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Alloys, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 6 articles

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30 pages, 16184 KiB  
Review
Mechanism of Electropulsing Treatment Technology for Flow Stress of Metal Material: A Review
by Bobo Lu, Kai Tang, Mingxia Wu, Yi Yang and Gang Yang
Alloys 2024, 3(1), 96-125; https://doi.org/10.3390/alloys3010006 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 729
Abstract
Residual stress is caused by non–uniform deformation caused by non–uniform force, heat and composition, which is of great significance in engineering applications. It is assumed that the residual stress is always the upper limit of the elastic limit, so the reduction of the [...] Read more.
Residual stress is caused by non–uniform deformation caused by non–uniform force, heat and composition, which is of great significance in engineering applications. It is assumed that the residual stress is always the upper limit of the elastic limit, so the reduction of the flow stress will reduce the residual elastic stress. It is particularly important to control the flow stress in metal materials. Compared with traditional methods, the use of electropulsing treatment (EPT) technology stands out due to its energy–efficient, highly effective, straightforward and pollution–free characteristics. However, there are different opinions about the mechanism of reducing flow stress through EPT due to the conflation of the effects from pulsed currents. Herein, a clear correlation is identified between induced stress levels and the application of pulsed electrical current. It was found that the decrease in flow stress is positively correlated with the current density and the duration of electrical contact and current action time. We first systematically and comprehensively summarize the influence mechanisms of EPT on dislocations, phase, textures and recrystallization. An analysis of Joule heating, electron wind effect, and thermal–induced stress within metal frameworks under the influence of pulsed currents was conducted. And the distribution of electric, thermal and stress fields under EPT are discussed in detail based on a finite element simulation (FES). Finally, some new insights into the issues and challenges of flow stress drops caused by EPT are proposed, which is critically important for advancing related mechanism research and the revision of theories and models. Full article
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37 pages, 19071 KiB  
Article
On the Microstructure and Properties of Complex Concentrated bcc Solid Solution and Tetragonal D8m M5Si3 Silicide Phases in a Refractory Complex Concentrated Alloy
by Nik Tankov, Claire Utton and Panos Tsakiropoulos
Alloys 2024, 3(1), 59-95; https://doi.org/10.3390/alloys3010005 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
In this work, the refractory complex concentrated alloy (RCCA) 3.5Al–4Cr–6Ge–1Hf–5Mo–36Nb–22Si–1.5Sn–20Ti–1W (at.%) was studied in the as cast and heat treated conditions (100 h or 200 h at 1500 °C). There was strong macrosegregation of Si in the 0.6 kg button/ingot of the cast [...] Read more.
In this work, the refractory complex concentrated alloy (RCCA) 3.5Al–4Cr–6Ge–1Hf–5Mo–36Nb–22Si–1.5Sn–20Ti–1W (at.%) was studied in the as cast and heat treated conditions (100 h or 200 h at 1500 °C). There was strong macrosegregation of Si in the 0.6 kg button/ingot of the cast alloy, in which A2 solid solution, D8m βNb5Si3, C14-NbCr2 Laves phase and Tiss and a ternary eutectic of the A2, D8m and C14 phases were formed. The partitioning of Ti in the as cast and heat treated microstructure and its relationships with other solutes was shown to be important for the properties of the A2 solid solution and the D8m βNb5Si3, which were the stable phases at 1500 °C. The near surface microstructure of the alloy was contaminated with oxygen after heat treatment under flowing Ar. For the aforementioned phases, it was shown, for the first time, that there are relationships between solutes, between solutes and the parameters VEC, Δχ and δ, between the said parameters, and between parameters and phase properties. For the contaminated with oxygen solid solution and silicide, trends in relationships between solutes, between solutes and oxygen content and between the aforementioned parameters and oxygen content also were shown for the first time. The nano-hardness and Young’s modulus of the A2 solid solution and the D8m βNb5Si3 of the as cast and heat-treated alloy were measured using nanoindentation. Changes of nano-hardness and Young’s modulus of the A2 solid solution and D8m βNb5Si3 per solute addition for this multiphase RCCA were discussed. The nano-hardness and Young’s modulus of the solid solution and the βNb5Si3, respectively, were 9.5 ± 0.2 GPa and 177.4 ± 5.5 GPa, and 17.55 ± 0.5 GPa and 250.27 ± 6.3 GPa after 200 h at 1500 °C. The aforementioned relationships and properties of the two phases demonstrated the importance of synergy and entanglement of solutes, parameters and phases in the microstructure and properties of the RCCA. Implications of synergy and entanglement for the design of metallic ultra-high temperature materials were emphasised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Paper Collection of Advanced Research on Alloys)
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16 pages, 16034 KiB  
Article
Oxidation of Fe35Mn21Ni20Cr12Al12 High Entropy Alloy in Dry Air
by Lamiaa Z. Mohamed, Sanaa S. Abd ElMoamen, Seung Jo Yoo and Mohamed Abdel-Hady Gepreel
Alloys 2024, 3(1), 43-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/alloys3010004 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 644
Abstract
The isothermal oxidation of a Fe35Mn21Ni20Cr12Al12 high entropy alloy (HEA) was investigated in dry air for 50 h at 500, 600, and 700 °C after 90% cold rolling. The Fe35Mn21Ni [...] Read more.
The isothermal oxidation of a Fe35Mn21Ni20Cr12Al12 high entropy alloy (HEA) was investigated in dry air for 50 h at 500, 600, and 700 °C after 90% cold rolling. The Fe35Mn21Ni20Cr12Al12 HEA behaves according to the linear oxidation rate with rate constants of 1 × 10−6, 3 × 10−6, and 7 × 10−6 g/(cm2·s) for oxidation at 500 °C, 600 °C, and 700 °C, respectively. The activation energy for oxidation of the HEA was calculated to be 60.866 KJ/mole in the 500–700 °C temperature range. The surface morphology and phase identification of the oxide layers were characterized. The formation of MnO2, Mn2O3, Mn3O4, Cr2O3, and Al2O3 in the oxide layers along with Fe2O3 is the key to the oxidation mechanism. The elemental mapping and line EDX scans were performed to identify the oxidation mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Paper Collection of Advanced Research on Alloys)
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12 pages, 3480 KiB  
Article
Optical Properties of AgAu Alloy Clusters: Effect of Chemical Configuration along a Rearrangement Pathway
by Hans-Christian Weissker and Florent Calvo
Alloys 2024, 3(1), 31-42; https://doi.org/10.3390/alloys3010003 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Gold and silver are, for all their chemical similarities, optically very different. Small Ag clusters show a localized surface-plasmon resonance (LSPR), whereas in Au clusters smaller than about 300 atoms, the resonance is absent due to the coupling with the interband transitions from [...] Read more.
Gold and silver are, for all their chemical similarities, optically very different. Small Ag clusters show a localized surface-plasmon resonance (LSPR), whereas in Au clusters smaller than about 300 atoms, the resonance is absent due to the coupling with the interband transitions from the d electrons. This opens the possibility of tuning the cluster properties depending on their composition and chemical configuration. Earlier work on AgAu alloy clusters has shown that the outermost shell of atoms is crucial to their overall optical properties. In the present contribution, we consider the optical spectroscopic properties associated with the structural rearrangement in 55-atom AgAu alloy clusters in which the core transforms from pure silver to pure gold. Calculations using time-dependent density-functional theory are complemented by an in-depth study of the subtle effects that the chemical configuration has on the details of the materials’ d bands. Although the cluster surface remains alloyed, the geometrical changes translate into strong variations in the optical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Paper Collection of Advanced Research on Alloys)
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16 pages, 3002 KiB  
Article
Exploring Synergistic Effect on the Stability of Ni-, Pd-, Ir-Doped TiN (N = 1–15) Nanoparticles
by Tshegofatso Phaahla, Phuti Ngoepe and Hasani Chauke
Alloys 2024, 3(1), 15-30; https://doi.org/10.3390/alloys3010002 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Bimetallic nanoclusters have attracted great interest due to their ability to enhance the catalytic properties of nanoclusters through synergetic effects that emerge from the combination of the metal nanocluster with different transition metal (TM) species. However, their indefinite composition and broad distribution hinder [...] Read more.
Bimetallic nanoclusters have attracted great interest due to their ability to enhance the catalytic properties of nanoclusters through synergetic effects that emerge from the combination of the metal nanocluster with different transition metal (TM) species. However, their indefinite composition and broad distribution hinder the insightful understanding of the interaction between these invasive metals in bimetallic doped nanoalloys. In this study, we report a density functional theory calculation with the PBEsol exchange-correlation functional for 16-atom TiN−1TM (TM = Ni, Ir, Pd) nanoalloys, which provides new insights into the synergetic effect of these invasive metals. The probe into the effect of these metal impurities revealed that the replacement of a Ti atom with Ni, Ir and Pd enhances the relative stability of the nanoalloys, and the maximum stability for a lower bimetallic composition is reached for Ti4Ir, Ti5Pd and Ti7Ni. The most stable nanoalloy is reached for the Ti12Ir cluster in comparison with the Ti12Pd and Ti12Ni clusters and pure Ti13 monoatomic nanocluster. This stability trend is as revealed well by both the binding energy and the dissociation energy. The average HOMO-LUMO gap for the bigger clusters revealed that the valence electrons in the HOMO can absorb lower energy, which is indicatory of a higher reactivity and lower stability. The quantum confinement is higher for the smaller clusters, which illustrates a higher stability and lower reactivity for those systems. Full article
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14 pages, 4443 KiB  
Article
The Effect of the Environment on the Case Hardening Characteristics of AISI 1018 Steel during Cassava Leaf Pack Cyaniding
by Renee Erica Gordon, Egwu Eric Kalu, Adelana Rasak Adetunji, Dorr Campbell and Peter N. Kalu
Alloys 2024, 3(1), 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3390/alloys3010001 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 960
Abstract
As part of a comprehensive study on eco-friendly processing techniques, the influence of the heat treatment environment on the case hardening of AISI 1018 steel using pulverized cassava leaf was studied. The process was carried out at two different temperatures (850 °C and [...] Read more.
As part of a comprehensive study on eco-friendly processing techniques, the influence of the heat treatment environment on the case hardening of AISI 1018 steel using pulverized cassava leaf was studied. The process was carried out at two different temperatures (850 °C and 950 °C) and under three environmental conditions: Process 1, the control experiment, was carried out in air only; in Process 2, the medium comprised pulverized cassava leaves; and in Process 3 a combination of pulverized cassava leaves plus barium carbonate (BaCO3) was used as an energizer (CBC mixture). Vickers microhardness testing and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the effect of the processing environment on the case hardening of the steel. As expected, regardless of the processing temperature, Process 1 resulted in little or no hardening of the steel surface. However, notable case hardening occurred when the steel specimens were subjected to either Process 2 or Process 3. Furthermore, the inclusion of barium carbonate in Process 3 significantly enhanced the case hardening effectiveness of the cassava leaf in terms of the rate of and maximum hardness achieved. A maximum enhancement was observed at 950 °C. After 1 h, the increase in hardness was 160% and 280% for Process 2 and Process 3, respectively. Upon increasing the processing time to 5 h, the increase in hardness due to Process 2 was raised to 254%, while that of Process 3 remained at approximately 280%. The diffusivity of AISI 1018 was calculated using the microhardness data. The diffusivity was highest in Process 2 samples with values of 1.568 × 10−9 m2/s at 850 °C and 1.893 × 10−9 m2/s at 950 °C. Effective case hardening of AISI 1018 steel was carried out using the medium of cassava leaf, without the addition of barium carbonate (BaCO3) as an energizer. Full article
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