Antibiotic Resistance: A One-Health Approach

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 43113

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Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences - One Health Unit, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: antibiotic resistance; one health; bacterial infections; alternative to antibiotics; laboratory animals; infectious diseases
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Dear Colleagues,

Antimicrobial resistance and emergent multi-drug resistance are multifaceted and critical problems, considered one of the most urgent global challenges that must be solved. The use of antibiotics forces selective pressure on pathogens and also on commensal microorganisms, favoring the emergence of resistant strains. For years, farms and intensive breeding systems, together with the increasing spread of food-borne diseases, were seen as unique sources of this global problem. The One Health concept implicates a focus on issues at the human, animal (both domestic and wildlife), and environmental levels. This concept is not old and highlights the connection between human, animal, and environmental health in a rapidly changing world. Human and veterinary medicine must work together to control antimicrobial resistance. The One Health approach offers a crucial part of the solution. The development of new antibiotics is known to be time-consuming, but new alternative therapies are ongoing among the scientific community and are new promising protagonists in this panorama. “Full-length genome sequencing” and the molecular revolution based on high-throughput platforms will describe new molecular targets, as candidates for more precise pharmacological therapies, providing in-depth knowledge about pivotal bacterial molecular pathways.

This Special Issue encourages manuscript submissions that promote our understanding of antimicrobial resistance in both human and veterinary medicine, in a harmonized One Health approach; the description of antimicrobial resistance profile and the development of novel therapies are highly motivated.

Dr. Piera Anna Martino
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Antibiotic-resistance
  • One Health
  • virulence factors
  • Genomics
  • Novel natural molecules
  • Antimicrobial stewardship

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 300 KiB  
Article
Multi-Drug Resistance to Salmonella spp. When Isolated from Raw Meat Products
by Joanna Pławińska-Czarnak, Karolina Wódz, Magdalena Kizerwetter-Świda, Janusz Bogdan, Piotr Kwieciński, Tomasz Nowak, Zuzanna Strzałkowska and Krzysztof Anusz
Antibiotics 2022, 11(7), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070876 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
Salmonella spp. is the most frequent cause of foodborne diseases, and the increasing occurrence of MDR strains is an additional and increasing problem. We collected Salmonella spp. strains isolated from meat (poultry and pork) and analysed their antibiotic susceptibility profiles and the occurrence [...] Read more.
Salmonella spp. is the most frequent cause of foodborne diseases, and the increasing occurrence of MDR strains is an additional and increasing problem. We collected Salmonella spp. strains isolated from meat (poultry and pork) and analysed their antibiotic susceptibility profiles and the occurrence of resistance genes. To determine the susceptibility profiles and identify MDR strains, we used two MIC methods (MICRONAUT and VITEC2 Compact) and 25 antibiotics. Phenotypic tests showed that 53.84% strains were MDR. Finally, molecular analysis strains revealed the presence of blaSHV, blaPSE-1, blaTEM, but not blaCTX-M genes. Moreover, several genes were associated with resistance to aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, fluorochinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines. This suggests that further research on the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in foodborne strains is needed, especially from a One Health perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: A One-Health Approach)
16 pages, 258 KiB  
Article
Swedish Efforts to Contain Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment—A Qualitative Study among Selected Stakeholders
by Ingeborg Björkman, Marta Röing, Jaran Eriksen and Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
Antibiotics 2022, 11(5), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11050646 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 3169
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is a serious global threat to human and animal health. In this study, we explored perceptions of work to contain antibiotic resistance with a focus on the environment. Nine stakeholders from six different areas were interviewed in 2018. A short information [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance is a serious global threat to human and animal health. In this study, we explored perceptions of work to contain antibiotic resistance with a focus on the environment. Nine stakeholders from six different areas were interviewed in 2018. A short information update was given by informants from four of the areas in 2021. Interview transcripts were analyzed by conventional content analysis. The stakeholders’ perceptions were concluded in three categories: “examples of actions taken to combat antibiotic resistance”, “factors influencing work”, and “factors hindering work”. All informants reported having a role to play. Some of them were very engaged in this issue, whereas among others, antibiotics and resistance were just one part of a general engagement. To be able to act, the policymaker stakeholders asked for more knowledge about antibiotics in the environment and possible actions to take. Actions from the government were requested by several informants. Coordination of the work to combat antibiotic resistance in the environment was not recognized and the One Health approach was known at policy level but not among practitioners. Still, actions seemed to be coordinated, but this was, according to the stakeholders, based on findings from research in their area rather than on strategies developed by national authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: A One-Health Approach)
12 pages, 551 KiB  
Article
Awareness of Antimicrobial Resistance and Associated Factors among Layer Poultry Farmers in Zambia: Implications for Surveillance and Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs
by Steward Mudenda, Sydney Malama, Musso Munyeme, Bernard Mudenda Hang’ombe, Geoffrey Mainda, Otridah Kapona, Moses Mukosha, Kaunda Yamba, Flavien Nsoni Bumbangi, Ruth Lindizyani Mfune, Victor Daka, Darlington Mwenya, Prudence Mpundu, Godfrey Siluchali and John Bwalya Muma
Antibiotics 2022, 11(3), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11030383 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3425
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health problem affecting animal and human medicine. Poultry production is among the primary sources of income for many Zambians. However, the increased demand for poultry products has led to a subsequent increase in antimicrobial use. This [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health problem affecting animal and human medicine. Poultry production is among the primary sources of income for many Zambians. However, the increased demand for poultry products has led to a subsequent increase in antimicrobial use. This study assessed the awareness of AMR and associated factors among layer poultry farmers in Zambia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 77 participants from September 2020 to April 2021. Data was analysed using Stata version 16.1. The overall awareness of AMR among the farmers was 47% (n = 36). The usage of antibiotics in layer poultry production was high at 86% (n = 66). Most antibiotics were accessed from agrovets (31%, n = 24) and pharmacies (21%, n = 16) without prescriptions. Commercial farmers were more likely to be aware of AMR compared to medium-scale farmers (OR = 14.07, 95% CI: 2.09–94.70), as were farmers who used prescriptions to access antibiotics compared to those who did not (OR = 99.66, 95% CI: 7.14–1391.65), and farmers who did not treat market-ready birds with antibiotics compared to those who did (OR = 41.92, 95% CI: 1.26–1396.36). The awareness of AMR among some layer farmers was low. Therefore, policies that promote the rational use of antibiotics need to be implemented together with heightened surveillance activities aimed at curbing AMR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: A One-Health Approach)
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8 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
Salmonella in Pig Farms and on Pig Meat in Suriname
by Patrick Butaye, Iona Halliday-Simmonds and Astrid Van Sauers
Antibiotics 2021, 10(12), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10121495 - 6 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2370
Abstract
Salmonella is one of the most important food borne zoonotic pathogens. While mainly associated with poultry, it has also been associated with pigs. Compared to the high-income countries, there is much less known on the prevalence of Salmonella in low- and middle-income countries, [...] Read more.
Salmonella is one of the most important food borne zoonotic pathogens. While mainly associated with poultry, it has also been associated with pigs. Compared to the high-income countries, there is much less known on the prevalence of Salmonella in low- and middle-income countries, especially in the Caribbean area. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of Salmonella in pigs and pig meat in Suriname. A total of 53 farms and 53 meat samples were included, and Salmonella was isolated using standard protocols. Strains were subjected to whole genome sequencing. No Salmonella was found on pig meat. Five farms were found to be positive for Salmonella, and a total of eight different strains were obtained. Serotypes were S. Anatum (n = 1), S. Ohio (n = 2), a monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium (n = 3), one S. Brandenburg, and one S. Javaniana. The monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium belonged to the ST34 pandemic clone, and the three strains were very similar. A few resistance genes, located on mobile genetic elements, were found. Several plasmids were detected, though only one was carrying resistance genes. This is the first study on the prevalence of Salmonella in pigs in the Caribbean and that used whole genome sequencing for characterization. The strains were rather susceptible. Local comparison of similar serotypes showed a mainly clonal spread of certain serotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: A One-Health Approach)
14 pages, 1621 KiB  
Article
ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Carrying CTX-M Genes Circulating among Livestock, Dogs, and Wild Mammals in Small-Scale Farms of Central Chile
by Julio A. Benavides, Marília Salgado-Caxito, Andrés Opazo-Capurro, Paulina González Muñoz, Ana Piñeiro, Macarena Otto Medina, Lina Rivas, Jose Munita and Javier Millán
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10050510 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 4140
Abstract
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria of critical importance for global health such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing (ESBL)-Escherichia coli have been detected in livestock, dogs, and wildlife worldwide. However, the dynamics of ESBL-E. coli between these animals remains poorly understood, particularly in small-scale farms of low [...] Read more.
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria of critical importance for global health such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing (ESBL)-Escherichia coli have been detected in livestock, dogs, and wildlife worldwide. However, the dynamics of ESBL-E. coli between these animals remains poorly understood, particularly in small-scale farms of low and middle-income countries where contact between species can be frequent. We compared the prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL-E. coli among 332 livestock (207 cows, 15 pigs, 60 horses, 40 sheep, 6 goats, 4 chickens), 82 dogs, and wildlife including 131 European rabbits, 30 rodents, and 12 Andean foxes sharing territory in peri-urban localities of central Chile. The prevalence was lower in livestock (3.0%) and wildlife (0.5%) compared to dogs (24%). Among 47 ESBL-E. coli isolates recovered, CTX-M-group 1 was the main ESBL genotype identified, followed by CTX-M-groups 2, 9, 8, and 25. ERIC-PCR showed no cluster of E. coli clones by either host species nor locality. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ESBL-E. coli among sheep, cattle, dogs, and rodents of Chile, confirming their fecal carriage among domestic and wild animals in small-scale farms. The high prevalence of ESBL-E. coli in dogs encourages further investigation on their role as potential reservoirs of this bacteria in agricultural settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: A One-Health Approach)
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17 pages, 1668 KiB  
Article
Finding What Is Inaccessible: Antimicrobial Resistance Language Use among the One Health Domains
by Lauren L. Wind, Jonathan S. Briganti, Anne M. Brown, Timothy P. Neher, Meghan F. Davis, Lisa M. Durso, Tanner Spicer and Stephanie Lansing
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10040385 - 3 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3743
Abstract
The success of a One Health approach to combating antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires effective data sharing across the three One Health domains (human, animal, and environment). To investigate if there are differences in language use across the One Health domains, we examined the [...] Read more.
The success of a One Health approach to combating antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires effective data sharing across the three One Health domains (human, animal, and environment). To investigate if there are differences in language use across the One Health domains, we examined the peer-reviewed literature using a combination of text data mining and natural language processing techniques on 20,000 open-access articles related to AMR and One Health. Evaluating AMR key term frequency from the European PubMed Collection published between 1990 and 2019 showed distinct AMR language usage within each domain and incongruent language usage across domains, with significant differences in key term usage frequencies when articles were grouped by the One Health sub-specialties (2-way ANOVA; p < 0.001). Over the 29-year period, “antibiotic resistance” and “AR” were used 18 times more than “antimicrobial resistance” and “AMR”. The discord of language use across One Health potentially weakens the effectiveness of interdisciplinary research by creating accessibility issues for researchers using search engines. This research was the first to quantify this disparate language use within One Health, which inhibits collaboration and crosstalk between domains. We suggest the following for authors publishing AMR-related research within the One Health context: (1) increase title/abstract searchability by including both antimicrobial and antibiotic resistance related search terms; (2) include “One Health” in the title/abstract; and (3) prioritize open-access publication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: A One-Health Approach)
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12 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
Poultry and Wild Birds as a Reservoir of CMY-2 Producing Escherichia coli: The First Large-Scale Study in Greece
by Zoi Athanasakopoulou, Katerina Tsilipounidaki, Marina Sofia, Dimitris C. Chatzopoulos, Alexios Giannakopoulos, Ioannis Karakousis, Vassilios Giannakis, Vassiliki Spyrou, Antonia Touloudi, Maria Satra, Dimitrios Galamatis, Vassilis Diamantopoulos, Spyridoula Mpellou, Efthymia Petinaki and Charalambos Billinis
Antibiotics 2021, 10(3), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10030235 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2289
Abstract
Resistance mediated by β-lactamases is a globally spread menace. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Escherichia coli producing plasmid-encoded AmpC β-lactamases (pAmpC) in animals. Fecal samples from chickens (n = 159), cattle (n = 104), pigs (n [...] Read more.
Resistance mediated by β-lactamases is a globally spread menace. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Escherichia coli producing plasmid-encoded AmpC β-lactamases (pAmpC) in animals. Fecal samples from chickens (n = 159), cattle (n = 104), pigs (n = 214), and various wild bird species (n = 168), collected from different Greek regions during 2018–2020, were screened for the presence of pAmpC-encoding genes. Thirteen E. coli displaying resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and a positive AmpC confirmation test were detected. blaCMY-2 was the sole pAmpC gene identified in 12 chickens’ and 1 wild bird (Eurasian magpie) isolates and was in all cases linked to an upstream ISEcp1-like element. The isolates were classified into five different sequence types: ST131, ST117, ST155, ST429, and ST1415. Four chickens’ stains were assigned to ST131, while five chickens’ strains and the one from the Eurasian magpie belonged to ST117. Seven pAmpC isolates co-harbored genes conferring resistance to tetracyclines (tetM, tetB, tetC, tetD), 3 carried sulfonamide resistance genes (sulI and sulII), and 10 displayed mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA (S83L+D87N) and parC (S80I+E84V). This report provides evidence of pAmpC dissemination, describing for the first time the presence of CMY-2 in chickens and wild birds from Greece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: A One-Health Approach)
14 pages, 2290 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Antibiotic Resistance Profiles in Methicillin-Sensitive S. aureus Pathotypes Isolated on a Commercial Rabbit Farm in Italy
by Anna-Rita Attili, Alessandro Bellato, Patrizia Robino, Livio Galosi, Cristiano Papeschi, Giacomo Rossi, Eleonora Fileni, Martina Linardi, Vincenzo Cuteri, Francesco Chiesa and Patrizia Nebbia
Antibiotics 2020, 9(10), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9100673 - 5 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2988
Abstract
The breeding of meat rabbits is an important sector in the livestock industry in Italy. The focus of this study was to describe the antibiotic resistance profile distribution among the Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolated in a rabbit farm. From 400 animals of different [...] Read more.
The breeding of meat rabbits is an important sector in the livestock industry in Italy. The focus of this study was to describe the antibiotic resistance profile distribution among the Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolated in a rabbit farm. From 400 animals of different ages and three farm workers, 96 randomly selected strains isolated from various anatomical sites and lesions were analysed. According to spa typing and the resistance profiles towards veterinary and human antibiotics, 26 pathotypes were identified. The highest resistance was observed against Tetracyclines (92.3%) and Macrolides (80.8%), while almost all were susceptible to Penicillins, according to the limited use of β-lactams on the farm. In total, 92.3% of pathotypes were multidrug resistant (MDRs). Two MDR pathotypes belonging to the t2802 spa type were isolated from both farmers and rabbits. Age categories harboured significantly different pathotypes (p = 0.019), while no association was found between pathotypes and lesions (p = 0.128) or sampling sites (p = 0.491). The antibiotic resistance was observed to increase with the time spent in the farm environment (age category). The selective pressure exerted by antibiotic use acted by giving advantage to more resistant strains rather than by lowering susceptibility to various drug categories within strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: A One-Health Approach)
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Review

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16 pages, 1250 KiB  
Review
Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) in Nigeria: The First Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Yusuf Wada, Azian Binti Harun, Chan Yean Yean and Abdul Rahman Zaidah
Antibiotics 2020, 9(9), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090565 - 1 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4438
Abstract
Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) are on the rise worldwide. Here, we report the first prevalence of VRE in Nigeria using systematic review and meta-analysis. International databases MedLib, PubMed, International Scientific Indexing (ISI), Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and African journals online (AJOL) were [...] Read more.
Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) are on the rise worldwide. Here, we report the first prevalence of VRE in Nigeria using systematic review and meta-analysis. International databases MedLib, PubMed, International Scientific Indexing (ISI), Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and African journals online (AJOL) were searched. Information was extracted by two independent reviewers, and results were reviewed by the third. Two reviewers independently assessed the study quality using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist. OpenMeta analyst was used. The random effect was used, and publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed, and the sources were analysed using the leave-one-out meta-analysis, subgroup analysis, and meta-regression. Nineteen studies met the eligibility criteria and were added to the final meta-analysis, and the study period was from 2009–2018. Of the 2552 isolates tested, 349 were VRE, and E. faecalis was reported the most. The pooled prevalence of VRE in Nigeria was estimated at 25.3% (95% CI; 19.8–30.8%; I2 = 96.26%; p < 0.001). Between-study variability was high (t2 = 0.011; heterogeneity I2 = 96.26% with heterogeneity chi-square (Q) = 480.667, degrees of freedom (df) = 18, and p = 0.001). The funnel plot showed no publication bias, and the leave-one-out forest plot did not affect the pooled prevalence. The South-East region had a moderate heterogeneity though not significant (I2 = 51.15%, p = 0.129). Meta-regression showed that all the variables listed contributed to the heterogeneity except for the animal isolate source (p = 0.188) and studies that were done in 2013 (p = 0.219). Adherence to proper and accurate antimicrobial usage, comprehensive testing, and continuous surveillance of VRE are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: A One-Health Approach)
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Other

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17 pages, 1611 KiB  
Systematic Review
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Integrated Studies on Salmonella and Campylobacter Prevalence, Serovar, and Phenotyping and Genetic of Antimicrobial Resistance in the Middle East—A One Health Perspective
by Said Abukhattab, Haneen Taweel, Arein Awad, Lisa Crump, Pascale Vonaesch, Jakob Zinsstag, Jan Hattendorf and Niveen M. E. Abu-Rmeileh
Antibiotics 2022, 11(5), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11050536 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3715
Abstract
Background:Campylobacter and Salmonella are the leading causes of foodborne diseases worldwide. Recently, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become one of the most critical challenges for public health and food safety. To investigate and detect infections commonly transmitted from animals, food, and the environment [...] Read more.
Background:Campylobacter and Salmonella are the leading causes of foodborne diseases worldwide. Recently, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become one of the most critical challenges for public health and food safety. To investigate and detect infections commonly transmitted from animals, food, and the environment to humans, a surveillance–response system integrating human and animal health, the environment, and food production components (iSRS), called a One Health approach, would be optimal. Objective: We aimed to identify existing integrated One Health studies on foodborne illnesses in the Middle East and to determine the prevalence, serovars, and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Salmonella and Campylobacter strains among humans and food-producing animals. Methods: The databases Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed were searched for literature published from January 2010 until September 2021. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were included and assessed for risk of bias. To assess the temporal and spatial relationship between resistant strains from humans and animals, a statistical random-effects model meta-analysis was performed. Results: 41 out of 1610 studies that investigated Campylobacter and non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) in the Middle East were included. The NTS prevalence rates among human and food-producing animals were 9% and 13%, respectively. The Campylobacter prevalence rates were 22% in humans and 30% in food-producing animals. The most-reported NTS serovars were Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, while Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were the most prevalent species of Campylobacter. NTS isolates were highly resistant to erythromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and ampicillin. C. jejuni isolates showed high resistance against amoxicillin, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. The most prevalent Antimicrobial Resistance Genes (ARGs) in isolates from humans included tetO (85%), Class 1 Integrons (81%), blaOXA-61 (53%), and cmeB (51%), whereas in food-producing animals, the genes were tetO (77%), Class 1 integrons (69%), blaOXA-61 (35%), and cmeB (35%). The One Health approach was not rigorously applied in the Middle East countries. Furthermore, there was an uneven distribution in the reported data between the countries. Conclusion: More studies using a simultaneous approach targeting human, animal health, the environment, and food production components along with a solid epidemiological study design are needed to better understand the drivers for the emergence and spread of foodborne pathogens and AMR in the Middle East. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: A One-Health Approach)
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8 pages, 257 KiB  
Perspective
Should the Increased Awareness of the One Health Approach Brought by the COVID-19 Pandemic Be Used to Further Tackle the Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance?
by Mohamed Rhouma, Michelle Tessier, Cécile Aenishaenslin, Pascal Sanders and Hélène Carabin
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10040464 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4078
Abstract
Several experts have expressed their concerns regarding the potential increase in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) during the COVID-19 pandemic as a consequence of the increase in antimicrobial and biocide use in humans globally. However, the impact of the pandemic on antimicrobial use (AMU) and [...] Read more.
Several experts have expressed their concerns regarding the potential increase in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) during the COVID-19 pandemic as a consequence of the increase in antimicrobial and biocide use in humans globally. However, the impact of the pandemic on antimicrobial use (AMU) and AMR in animals has yet to be discussed and evaluated. Indeed, veterinary practices have been hugely impacted by the pandemic and its restrictive measures around the world. In this perspective, we call for more research to estimate the impact of COVID-19 on AMU and AMR in both humans and animals, as well as on the environment, in coherence with the One Health approach. In addition, we argue that the current pandemic is an opportunity to accelerate the implementation of a One Health approach to tackle the AMR crisis at the global scale. Indeed, the momentum created by the increased general awareness of both the public and decision-makers for the development and maintenance of effective drugs to treat human infections, as well as for the importance of a One Health approach to prevent the emergence of infectious diseases, should be used as a lever to implement global collaborative and sustainable solutions to the complex challenges of AMR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: A One-Health Approach)
7 pages, 212 KiB  
Perspective
Can the One Health Approach Save Us from the Emergence and Reemergence of Infectious Pathogens in the Era of Climate Change: Implications for Antimicrobial Resistance?
by Smitha Gudipati, Marcus Zervos and Erica Herc
Antibiotics 2020, 9(9), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090599 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4158
Abstract
Climate change has become a controversial topic in today’s media despite decades of warnings from climate scientists and has influenced human health significantly with the increasing prevalence of infectious pathogens and contribution to antimicrobial resistance. Elevated temperatures lead to rising sea and carbon [...] Read more.
Climate change has become a controversial topic in today’s media despite decades of warnings from climate scientists and has influenced human health significantly with the increasing prevalence of infectious pathogens and contribution to antimicrobial resistance. Elevated temperatures lead to rising sea and carbon dioxide levels, changing environments and interactions between humans and other species. These changes have led to the emergence and reemergence of infectious pathogens that have already developed significant antimicrobial resistance. Although these new infectious pathogens are alarming, we can still reduce the burden of infectious diseases in the era of climate change if we focus on One Health strategies. This approach aims at the simultaneous protection of humans, animals and environment from climate change and antimicrobial impacts. Once these relationships are better understood, these models can be created, but the support of our legislative and health system partnerships are critical to helping with strengthening education and awareness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: A One-Health Approach)
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