Small Companion Animal Impact on the Human Welfare: a 360° Health Approach

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Companion Animals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 7725

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Milan, 26900 Lodi, Italy
Interests: veterinary transfusion medicine; blood types; veterinary dermatology; regenerative veterinary medicine; infectious diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Milan, 26900 Lodi, Italy
Interests: veterinary transfusion medicine; blood types; canine internal medicine; veterinary dermatology; infectious diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences - One Health Unit, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: antibiotic resistance; one health; bacterial infections; alternative to antibiotics; laboratory animals; infectious diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Milan, 26900 Lodi, Italy
Interests: veterinary transfusion medicine; blood types; feline internal medicine; infectious diseases; epidemiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A close cooperation between veterinary and human medicine is the prerequisite for the conservation and promotion of human and animal health, saving resources and maintaining an intact environment. This interdisciplinary approach is called One Health. Climate change, population growth, increasingly close interactions between populations, growing urbanization, the increase of domestic animals in human habitats and the increase in the global movement of animals exert increasing pressures on human and animal health. Therefore, the application of a global health concept that considers the complex relationships between human populations, animals, and ecosystems becomes strategic through a multidisciplinary approach that addresses the potential risks that originate from this interface.

There are numerous specific examples of significant human diseases in which small companion animals play an important role in transmission or act as reservoirs of infection. The close relationship between pet animals and humans creates the potential for the transmission of many diseases, for the spread of antibiotic resistance, and for increased risk of emergent zoonotic infections. In developed countries, pets are part of the family unit and spend their entire existence within the indoor domestic environment in close physical contact with their owners. Although many of these animals benefit from high standards of health care, there are a number of zoonotic infectious diseases that can be transmitted directly or indirectly from these species, depending on the lifestyle of the animal, which is influenced by factors such as parasite control and vaccination; contact with other pets, stray animals, or wildlife; or exposure to particular environments. Immunity is the key in the fight against most viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases, and can make the difference between the development of disease and resistance to disease.

Another aspect to consider is that in most developing countries there are remarkable numbers of feral/stray dogs and cats that have close contact with the human urban environment, and communal village ownership of dogs and cats is common in many places. Most of these animals receive intermittent or no veterinary care, and they can act as an important reservoir of zoonotic infection.

Another interesting aspect of One Health is the improvement of comparative medical research. It is universally recognized that the study of spontaneously occurring canine and feline diseases has great potential for understanding the same diseases in humans. Pets develop a broad range of genetics, inflammatory, infectious, immune-mediated, and neoplastic diseases that strictly imitate human disorders. A final aspect of One Health involves the significant and widely studied area of the human–companion animal interaction. The direct benefit to human health and wellbeing from association with pets is now well established in different areas and target subjects (e.g., children, psychiatric patients, neurological patients, elderly people in retirement homes), and the sanitary surveillance of these animals therefore becomes of extreme importance in the context of public health.

We invite colleagues to submit papers on a broad range of topics around One Health in Small Companion Animals. Areas of interest include but are not limited to:

  • Pharmaco-surveillance and prevention of antimicrobial resistance;
  • Prevention and epidemiological investigations relating to zoonoses;
  • Innovative drugs and therapies;
  • Civilization diseases;
  • Veterinary bioethics;
  • Emerging diseases;
  • Stray prevention;
  • Veterinary urban hygiene;
  • Immunity against vaccination or infection;
  • Surveillance in animal pet therapy;
  • Information, health education, and training.

Dr. Roberta Perego
Prof. Daniela Proverbio
Dr. Piera Anna Martino
Prof. Eva Spada
Guest Editors

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • One Health
  • small companion animals
  • zoonoses
  • prevention
  • emerging diseases
  • stray animals monitoring
  • epidemiology
  • antimicrobial resistance

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 3665 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antiparasitic Activities of Monovalent Ionophore Compounds for Human and Canine Leishmaniases
by Estefanía Calvo Alvarez, Sarah D’Alessandro, Daniela Proverbio, Eva Spada, Roberta Perego, Donatella Taramelli, Nicoletta Basilico and Silvia Parapini
Animals 2022, 12(18), 2337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12182337 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
The leishmaniases are vector-borne parasitic diseases affecting humans and animals, with high mortality rates in endemic countries. Infected dogs represent the main reservoir of infection. Disease control is mainly based on chemotherapy, which, at present, shows serious drawbacks both in humans and dogs. [...] Read more.
The leishmaniases are vector-borne parasitic diseases affecting humans and animals, with high mortality rates in endemic countries. Infected dogs represent the main reservoir of infection. Disease control is mainly based on chemotherapy, which, at present, shows serious drawbacks both in humans and dogs. Therefore, the discovery or repurposing of new treatments is mandatory. Here, three monovalent ionophores (salinomycin, monensin, nigericin) were tested against promastigotes of Leishmania (L.) infantum, Leishmania tropica, and Leishmania braziliensis, and against amastigotes of L. infantum within human and, for the first time, canine macrophages. All three drugs were leishmanicidal against all Leishmania spp. promastigotes with IC50 values between 7.98 and 0.23 µM. Monensin and nigericin showed IC50 values < 1 µM, whereas salinomycin was the least active compound (IC50 > 4 µM). Notably, the ionophores killed L. infantum amastigotes within human THP-1 cells with IC50 values ranging from 1.67 to 1.93 µM, but they only reduced by 27–37% the parasite burden in L. infantum-infected canine macrophages, showing a host-specific efficacy. Moreover, a selective higher toxicity against canine macrophages was observed. Overall, repurposed ionophores have the potential to be further investigated as anti-Leishmania agents, but different drug options may be required to tackle human or canine leishmaniases. Full article
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10 pages, 1453 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Bacterial Isolations and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Chronic Rhinitis in Cats
by Wannisa Meepoo, Tassanee Jaroensong, Chantima Pruksakorn and Jatuporn Rattanasrisomporn
Animals 2022, 12(12), 1572; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121572 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3086
Abstract
Chronic rhinitis is a quite common upper respiratory tract (URT) disease in cats. As a result of unclear etiology, frequently, multidrug-resistant bacteria are identified. This study investigated bacterial isolations and an antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) in chronic rhinitis in cats. The medical records [...] Read more.
Chronic rhinitis is a quite common upper respiratory tract (URT) disease in cats. As a result of unclear etiology, frequently, multidrug-resistant bacteria are identified. This study investigated bacterial isolations and an antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) in chronic rhinitis in cats. The medical records of 395 cats with chronic URT signs were reviewed at the Kasetsart University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (KUVTH) between 2016 and 2021 to survey the underlying causes of URT. Then, apart from rhinitis, other causes were excluded to identify the bacterial species and antimicrobial susceptibility. The results indicated that the most frequent finding was neoplasia, followed by rhinitis and anatomical defects. Furthermore, the only significant association was between the age range and disease group, with gender, FIV, or FeLV infection not being significant. Rhinitis was 4.7 times more likely to occur than neoplasia in younger and young adult cats in the age range < 1–3 years compared to the group > 10 years. The main bacterial species was the Pseudomonas species. Antimicrobials with a susceptibility rate of more than 90% were amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, marbofloxacin, imipenem, and meropenem. In conclusion, rhinitis was the second most common chronic URT disease in cats and was more common in younger and young adult cats. The predominant bacteria with AST in this study reflect the antimicrobial resistance situation. Thus, antimicrobial usage should follow antimicrobial use guidelines first. Full article
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7 pages, 668 KiB  
Article
Persistent High Leptospiral Shedding by Asymptomatic Dogs in Endemic Areas Triggers a Serious Public Health Concern
by Ricardo Sant’Anna da Costa, Maria Isabel N. Di Azevedo, Ana Luiza dos Santos Baptista Borges, Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa, Gabriel Martins and Walter Lilenbaum
Animals 2021, 11(4), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040937 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
(1) Background: Dogs are known as hosts of Leptospira interrogans and can spread this bacterium to the environment. Although Canicola is responsible for determining chronic disease in dogs, when affected by incidental serogroups such as Icterohaemorrhagiae, acute disease may occur with a predominance [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Dogs are known as hosts of Leptospira interrogans and can spread this bacterium to the environment. Although Canicola is responsible for determining chronic disease in dogs, when affected by incidental serogroups such as Icterohaemorrhagiae, acute disease may occur with a predominance of clinical signs with hepatic and renal changes. In endemic areas, it is a serious public health problem. Thus, this study aims to estimate the incidence and duration of elimination of leptospires in the urine of dogs, taking another step from a previous study of our group, by a longitudinal, long-term and molecular approach. (2) Methods: A total of 125 dogs without apparent symptoms of leptospirosis were included in the study. The dogs were all PCR-negative and seronegative at the beginning of the study. Blood samples were collected for hematological examinations and urine for amplification of the lipL32 gene by PCR at five different time points during one year. (3) Results: Out of the 125 dogs, 62 became lipL32 PCR-positive (48.8% (95% CI, 47.9–49.7%)) at some point during the study, distributed as follows: at day 0, all negative; day 90, 18/125 (14.4% (95% CI, 13.5–15.3%)); day 180, 18/125 (14.4% (95% CI, 13.5–15.3%)); day 270, 12/125 (9.6% (95% CI, 8.7–10.5%)); and day 365, 14/125 (11.2% (95% CI, 10.3–12.1%)). Out of the 62 amplicons, 22 were sequenced, targeting a short region of secY gene. Of these, 20 (90.9%) were identical to the L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae, while two (9.1%) were Leptospira noguchii. (4) Conclusions: The fact that the leptospires of the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup were characterized was unexpected, since the animals remained clinically asymptomatic during the study. The fact that asymptomatic dogs shed leptospires is not new, but the extent of this fact and the characterized strain is impressive, with an impact on public health that cannot be overlooked. Full article
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