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Zoonotic Dis., Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 11 articles

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9 pages, 595 KiB  
Brief Report
Canine Leishmaniasis in Southern Brazil: Diagnosis and Clinical Features in Domestic Dogs
by Aline Padilha de Fraga, Vinicius Proença da Silveira, Patrícia de Freitas Salla, Fernanda Gass de Oliveira Goulart, André Felipe Streck, Vagner Reinaldo Zingalli Bueno Pereira, Lauren Santos de Mello, André Salvador Kazantzi Fonseca, Nilo Ikuta and Vagner Ricardo Lunge
Zoonotic Dis. 2024, 4(1), 114-122; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis4010011 - 21 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Leishmania infantum is a hemopathogen of importance for the health of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), causing canine leishmaniasis (CanL), and it is also the etiological agent of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL). This parasite was not reported in southern Brazil until [...] Read more.
Leishmania infantum is a hemopathogen of importance for the health of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), causing canine leishmaniasis (CanL), and it is also the etiological agent of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL). This parasite was not reported in southern Brazil until the early 2000s, but CanL and HVL were increasingly reported in the last 15 years, mainly in cities bordering Argentina. The present study aimed to detect L. infantum in domestic dogs and to determine the main clinical manifestations in infected animals from Uruguaiana, a city with a high incidence of CanL. Fifty-one dogs suspected of having CanL in the urban perimeter of the city were clinically examined by veterinarians and investigated for the occurrence of L. infantum with two immunoassays (rapid chromatography test and ELISA) and real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Clinical signs were compared in positive and negative L. infantum animals. A total of 31 dogs (60.8%) were infected with L. infantum. The main clinical manifestations associated with CanL dogs were onychogryphosis and peeling (p < 0.05). L. infantum was frequently detected in urban dogs from Uruguaiana, highlighting the concerning situation regarding health in this city. The occurrence of some clinical signs (onychogryphosis/peeling) could help to detect CanL more frequently in the canine population. Full article
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17 pages, 667 KiB  
Review
Bacterial Zoonotic Diseases and Male Reproduction
by Lateef Olabisi Okeleji, Lydia Oluwatoyin Ajayi, Aduragbemi Noah Odeyemi, Victor Amos, Bosede Grace Akanbi, Moyinoluwa Comfort Onaolapo, Bolade Sylvester Olateju, Wale Johnson Adeyemi and Ayodeji Folorunsho Ajayi
Zoonotic Dis. 2024, 4(1), 97-113; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis4010010 - 19 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Bacterial zoonotic diseases hold significant public health importance due to their substantial contribution to human morbidity and mortality. These infections have been implicated in reducing the fertility rate among couples of reproductive age. Despite the increasing prevalence of infertility and sub-fertility in men, [...] Read more.
Bacterial zoonotic diseases hold significant public health importance due to their substantial contribution to human morbidity and mortality. These infections have been implicated in reducing the fertility rate among couples of reproductive age. Despite the increasing prevalence of infertility and sub-fertility in men, there has been limited investigation into the possible effects of bacterial zoonotic infections on the male reproductive system. The purpose of this review is to describe common bacterial zoonotic diseases and their effects on human reproduction in order to unveil the hidden roles these infections could play in male factor infertility. While there is a dearth of information on this subject from human studies, available evidence from experimental animals suggests that bacterial zoonotic diseases impair male reproductive functions and structures primarily through the activation of the inflammatory response and distortion of the antioxidant system, resulting in the generation of oxidative species. In light of the limited research on bacterial zoonotic diseases and their role in male reproduction, efforts must be directed towards the subject to unravel the underlying pathological mechanisms and reduce the incidence among the human populace, either through preventive or curative measures. Full article
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11 pages, 404 KiB  
Article
Testing the Functionality of Joint Zoonotic Disease Electronic Surveillance and Reporting Systems through a Pandemic Influenza Full-Scale Simulation Exercise in Jordan
by Rebecca Badra, Alaa Hamdallah, Nour Abu Elizz, Majid Hawawsheh, Heba Mahrous, Amgad Abdalla Elkholy, Abdinasir Abubakar, Mohammad Alhawarat, Lora Alsawalha and Ghazi Kayali
Zoonotic Dis. 2024, 4(1), 86-96; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis4010009 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Zoonotic disease surveillance and response simulation exercises are an important tool to assess national infrastructures and mechanisms supporting joint zoonotic disease surveillance and information sharing across sectors. In December 2022, the Jordanian Ministries of Health and Agriculture, supported by the World Health Organization [...] Read more.
Zoonotic disease surveillance and response simulation exercises are an important tool to assess national infrastructures and mechanisms supporting joint zoonotic disease surveillance and information sharing across sectors. In December 2022, the Jordanian Ministries of Health and Agriculture, supported by the World Health Organization Country Office, conducted a 10-day full-scale simulation exercise in Amman, Jordan, to evaluate the linkage between their electronic surveillance and response systems. An exercise management team designed a realistic fictitious scenario of an outbreak of avian influenza on a poultry farm that subsequently led to human infections. The functions and actions tested included all aspects of outbreak management, from initial reporting to conclusion. Debriefings and an after-action review were conducted after the activities were completed. Gaps in both ministries’ surveillance systems, epidemiological investigations, biosafety and biosecurity, sample collection, sample transport, laboratories, interventions, and coordination were identified. This simulation exercise was a unique exercise focusing on multiple technical and operational capacities that related to the joint response to potential zoonotic disease outbreaks and real-time information sharing between the sectors under the One Health approach. This exercise is a step towards the operationalization of the One Health approach in Jordan, building on the coordination mechanisms already in place. Full article
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12 pages, 1463 KiB  
Article
Occurrence of Picobirnavirus in Domestic and Wild Animals from Three Cities of Brazilian Amazon
by Elaine Hellen Nunes Chagas, Julia Rezende da Silva, Bruno de Cássio Veloso de Barros, José Wandilson Barbosa Duarte Júnior, Fabiolla da Silva dos Santos, Edivaldo Costa Sousa Júnior, Delana Andreza Melo Bezerra, Maria Inês dos Santos, Helder Henrique Costa Pinheiro, Yashpal Singh Malik and Joana D’Arc Pereira Mascarenhas
Zoonotic Dis. 2024, 4(1), 74-85; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis4010008 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 879
Abstract
This study aimed to detect picobirnavirus (PBV) in the fecal samples of wild and domestic animals from 2014 to 2016 in the Amazon biome. Fecal samples from different animals, including birds (n = 41) and mammals (n = 217), were used. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to detect picobirnavirus (PBV) in the fecal samples of wild and domestic animals from 2014 to 2016 in the Amazon biome. Fecal samples from different animals, including birds (n = 41) and mammals (n = 217), were used. The PAGE test showed negativity for PBV. However, 32 samples (12.4%, 32/258) showed positive results in RT-PCR analyses. Among the positive samples, pigs and cats, both with 28.12% (9/32), registered the highest frequencies. In a phylogenetic analysis, eight sequences from positive samples were grouped in the Genogroup 1 of PBV (PBV GI). PBV occurrence was significantly related to cats and pigs but not other mammals or birds, independently of their geographical origin. A nucleotide analysis demonstrated similarity among the feline group but the absence of a defined structure between the clades. PBVs are highly widespread viruses that can affect the most diverse types of hosts in the Amazon biome, including humans. Full article
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17 pages, 815 KiB  
Article
Basis for a One Health Approach—Inventory of Routine Data Collections on Zoonotic Diseases in Lower Saxony, Germany
by Anne Schnepf, Katja Hille, Gesine van Mark, Tristan Winkelmann, Karen Remm, Katrin Kunze, Reinhard Velleuer and Lothar Kreienbrock
Zoonotic Dis. 2024, 4(1), 57-73; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis4010007 - 6 Feb 2024
Viewed by 875
Abstract
Two-thirds of human infectious diseases are zoonotic diseases and routine data collections exist for each sector (human, veterinary, environmental). However, these operate separately and the collected data are not integrated across sectors. Publicly available information on these routine data collections in terms of [...] Read more.
Two-thirds of human infectious diseases are zoonotic diseases and routine data collections exist for each sector (human, veterinary, environmental). However, these operate separately and the collected data are not integrated across sectors. Publicly available information on these routine data collections in terms of metadata and the information collected is sparse. The aim was to create an inventory of routine data collections in the Federal State of Lower Saxony, Germany. A systematic screening of existing routine data collections from the human and veterinary sectors on zoonotic infectious diseases was carried out on the basis of expert interviews. A standardised template was used to collect relevant metadata on data collections and pathogens they contain. The template was transferred to Research Electronic Data Capture tools. We recorded metadata for 19 veterinary, 16 human and 2 other data collections, and for 69 different zoonotic pathogens. The frequencies of a selection of metadata were analysed descriptively. The data collections, which served different purposes, differed, e.g., in underlying population and sampling strategy, export format and access to the original data. We identified challenges for integrated analyses of data from different collections, which need to be addressed to develop a One Health monitoring and surveillance system. Full article
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8 pages, 2661 KiB  
Communication
West Nile Virus in Italy: An Update of the Viral Strains Circulating in the Late 2022 Epidemic Season
by Fabrizia Valleriani, Andrea Polci, Federica Iapaolo, Ottavio Portanti, Maura Pisciella, Antonella Cersini, Annalisa Guercio, Irene Del Lesto, Valentina Curini, Luana Fiorella Mincarelli, Francesca Gucciardi, Claudio De Liberato, Giuseppa Purpari, Giorgia Amatori, Daniela Morelli, Giovanni Savini and Federica Monaco
Zoonotic Dis. 2024, 4(1), 49-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis4010006 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 877
Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) infection is a mosquito-borne zoonosis able of causing disease and death in humans and animals. Over the past decade, WNV infections have been a significant public health concern in Europe, and Italy has been among the most [...] Read more.
West Nile virus (WNV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) infection is a mosquito-borne zoonosis able of causing disease and death in humans and animals. Over the past decade, WNV infections have been a significant public health concern in Europe, and Italy has been among the most affected countries since 2008. The 2022 vector season has been characterized by an intense and early circulation of WNV. This report describes cases of co-circulation of WNV L1 and of WNV L2 occurring at the end of the 2022 vector season in Sicily and Tuscany, regions where no strains had ever been sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis of the detected strains confirmed the peculiar WNV scenario that has characterized the Italian West Nile disease (WND) epidemic since its appearance. The circulation observed in Tuscany was in fact a consequence of the spread of endemic strains to new areas while the Sicilian episodes were linked to new introductions of WNV L1 and L2 strains likely from other European countries. Full article
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12 pages, 1183 KiB  
Article
The Prevalence of Leptospira Serovars in African Giant Pouched Rats (Cricetomys spp.) from the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania
by Prisca N. Kahangwa, Amani S. Kitegile, Robert S. Machang’u, Ginethon G. Mhamphi and Abdul S. Katakweba
Zoonotic Dis. 2024, 4(1), 37-48; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis4010005 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Leptospirosis, also known as Weil’s disease, is a febrile tropical disease of humans and diverse animals. The maintenance hosts of the infectious pathogen, Leptospira spp., are primarily rodents, while other warm-blooded animals and some reptiles are secondary or transient hosts of this pathogen. [...] Read more.
Leptospirosis, also known as Weil’s disease, is a febrile tropical disease of humans and diverse animals. The maintenance hosts of the infectious pathogen, Leptospira spp., are primarily rodents, while other warm-blooded animals and some reptiles are secondary or transient hosts of this pathogen. African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys spp.) have been identified to be important maintenance hosts of pathogenic leptospires in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This study assessed the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in the African giant pouched rats of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), Tanzania, where there is close human, domestic animal, and wildlife interaction. A total of 50 African giant pouched rats were sampled between July 2020 and December 2021. Blood sera were screened for specific leptospiral antibodies using a microscopic agglutination test (MAT), while urine and kidney tissues were examined for the pathogen and pathogen-specific genes using cultures and polymerase chain reactions (PCR), respectively. The pathogen detection varied from 0% in cultures to 6% via the MAT and 20% via PCR. The Fisher exact test was applied to compare positive cases detected through the diagnostic tests, and showed a significant difference in the indirect and direct detection of Leptospira serovars via the MAT and PCR. We conclude that pathogenic Leptospira serovar are found in the NCA and recommend that the NCA authority raises awareness of the existence of the Leptospira serovar in giant African pouched rats, and possibly other rodents. The NCA should initiate appropriate management strategies, including the guided disposal of household garbage, which is the major attractant of rodents to residential areas. Where necessary, the NCA should carry out limited rodent control and periodic monitoring of the pathogen carrier (rodent) populations. Full article
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15 pages, 330 KiB  
Article
“Small Wins” for those with Lyme Disease in Canada: Patients in an Embodied Health Movement
by Marilyn Cox and Mario Levesque
Zoonotic Dis. 2024, 4(1), 22-36; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis4010004 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2822
Abstract
Lyme disease patient organizations have formed to challenge a health system that is failing Canadians who suffer from a disease that is ambiguous in its symptomology and trajectory. The framework of an embodied health movement illustrates the importance of the illness experience in [...] Read more.
Lyme disease patient organizations have formed to challenge a health system that is failing Canadians who suffer from a disease that is ambiguous in its symptomology and trajectory. The framework of an embodied health movement illustrates the importance of the illness experience in mobilizing patients to oppose a system that is reliant on restrictive guidelines that deny testing and treatment and to seek alliances with researchers, physicians, and politicians who are sympathetic to their goals. The strategies of Lyme disease patient organizations, the importance of experiential knowledge, and the roles of both adversaries and allies are examined through a “small wins” approach to gauge successes and setbacks within a Canadian context. Full article
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11 pages, 798 KiB  
Article
Dominance of Diarrheagenic E. coli Virulent Types in Integrated Crop–Livestock Farms and Their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns
by Arpita Aditya, Dita Julianingsih, Zajeba Tabashsum, Zabdiel Alvarado-Martinez, Chuan-Wei Tung, Matthew Wall and Debabrata Biswas
Zoonotic Dis. 2024, 4(1), 11-21; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis4010003 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 927
Abstract
Microbial ecology on integrated crop–livestock farms (ICLFs) can impact food safety through pathogen transfer between animals and crops. Recent reports of pathogen-contaminated products sold in local organic retail, roadside, and farmers markets highlight the need for assessment of the ecological patterns of bacterial [...] Read more.
Microbial ecology on integrated crop–livestock farms (ICLFs) can impact food safety through pathogen transfer between animals and crops. Recent reports of pathogen-contaminated products sold in local organic retail, roadside, and farmers markets highlight the need for assessment of the ecological patterns of bacterial pathogens. This study investigated the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of the virulent type of diarrheagenic E. coli in ICLFs. Over two years, 2973 samples from ICLFs and markets in Maryland and Washington DC were analyzed. Diarrheagenic E. coli was found in 4.30% (128/2973) of collected samples, with a higher isolation rate in environmental (4.42%, 59/1332) and produce (4.20%, 69/1641) samples. Overall, livestock bedding materials had the highest prevalence (8.51%, 4/47). Post-harvest produce exhibited a lower contamination rate of 1.32% (10/756), whereas pre-harvest produce had a higher incidence with 6.67% contamination (59/885), indicating the presence of E. coli. Alarmingly, 92.30% (72/78) of pathogenic E. coli isolates were resistant to common antibiotics. The findings highlight potential risks associated with integrated farming practices and emphasize the importance of safe harvesting and post-harvesting measures, particularly in the context of the growing popularity of local integrated farming. Implementing precautions at on-farm and market levels is crucial to mitigate the risk of antibiotic-resistant E. coli-related enteric illnesses, safeguarding both consumers and the integrity of integrated farming systems. Full article
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3 pages, 180 KiB  
Editorial
Zoonoses: Changing, Challenging, and Increasing Global Disease Threats
by Stephen K. Wikel
Zoonotic Dis. 2024, 4(1), 8-10; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis4010002 - 1 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1320
Abstract
The public awareness of zoonotic pathogens as well as the threats they pose to global public health have grown significantly, since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic [...] Full article
7 pages, 828 KiB  
Case Report
Rabies Exposure from Infected Horse Bite in an Urban Setting: A Case Study from Mongolia
by Doniddemberel Altantogtokh, Bazartseren Boldbaatar, Graham Matulis, Abigail A. Lilak, Nyamdorj Tsogbadrakh, Bayasgalan Chimedtseren, Khatanbold Ariunbold and Michael E. von Fricken
Zoonotic Dis. 2024, 4(1), 1-7; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis4010001 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1517
Abstract
Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease that causes an estimated 60,000 human deaths each year, many of which occur in Africa and Asia where the disease is likely underreported. Uncontrolled transmission of rabies presents a major threat to public health in countries [...] Read more.
Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease that causes an estimated 60,000 human deaths each year, many of which occur in Africa and Asia where the disease is likely underreported. Uncontrolled transmission of rabies presents a major threat to public health in countries such as Mongolia, where 26% of the population lives a pastoralist lifestyle characterized by increased interaction with livestock animals. Here, we report a case of rabies exposure in a six-year-old male after being bitten by a horse in both the head region and the leg. At the suspicion of rabies, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) was initiated, with the patient receiving four doses of PEP vaccine as well as a single treatment of rabies immunoglobulin. The horse was later confirmed to be rabies-positive through rapid antigen testing and RT-PCR. Human rabies exposure from horses is unusual within Mongolia, given that historically over 70% of human rabies cases within the country are attributed to dogs, wolves, or foxes. This case further emphasizes the need for more routine vaccination of domestic animals within Mongolia. Additionally, animal bites, even from animals not frequently associated with rabies, should be treated as possible rabies exposure events. Full article
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