoderma. The four EOs, namely Rosmarinus officinalis (RO), Juniperus communis (GI), Citrus sinensis (AR), and Abies alba (AB), and AgNPs were used alone and in combination to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC). All strains were MDR and methicillin-resistant. Among the antibiotic cohort, only rifampicin, doxycycline, and amikacin were effective. EOs’ chemical analysis revealed 124 compounds belonging to various chemical classes. Of them, 35 were found in AR, 75 in AB, 77 in GI, and 57 in RO. The monoterpenic fraction prevailed over the sesquiterpenic in all EOs. When EOs were tested alone, AB showed the lowest MIC followed by GI, AR, and RO (with values ranging from 1:128 to 1:2048). MBC increased in the following order: AB, AR, GI, and RO (with values ranging from 1:512 to 1:2048). MIC and MBC values for AgNPs were 10.74 mg/L ± 4.23 and 261.05 mg/L ± 172.74. In conclusion, EOs and AgNPs could limit the use of antibiotics or improve the efficacy of conventional therapies. Full article
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9 pages, 1298 KiB  
Communication
Genomic Analysis of a Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 1 Associated with Caprine Mastitis
by Priscylla C. Vasconcelos, Elma L. Leite, Mauro M. S. Saraiva, Rafaela G. Ferrari, Samuel P. Cibulski, Nubia M. V. Silva, Oliveiro C. Freitas Neto, Patrícia E. N. Givisiez, Rafael F. C. Vieira and Celso J. B. Oliveira
Pathogens 2024, 13(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13010023 - 26 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the genomic and epidemiological features of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 1 (MRSA ST1) strain associated with caprine subclinical mastitis. An S. aureus strain was isolated from goat’s milk with subclinical mastitis in Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil, by [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the genomic and epidemiological features of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 1 (MRSA ST1) strain associated with caprine subclinical mastitis. An S. aureus strain was isolated from goat’s milk with subclinical mastitis in Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil, by means of aseptic procedures and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using the disk-diffusion method. Whole genome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform. After genome assembly and annotation, in silico analyses, including multilocus sequence typing (MLST), antimicrobial resistance and stress-response genes, virulence factors, and plasmids detection were performed. A comparative SNP-based phylogenetic analysis was performed using publicly available MRSA genomes. The strain showed phenotypic resistance to cefoxitin, penicillin, and tetracycline and was identified as sequence type 1 (ST1) and spa type 128 (t128). It harbored the SCCmec type IVa (2B), as well as the lukF-PV and lukS-PV genes. The strain was phylogenetically related to six community-acquired MRSA isolates (CA-MRSA) strains associated with human clinical disease in North America, Europe, and Australia. This is the first report of a CA-MRSA strain associated with milk in the Americas. The structural and epidemiologic features reported in the MRSA ST1 carrying a mecA-SCCmec type IVa suggest highly complex mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer in MRSA. The SNP-based phylogenetic analysis suggests a zooanthroponotic transmission, i.e., a strain of human origin. Full article
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12 pages, 9085 KiB  
Article
Oreoch-1: A Peptide from Oreochromis niloticus as a Potential Tool against Staphylococci
by Francesca Palma, Annalisa Chianese, Erica Panico, Giuseppe Greco, Alessandra Fusco, Vittoria Savio, Eleonora Ruocco, Alessandra Monti, Nunzianna Doti, Carla Zannella, Giovanna Donnarumma, Anna De Filippis and Massimiliano Galdiero
Pathogens 2023, 12(10), 1188; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12101188 - 23 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Staphylococci, including Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, are important human pathogens associated with potentially life-threatening infections. Their great biofilm-producing ability and the development of resistance mechanisms often account for therapeutic failure. Hence, the scientific community has devoted intensive efforts to the development [...] Read more.
Staphylococci, including Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, are important human pathogens associated with potentially life-threatening infections. Their great biofilm-producing ability and the development of resistance mechanisms often account for therapeutic failure. Hence, the scientific community has devoted intensive efforts to the development of antimicrobial compounds active against both planktonic and sessile bacterial populations. Contextually, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural peptides produced by the innate immunity of every organism, representing a potential new therapeutic solution against human microbial pathogens. Our work focused on the in vitro activity of Oreoch-1, an AMP from the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), against standard and clinical S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains. Firstly, the cytotoxicity profile of Oreoch-1 was determined in human colon carcinoma cells. Secondly, its antibacterial spectrum was explored against staphylococcal strains to set up the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Our results highlighted an antibacterial activity in the range 6.25–25 μM, with a general bacteriostatic effect. Therefore, the biofilm-inhibitory property was assessed against S. aureus ATCC 25923 and S. epidermidis ATCC 35984, indicating a significant reduction in S. aureus biomass at sub-MIC concentrations. Overall, our study indicates Oreoch-1 as a promising new therapeutic weapon against staphylococcal infections. Full article
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17 pages, 2167 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Resistant Staphylococcus Species Colonization in Dogs, Their Owners, and Veterinary Staff of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Naples, Italy
by Francesca Paola Nocera, Francesca Pizzano, Angelo Masullo, Laura Cortese and Luisa De Martino
Pathogens 2023, 12(8), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12081016 - 5 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
This study aimed to identify Staphylococcus species isolated from nasal swabs of both healthy and diseased dogs, and those of human origin, obtained from nasal swabs of both owners and veterinary staff. Firstly, pet owners were requested to complete a questionnaire relating to [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify Staphylococcus species isolated from nasal swabs of both healthy and diseased dogs, and those of human origin, obtained from nasal swabs of both owners and veterinary staff. Firstly, pet owners were requested to complete a questionnaire relating to the care and relationship with their pets, whose results mainly showed a statistically significant higher frequency of hand washing in diseased dogs’ owners than in healthy dogs’ owners. Canine nasal swabs were obtained from 43 diseased dogs and 28 healthy dogs, while human nasal swabs were collected from the respective dogs’ owners (71 samples) and veterinary staff (34 samples). The isolation and identification of Staphylococcus spp. were followed by disk diffusion method to define the antimicrobial resistance profiles against 18 different molecules. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was the most frequent isolated strain in both diseased (33.3%) and healthy (46.1%) dogs. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequent isolated bacterium in diseased dogs’ owners (66.6%), while in nasal samples of healthy dogs’ owners, the same frequency of isolation (38.4%) was observed for both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. All the isolated strains showed good susceptibility levels to the tested antimicrobials; however, the carriage of oxacillin-resistant strains was significantly higher in diseased dogs than in healthy ones (71% and 7.7%, respectively). Only in three cases the presence of the same bacterial species with similar antimicrobial resistance profiles in dogs and their owners was detected, suggesting the potential bacterial transmission. In conclusion, this study suggests potential transmission risk of staphylococci from dogs to humans or vice versa, and highlights that the clinical relevance of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius transmission from dog to human should not be underestimated, as well as the role of Staphylococcus aureus from human to dog transmission. Full article
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17 pages, 745 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci from the Dairy Value Chain in Two Indian States
by Tushar K. Dey, Bibek R. Shome, Samiran Bandyopadhyay, Naresh Kumar Goyal, Åke Lundkvist, Ram P. Deka, Rajeswari Shome, Nimita Venugopal, Delia Grace, Garima Sharma, Habibar Rahman and Johanna F. Lindahl
Pathogens 2023, 12(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12020344 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2824
Abstract
Bovine milk and milk products may contain pathogens, antimicrobial resistant bacteria, and antibiotic residues that could harm consumers. We analyzed 282 gram-positive isolates from milk samples from dairy farmers and vendors in Haryana and Assam, India, to assess the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci [...] Read more.
Bovine milk and milk products may contain pathogens, antimicrobial resistant bacteria, and antibiotic residues that could harm consumers. We analyzed 282 gram-positive isolates from milk samples from dairy farmers and vendors in Haryana and Assam, India, to assess the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci using microbiological tests, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and genotyping by PCR. The prevalence of genotypic methicillin resistance in isolates from raw milk samples was 5% [95% confidence interval, CI (3–8)], with 7% [CI (3–10)] in Haryana, in contrast to 2% [CI (0.2–6)] in Assam. The prevalence was the same in isolates from milk samples collected from farmers [5% (n = 6), CI (2–11)] and vendors [5% (n = 7), CI (2–10)]. Methicillin resistance was also observed in 15% of the isolates from pasteurized milk [(n = 3), CI (3–38)]. Two staphylococci harboring a novel mecC gene were identified for the first time in Indian dairy products. The only SCCmec type identified was Type V. The staphylococci with the mecA (n = 11) gene in raw milk were commonly resistant to oxacillin [92%, CI (59–100)] and cefoxitin [74%, CI (39–94)], while the isolates with mecC (n = 2) were resistant to oxacillin (100%) only. All the staphylococci with the mecA (n = 3) gene in pasteurized milk were resistant to both oxacillin and cefoxitin. Our results provided evidence that methicillin-resistant staphylococci occur in dairy products in India with potential public health implications. The state with more intensive dairy systems (Haryana) had higher levels of methicillin-resistant bacteria in milk. Full article
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21 pages, 3164 KiB  
Article
Comparative Genomic Analysis of a Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus hominis ShoR14 Clinical Isolate from Terengganu, Malaysia, Led to the Discovery of Novel Mobile Genetic Elements
by Esra’a I. Al-Trad, Ainal Mardziah Che Hamzah, Suat Moi Puah, Kek Heng Chua, Stephen M. Kwong, Chew Chieng Yeo and Ching Hoong Chew
Pathogens 2022, 11(12), 1406; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11121406 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1832
Abstract
Staphylococcus hominis is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) commensal capable of causing serious systemic infections in humans. The emergence of multidrug-resistant S. hominis strains is of concern but little is known about the characteristics of this organism, particularly from Malaysia. Here, we present the [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus hominis is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) commensal capable of causing serious systemic infections in humans. The emergence of multidrug-resistant S. hominis strains is of concern but little is known about the characteristics of this organism, particularly from Malaysia. Here, we present the comparative genome analysis of S. hominis ShoR14, a multidrug-resistant, methicillin-resistant blood isolate from Terengganu, Malaysia. Genomic DNA of S. hominis ShoR14 was sequenced on the Illumina platform and assembled using Unicycler v0.4.8. ShoR14 belonged to sequence type (ST) 1 which is the most prevalent ST of the S. hominis subsp. hominis. Comparative genomic analysis with closely related strains in the database with complete genome sequences, led to the discovery of a novel variant of the staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) type VIII element harboring the mecA methicillin-resistance gene in ShoR14 and its possible carriage of a SCCfus element that encodes the fusidic acid resistance gene (fusC). Up to seven possible ShoR14 plasmid contigs were identified, three of which harbored resistance genes for tetracycline (tetK), chloramphenicol (catA7), macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B (ermC). Additionally, we report the discovery of a novel mercury-resistant transposon, Tn7456, other genomic islands, and prophages which make up the S. hominis mobilome. Full article
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13 pages, 900 KiB  
Article
Anthroponotic-Based Transfer of Staphylococcus to Dog: A Case Study
by Massimiliano Orsini, Sara Petrin, Michela Corrò, Giulia Baggio, Elena Spagnolo and Carmen Losasso
Pathogens 2022, 11(7), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11070802 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1536
Abstract
Although usually harmless, Staphylococcus spp. can cause nosocomial and community-onset skin and soft tissue infections in both humans and animals; thus, it is considered a significant burden for healthcare systems worldwide. Companion animals have been identified as potential reservoirs of pathogenic Staphylococcus with [...] Read more.
Although usually harmless, Staphylococcus spp. can cause nosocomial and community-onset skin and soft tissue infections in both humans and animals; thus, it is considered a significant burden for healthcare systems worldwide. Companion animals have been identified as potential reservoirs of pathogenic Staphylococcus with specific reference to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, we investigated the circulation and the genetic relationships of a collection of Staphylococcus spp. isolates in a family composed of four adults (a mother, father, grandmother, and grandfather), one child, and a dog, which were sampled over three years. The routes of transmission among humans and between humans and the dog werelyzed. The results displayed the circulation of many Staphylococcus lineages, belonging to different species and sequence types (ST) and being related to both human and pet origins. However, among the observed host-switch events, one of them clearly underpinnthroponotic route from a human to a dog. This suggests that companion animals can potentially have a role as a carrier of Staphylococcus, thus posing a serious concern about MRSA spreading within human and animal microbial communities. Full article
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10 pages, 2147 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Activity of the Iron-Chelator, DIBI, against Multidrug-Resistant Canine Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius: A Preliminary Study of Four Clinical Strains
by Francesca Paola Nocera, Giuseppe Iovane, Luisa De Martino and Bruce E. Holbein
Pathogens 2022, 11(6), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11060656 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important opportunistic pathogen causing various infections in dogs. Furthermore, it is an emerging zoonotic agent and both multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) as well as methicillin-susceptible (MSSP) strains represent an important therapeutic challenge to veterinary medicine and pose a [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important opportunistic pathogen causing various infections in dogs. Furthermore, it is an emerging zoonotic agent and both multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) as well as methicillin-susceptible (MSSP) strains represent an important therapeutic challenge to veterinary medicine and pose a potential threat to human health. We tested representative S. pseudintermedius clinical strains from dogs suffering from otitis externa for their susceptibilities to a panel of 17 antimicrobials compared to DIBI. DIBI, unlike antibiotics, is a novel water-soluble hydroxypyridinone-containing iron-chelating agent that deprives microbes of growth-essential iron and has been previously shown to inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We also characterised the strains according to whether they harbour key antibiotic resistance genes. The strains each displayed multiple antimicrobial resistance patterns; all were negative for the mecA gene and possessed the tetK and tetM genes, but they varied as to their possession of the ermB gene. However, all the isolates had similar susceptibility to DIBI with low MICs (2 µg/mL or 0.2 µM). Because the four MSSPs were equally susceptible to DIBI, subject to confirmation with additional strains, this could provide a potential non-antibiotic, anti-infective alternative approach for the treatment of antimicrobial-resistant canine S. pseudintermedius otitis. Full article
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14 pages, 538 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus from Hunters and Hunting Dogs
by Vanessa Silva, Manuela Caniça, Vera Manageiro, Madalena Vieira-Pinto, José Eduardo Pereira, Luís Maltez, Patrícia Poeta and Gilberto Igrejas
Pathogens 2022, 11(5), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050548 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2566
Abstract
Several studies have showed that a dog-to-human transmission of Staphylococcus aureus occurs. Hunting dogs do not have as much contact with their owners as dogs that live in the same household as the owners; however, these dogs have contact with their owners during [...] Read more.
Several studies have showed that a dog-to-human transmission of Staphylococcus aureus occurs. Hunting dogs do not have as much contact with their owners as dogs that live in the same household as the owners; however, these dogs have contact with their owners during hunting activities as well as when hunting game; therefore, we aimed to isolate S. aureus from hunters and their hunting dogs to investigate a possible S. aureus transmission. Nose and mouth samples were collected from 30 hunters and their 78 hunting dogs for staphylococcal isolation. The species identification was performed using MALDI-TOF. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were accessed using the Kirby–Bauer method and respective antimicrobial resistance genes were investigated by PCR. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa- and agr-typing was performed in all S. aureus isolates. S. aureus were detected in 10 (30%) human samples and in 11 (15.4%) dog samples of which 11 and 5 were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Other staphylococci were identified, particularly, S. pseudintermedius. Most S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Evidence of a possible transmission of S. aureus between human and dogs was detected in three hunters and their dogs. S. aureus isolates were ascribed to 10 STs and 9 spa-types. A moderate colonization of S. aureus in hunting dogs and their owners was detected in this study. A few dog-to-dog and dog-to-human possible transmissions were identified. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 621 KiB  
Review
The Application of Rat Models in Staphylococcus aureus Infections
by Hongyue Liang, Yadong Wang, Fang Liu, Guangcai Duan, Jinzhao Long, Yuefei Jin, Shuaiyin Chen and Haiyan Yang
Pathogens 2024, 13(6), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13060434 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 178
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major human pathogen and can cause a wide range of diseases, including pneumonia, osteomyelitis, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), endocarditis, mastitis, bacteremia, and so forth. Rats have been widely used in the field of [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major human pathogen and can cause a wide range of diseases, including pneumonia, osteomyelitis, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), endocarditis, mastitis, bacteremia, and so forth. Rats have been widely used in the field of infectious diseases due to their unique advantages, and the models of S. aureus infections have played a pivotal role in elucidating their pathogenic mechanisms and the effectiveness of therapeutic agents. This review outlined the current application of rat models in S. aureus infections and future prospects for rat models in infectious diseases caused by S. aureus. Full article
15 pages, 939 KiB  
Review
MRSA in Humans, Pets and Livestock in Portugal: Where We Came from and Where We Are Going
by Vanessa Silva, Andreia Monteiro, José Eduardo Pereira, Luís Maltez, Gilberto Igrejas and Patrícia Poeta
Pathogens 2022, 11(10), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11101110 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3986
Abstract
Over the years, molecular typing of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has allowed for the identification of endemic MRSA strains and pathogenic strains. After reaching a peak of predominance in a given geographic region, MRSA strains are usually replaced by a new strain. This [...] Read more.
Over the years, molecular typing of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has allowed for the identification of endemic MRSA strains and pathogenic strains. After reaching a peak of predominance in a given geographic region, MRSA strains are usually replaced by a new strain. This process is called clonal replacement and is observed worldwide. The worldwide spread of hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) and livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) clones over the last few decades has allowed this microorganism to be currently considered a pandemic. In Portugal, most HA-MRSA infections are associated with EMRSA-15 (S22-IV), New York/Japan (ST5-II) and Iberian (ST247-I) clones. Regarding the strains found in the community, many of them are frequently associated with the hospital environment, namely the Pediatric, Brazilian and Iberian clones. On the other hand, a strain that is typically found in animals, MRSA clonal complex (CC) 398, has been described in humans as colonizing and causing infections. The ST398 clone is found across all animal species, particularly in farm animals where the economic impact of LA-MRSA infections can have disastrous consequences for industries. In contrast, the EMRSA-15 clone seems to be more related to companion animals. The objective of this review is to better understand the MRSA epidemiology because it is, undoubtedly, an important public health concern that requires more attention, in order to achieve an effective response in all sectors. Full article
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Other

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6 pages, 523 KiB  
Case Report
Within-Household Transmission and Bacterial Diversity of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius
by Alice Wegener, Birgitta Duim, Linda van der Graaf-van Bloois, Aldert L. Zomer, Caroline E. Visser, Mirlin Spaninks, Arjen J. Timmerman, Jaap A. Wagenaar and Els M. Broens
Pathogens 2022, 11(8), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11080850 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius can be transmitted between dogs and their owners and can cause opportunistic infections in humans. Whole genome sequencing was applied to identify the relatedness between isolates from human infections and isolates from dogs in the same households. Genome SNP diversity and [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius can be transmitted between dogs and their owners and can cause opportunistic infections in humans. Whole genome sequencing was applied to identify the relatedness between isolates from human infections and isolates from dogs in the same households. Genome SNP diversity and distribution of plasmids and antimicrobial resistance genes identified related and unrelated isolates in both households. Our study shows that within-host bacterial diversity is present in S. pseudintermedius, demonstrating that multiple isolates from each host should preferably be sequenced to study transmission dynamics. Full article
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