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DNA, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 4 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The Japanese frog Glandirana rugosa includes two heteromorphic sex chromosome systems of ZZ–ZW and XX–XY, which are separated into geo-graphic populations. The high-throughput analyses of nuclear genomes uncovered the mechanisms responsible for the genetic heterogeneity of the W chromosomes. The X chromosomes were recycled into new W chromosomes via recombination between the W and X chromosomes in WX female hybrids. Putting together the results derived from our previous studies, it was concluded that the W chromosomes evolved from the X chromosomes independently at least four times. This is a case of intermittent evolution of the W chromosome via interpopulation hybridization: a repetition of degeneration and resurrection. View this paper
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3 pages, 170 KiB  
Editorial
The Joint Meeting of the 23rd International Chromosome Conference (ICC) and the 24th International Colloquium in Animal Cytogenetics and Genomics (ICACG)
by Darren K. Griffin
DNA 2022, 2(3), 202-204; https://doi.org/10.3390/dna2030014 - 2 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1615
Abstract
As the coronavirus struck the globe, we were all affected, and cytogenetic conferences were no exception [...] Full article
17 pages, 2776 KiB  
Review
Origin of the Bunun Indigenous People of Taiwan, a Review of Published Material Using Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Gene Systems
by Jean A. Trejaut
DNA 2022, 2(3), 185-201; https://doi.org/10.3390/dna2030013 - 1 Sep 2022
Viewed by 5444
Abstract
Anthropological and linguistic studies place the first settlement of Austronesian speaking Taiwanese (AN_Tw) in the mid-Holocene era. However, geneticists have revealed exclusive diversity among the Bunun indigenous people, implying that their ancestral origin needs further study. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism of the [...] Read more.
Anthropological and linguistic studies place the first settlement of Austronesian speaking Taiwanese (AN_Tw) in the mid-Holocene era. However, geneticists have revealed exclusive diversity among the Bunun indigenous people, implying that their ancestral origin needs further study. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism of the Bunun shows a homogeneous relationship with other AN_Tw. However, the Y-chromosome polymorphism shows two major haplogroups, O1a2-M50 (60.7%), also seen to a lesser extent among the Northern AN_Tw, and O1b1a1a1a1a1-M88 (37.5%), scarce among all other AN and non-AN groups in Taiwan, but prevailing in Southeast Asia (SEA) and Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA). While the present-day mtDNA profile of the Bunun typifies the long-term demographic standard for all AN_Tw since the Neolithic era, their Y-chromosome profile suggests an arrival of male settlers in the last two to three millennia from SEA or MSEA, who mixed exclusively with the Bunun indigenous people. Full article
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13 pages, 3670 KiB  
Article
W Chromosome Evolution by Repeated Recycling in the Frog Glandirana rugosa
by Mitsuaki Ogata, Foyez Shams, Yuri Yoshimura, Tariq Ezaz and Ikuo Miura
DNA 2022, 2(3), 172-184; https://doi.org/10.3390/dna2030012 - 1 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3061
Abstract
The Y or W sex chromosome of a heteromorphic pair is usually heterochromatinised and degenerated. However, whether chromosome degeneration constantly proceeds toward an extreme end is not fully understood. Here, we present a case of intermittent evolution of W chromosomes caused by interpopulation [...] Read more.
The Y or W sex chromosome of a heteromorphic pair is usually heterochromatinised and degenerated. However, whether chromosome degeneration constantly proceeds toward an extreme end is not fully understood. Here, we present a case of intermittent evolution of W chromosomes caused by interpopulation hybridisation in the Japanese soil-frog, Glandirana rugosa. This species includes two heteromorphic sex chromosome systems, which are separated into geographic populations, namely the XY and ZW groups. In this study, to uncover the evolutionary mechanisms of the heterogeneous W chromosomes, we genetically investigated the geographic differentiation of the ZW populations along with the closely located XY populations. Analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences detected three distinct clades, named ZW1, ZW2, and ZW3. High throughput analyses of nuclear genomic DNA showed that autosomal alleles of XY populations were deeply introgressed into the ZW3 sub-group. Based on the genotypes of sex-linked single nucleotide polymorphisms, W-borne androgen receptor gene expression, and WW developmental mortality, we concluded that the X chromosomes were recycled to W chromosomes. Upon inclusion of two cases from another group, Neo-ZW, we observed that the X chromosomes were recycled independently at least four times to the new W chromosomes: a repetition of degeneration and resurrection. Full article
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23 pages, 5341 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Efficacy of Hyaluronic Acid Binding (HAB) in the Treatment of Male Infertility: A Systematic Review of the Literature
by Róisín Ní Dhuifin, Darren K. Griffin and Therishnee Moodley
DNA 2022, 2(3), 149-171; https://doi.org/10.3390/dna2030011 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3273
Abstract
Hyaluronic acid (HA)-binding is reported to predict the fertilising capacity of spermatozoa, while HA-bound sperm selection is reported to reduce the incidence of miscarriage. However, the clinical effectiveness of these techniques remains uncertain. This work investigated the prognostic value of sperm-HA binding (HAB) [...] Read more.
Hyaluronic acid (HA)-binding is reported to predict the fertilising capacity of spermatozoa, while HA-bound sperm selection is reported to reduce the incidence of miscarriage. However, the clinical effectiveness of these techniques remains uncertain. This work investigated the prognostic value of sperm-HA binding (HAB) as a predictor of treatment outcomes, and whether HAB-sperm selection for Invitro fertilisation (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) improves clinical outcomes or reduces miscarriage rates. A systematic review of the literature was carried out. A modified version of the Downs and Black Checklist was used to assess bias and study quality on eleven selected studies. No significant correlations were found between HAB score and fertilisation, clinical pregnancy, or live birth rates (low-quality evidence). Three studies reported a significant reduction in the incidence of miscarriage, including a Cochrane review (low-quality evidence). While the prognostic value of HAB scores is currently undetermined, there is evidence that HAB-sperm selection prior to insemination reduces the incidence of miscarriage following ART. Moreover, there are no reports of detrimental effects of HAB-sperm selection on treatment outcomes when compared with conventional IVF or ICSI. Therefore, it is unclear why it is assigned as a treatment “add-on” with a red light by the HFEA, and why its routine use is not recommended. Full article
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