Agronomic Strategies for Enhancing the Physical, Chemical, Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cereal Grains

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Agricultural Product Quality and Safety".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 May 2024) | Viewed by 3274

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Guest Editor
Department of Biogeochemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Bydgoszcz University of Technology, 85-225 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Interests: cereal; grain yield; agrotechnical factors; quality of grain and flour; technological parameters; bread; the biological value of proteins

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Guest Editor
Department of Biogeochemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Bydgoszcz University of Technology, 85-225 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Interests: cereal; grain yield; agrotechnical factors; quality of grain; technological parameters; the biological value of proteins; growing herbs; the quality of herbs
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cereal grains are at the core of human nutrition. The increase in the human population, changes in diet, a versatile use of grains in food and the biofuels industry have created the need for increasing the production of grains. After processing, grains are used for flour, groats, cereals, pastas, and bread, or added to other food and feed products. They essentially affect the health of people and livestock. The aim of contemporary plant breeding and agronomic practices is thus not only to increase grain production but also to enhance their quality (physical, chemical, nutritional and sensory properties). These traits are determined genetically as well as by a host of environmental factors such as growing zone and prevailing climate during crop growth. Agrotechnical factors, mainly fertilization, also play an important role. The application of plant nutrients through natural, organic and chemical fertilizers, particularly of nitrogen, to improve yield and quality is well known. However, there is a demand for the use of other agrotechnical factors in the technology of cereal production, which will lead to the cultivation of plants allowing for obtaining optimal values of the technological characteristics of the raw material (depending on the direction of use) and, consequently, a high quality of the final product.

Prof. Dr. Tomasz Knapowski
Prof. Dr. Wojciech Kozera
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • cereal
  • grain yield
  • agrotechnical factors
  • chemical composition
  • features of grain and flour
  • technological parameters
  • the biological value of proteins

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1535 KiB  
Article
Response of Winter Wheat to Delayed Sowing and Varied Nitrogen Fertilization
by Wacław Jarecki
Agriculture 2024, 14(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14010121 - 13 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Common wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. In cultivation, winter, spring, and facultative varieties of this species are known. In wheat agronomy, timely sowing and optimal nitrogen fertilization are particularly crucial practices, as both significantly impact yield [...] Read more.
Common wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. In cultivation, winter, spring, and facultative varieties of this species are known. In wheat agronomy, timely sowing and optimal nitrogen fertilization are particularly crucial practices, as both significantly impact yield and grain quality. In a three-year field experiment, the response of the winter wheat variety RGT Kilimanjaro to two sowing dates (recommended and delayed by 30 days) and varied nitrogen fertilization levels (100 kg ha−1, 150 kg ha−1, and 200 kg ha−1) was investigated. It was shown that the difference in grain yield between 2021 and 2023 amounted to 0.74 kg ha−1. The application of 200 N kg ha−1 significantly increased the Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) index and Leaf Area Index (LAI) compared to the variant with a delayed sowing date and a nitrogen dose of 100 kg ha−1. Yield components (number of spikes per square meter, thousand grain weight) and grain yield were highest when wheat was sown at the recommended date and with the application of either 150 or 200 N kg ha−1. The number of grains per spike significantly varied between the variant with the recommended sowing date and a dose of 200 N kg ha−1 and the variant with a delayed sowing date and a dose of 100 N kg ha−1. The lowest grain yield was obtained at a 30-day late wheat sowing date when applying 100 N kg ha−1. The protein content in the grain was primarily influenced by nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, it can be concluded that delaying the sowing date of winter wheat by 30 days results in a decrease in grain yield but can be compensated by increased nitrogen fertilization. The most favorable economic effects were achieved with the application of 150 N kg ha−1 at the recommended sowing date. Considering that high doses of nitrogen fertilization can have adverse effects on the natural environment, research in this area should be continued. Full article
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22 pages, 1650 KiB  
Article
Influence of Plant Growth Retardants and Nitrogen Doses on the Content of Plant Secondary Metabolites in Wheat, the Presence of Pests, and Soil Quality Parameters
by Joanna Lemanowicz, Bożena Dębska, Robert Lamparski, Agata Michalska, Jarosław Pobereżny, Elżbieta Wszelaczyńska, Agata Bartkowiak, Małgorzata Szczepanek, Magdalena Banach-Szott and Tomasz Knapowski
Agriculture 2023, 13(6), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13061121 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Wheat is the cereal most susceptible to lodging, particularly during the flowering period and at the early ripening stage. The use of plant growth retardants (PGRs) is especially recommended when intensive nitrogen (N) fertilisation is applied, which increases the susceptibility of plants to [...] Read more.
Wheat is the cereal most susceptible to lodging, particularly during the flowering period and at the early ripening stage. The use of plant growth retardants (PGRs) is especially recommended when intensive nitrogen (N) fertilisation is applied, which increases the susceptibility of plants to lodging. This paper presents the results of tests into the effects of PGRs (PGR0—control; PGR1—chlormequat chloride (CCC) + trinexapac-ethyl (TE); PGR2—chlormequat chloride (CCC) + ethephon (ET)), and N dose—N0, N20, N40, and N60 [0, 20, 40, and 60 kg N ha−1] on the content of selected plant secondary metabolites (PSM) in the Indian dwarf wheat (Triticum sphaerococcum Percival) of the Trispa cultivar, and on the abundance of insect pests. In the developmental stage of wheat (BBCH 39), insects were collected with an entomological net. The study also investigated the effect of experimental factors on the physicobiochemical properties of the soil (pH in KC, granulometric composition, total organic carbon TOC, total nitrogen TN, fractional composition of humus, and the activity of enzymes). An increase in the plant secondary metabolite (PSM) and FRAP (ferring reducing ability of plasma) contents following the application of PGRs and N fertilisation already from as low a rate as 20 kg ha−1 was demonstrated. A significant positive correlation was noted between the abundance of Oulema spp. and the contents of total polyphenols, chlorogenic acid, and FRAP. No such relationship was noted for Aphididae or Thysanoptera. TOC content was higher on the plots on which N fertilisation was applied at the highest rate and after the application of PGRs. The factor determining the TN content was N fertilisation. Soil samples of the PGR0 N0 treatment were characterised by the greatest proportion of carbon in the humic and fulvic acid fractions and by the smallest proportion of carbon in the humin fraction. N fertilisation increased the proportion of carbon in the humin fraction on the plots on which no PGRs were applied. The study demonstrated an increase in the activity of oxidoreductive enzymes following the application of higher N rates. The application of PGRs resulted in no inhibition of enzymes in the soil compared to the control (PGRs0). Full article
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