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DNA, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): DNA–protein cross-links (DPCs) are cytotoxic DNA lesions with a protein covalently bound to the DNA. Although much has been learned about the formation, repair, and biological consequences of DPCs in the nucleus, little is known regarding mitochondrial DPCs, partly due to the lack of robust and specific methods to measure mitochondrial DPCs. Herein, we reported an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based method for detecting mitochondrial DPCs formed between DNA and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in cultured human cells. The method is based on commercially available materials and can be amended to detect other types of DPCs in mitochondria. View this paper
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12 pages, 2094 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Thermal Stability of DNA Oligonucleotide Structures Embedded in Hydrogels
by Daisuke Yamaguchi, Masatoshi Yoshida and Shu-ichi Nakano
DNA 2022, 2(4), 302-313; https://doi.org/10.3390/dna2040021 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 3008
Abstract
Understanding the self-assembly and hybridization properties of DNA oligonucleotides in confined spaces can help to improve their applications in biotechnology and nanotechnology. This study investigates the effects of spatial confinement in the pores of hydrogels on the thermal stability of DNA oligonucleotide structures. [...] Read more.
Understanding the self-assembly and hybridization properties of DNA oligonucleotides in confined spaces can help to improve their applications in biotechnology and nanotechnology. This study investigates the effects of spatial confinement in the pores of hydrogels on the thermal stability of DNA oligonucleotide structures. The preparation of oligonucleotides embedded in agarose gels was simple, whereas the preparation of oligonucleotides embedded in polyacrylamide gels was required to remove unpolymerized monomers. In the latter case, a method for rehydrating a washed dry gel with a buffer solution containing oligonucleotides was developed. Fluorescence measurements of oligonucleotides bearing fluorescent probes revealed no significant influence of the internal environment of the gel pores on the stability of DNA duplex, hairpin, and G-quadruplex structures. Moreover, the effects of poly(ethylene glycol) on the stability of DNA structures in the gels were similar to those in solutions. It is likely that the oligonucleotides are not strongly constrained in the gels and may be preferentially located in a water-rich environment in the gel matrix. The gel preparation was also applied to the assessment of the stability of DNA structures under the conditions of a reduced number of water molecules. The studies using hydrogels provide insights into the ability of self-assembly and hybridization of oligonucleotides in confined environments and under low-water-content conditions. Full article
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23 pages, 2179 KiB  
Review
Complex Roles of NEIL1 and OGG1: Insights Gained from Murine Knockouts and Human Polymorphic Variants
by R. Stephen Lloyd
DNA 2022, 2(4), 279-301; https://doi.org/10.3390/dna2040020 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2510
Abstract
DNA glycosylases promote genomic stability by initiating base excision repair (BER) in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Several of these enzymes have overlapping substrate recognition, through which a degree of redundancy in lesion recognition is achieved. For example, OGG1 and NEIL1 both [...] Read more.
DNA glycosylases promote genomic stability by initiating base excision repair (BER) in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Several of these enzymes have overlapping substrate recognition, through which a degree of redundancy in lesion recognition is achieved. For example, OGG1 and NEIL1 both recognize and release the imidazole-ring-fragmented guanine, FapyGua as part of a common overall pathway to cleanse the genome of damaged bases. However, these glycosylases have many differences, including their differential breadth of substrate specificity, the contrasting chemistries through which base release occurs, the subsequent steps required to complete the BER pathway, and the identity of specific protein-binding partners. Beyond these differences, the complexities and differences of their in vivo biological roles have been primarily elucidated in studies of murine models harboring a knockout of Neil1 or Ogg1, with the diversity of phenotypic manifestations exceeding what might have been anticipated for a DNA glycosylase deficiency. Pathologies associated with deficiencies in nuclear DNA repair include differential cancer susceptibilities, where Ogg1-deficient mice are generally refractory to carcinogenesis, while deficiencies in Neil1-deficient mice confer cancer susceptibility. In contrast to NEIL1, OGG1 functions as a key transcription factor in regulating inflammation and other complex gene cascades. With regard to phenotypes attributed to mitochondrial repair, knockout of either of these genes results in age- and diet-induced metabolic syndrome. The adverse health consequences associated with metabolic syndrome can be largely overcome by expression of a mitochondrial-targeted human OGG1 in both wild-type and Ogg1-deficient mice. The goal of this review is to compare the roles that NEIL1 and OGG1 play in maintaining genomic integrity, with emphasis on insights gained from not only the diverse phenotypes that are manifested in knockout and transgenic mice, but also human disease susceptibility associated with polymorphic variants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Mutation and Repair to Therapeutics)
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15 pages, 1935 KiB  
Article
An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Mitochondrial DNA–Protein Cross-Links from Mammalian Cells
by Wenyan Xu and Linlin Zhao
DNA 2022, 2(4), 264-278; https://doi.org/10.3390/dna2040019 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2625
Abstract
DNA–Protein cross-links (DPCs) are cytotoxic DNA lesions with a protein covalently bound to the DNA. Although much has been learned about the formation, repair, and biological consequences of DPCs in the nucleus, little is known regarding mitochondrial DPCs. This is due in part [...] Read more.
DNA–Protein cross-links (DPCs) are cytotoxic DNA lesions with a protein covalently bound to the DNA. Although much has been learned about the formation, repair, and biological consequences of DPCs in the nucleus, little is known regarding mitochondrial DPCs. This is due in part to the lack of robust and specific methods to measure mitochondrial DPCs. Herein, we reported an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based method for detecting mitochondrial DPCs formed between DNA and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in cultured human cells. To optimize the purification and detection workflow, we prepared model TFAM-DPCs via Schiff base chemistry using recombinant human TFAM and a DNA substrate containing an abasic (AP) lesion. We optimized the isolation of TFAM-DPCs using commercial silica gel-based columns to achieve a high recovery yield for DPCs. We evaluated the microplate, DNA-coating solution, and HRP substrate for specific and sensitive detection of TFAM-DPCs. Additionally, we optimized the mtDNA isolation procedure to eliminate almost all nuclear DNA contaminants. For proof of concept, we detected the different levels of TFAM-DPCs in mtDNA from HEK293 cells under different biological conditions. The method is based on commercially available materials and can be amended to detect other types of DPCs in mitochondria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Mutation and Repair to Therapeutics)
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16 pages, 1357 KiB  
Review
The Domino Effect: Nucleosome Dynamics and the Regulation of Base Excision Repair Enzymes
by Julia C. Cook and Sarah Delaney
DNA 2022, 2(4), 248-263; https://doi.org/10.3390/dna2040018 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2420
Abstract
DNA damage is induced by exogenous and endogenous sources, creating a variety of lesions. However, the cellular repair machinery that addresses and corrects this damage must contend with the fact that genomic DNA is sequestered in the nucleoprotein complex of chromatin. As the [...] Read more.
DNA damage is induced by exogenous and endogenous sources, creating a variety of lesions. However, the cellular repair machinery that addresses and corrects this damage must contend with the fact that genomic DNA is sequestered in the nucleoprotein complex of chromatin. As the minimal unit of DNA compaction, the nucleosome core particle (NCP) is a major determinant of repair and poses unique barriers to DNA accessibility. This review outlines how the base excision repair (BER) pathway is modulated by the NCP and describes the structural and dynamic factors that influence the ability of BER enzymes to find and repair damage. Structural characteristics of the NCP such as nucleobase positioning and occupancy will be explored along with factors that impact the dynamic nature of NCPs to increase mobilization of nucleosomal DNA. We will discuss how altering the dynamics of NCPs initiates a domino effect that results in the regulation of BER enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Mutation and Repair to Therapeutics)
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17 pages, 2313 KiB  
Review
Multi-Faceted Roles of ERCC1-XPF Nuclease in Processing Non-B DNA Structures
by Tonia T. Li and Karen M. Vasquez
DNA 2022, 2(4), 231-247; https://doi.org/10.3390/dna2040017 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
Genetic instability can result from increases in DNA damage and/or alterations in DNA repair proteins and can contribute to disease development. Both exogenous and endogenous sources of DNA damage and/or alterations in DNA structure (e.g., non-B DNA) can impact genome stability. Multiple repair [...] Read more.
Genetic instability can result from increases in DNA damage and/or alterations in DNA repair proteins and can contribute to disease development. Both exogenous and endogenous sources of DNA damage and/or alterations in DNA structure (e.g., non-B DNA) can impact genome stability. Multiple repair mechanisms exist to counteract DNA damage. One key DNA repair protein complex is ERCC1-XPF, a structure-specific endonuclease that participates in a variety of DNA repair processes. ERCC1-XPF is involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER), repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair via homologous recombination. In addition, ERCC1-XPF contributes to the processing of various alternative (i.e., non-B) DNA structures. This review will focus on the processing of alternative DNA structures by ERCC1-XPF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Mutation and Repair to Therapeutics)
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10 pages, 2283 KiB  
Article
Size- and Stereochemistry-Dependent Transcriptional Bypass of DNA Alkyl Phosphotriester Adducts in Mammalian Cells
by Ying Tan, Jiabin Wu, Garrit Clabaugh, Lin Li, Hua Du and Yinsheng Wang
DNA 2022, 2(4), 221-230; https://doi.org/10.3390/dna2040016 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1947
Abstract
Environmental, endogenous and therapeutic alkylating agents can react with internucleotide phosphate groups in DNA to yield alkyl phosphotriester (PTE) adducts. Alkyl-PTEs are induced at relatively high frequencies and are persistent in mammalian tissues; however, their biological consequences in mammalian cells have not been [...] Read more.
Environmental, endogenous and therapeutic alkylating agents can react with internucleotide phosphate groups in DNA to yield alkyl phosphotriester (PTE) adducts. Alkyl-PTEs are induced at relatively high frequencies and are persistent in mammalian tissues; however, their biological consequences in mammalian cells have not been examined. Herein, we assessed how alkyl-PTEs with different alkyl group sizes and stereochemical configurations (SP and RP diastereomers of Me and nPr) affect the efficiency and fidelity of transcription in mammalian cells. We found that, while the RP diastereomer of Me- and nPr-PTEs constituted moderate and strong blockages to transcription, respectively, the SP diastereomer of the two lesions did not appreciably perturb transcription efficiency. In addition, none of the four alkyl-PTEs induced mutant transcripts. Furthermore, polymerase η assumed an important role in promoting transcription across the SP-Me-PTE, but not any of other three lesions. Loss of other translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases tested, including Pol κ, Pol ι, Pol ξ and REV1, did not alter the transcription bypass efficiency or mutation frequency for any of the alkyl-PTE lesions. Together, our study provided important new knowledge about the impact of alkyl-PTE lesions on transcription and expanded the substrate pool of Pol η in transcriptional bypass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Mutation and Repair to Therapeutics)
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16 pages, 5162 KiB  
Review
Contributing Factors for Mutagenic DNA Lesion Bypass by DNA Polymerase Eta (polη)
by Hunmin Jung
DNA 2022, 2(4), 205-220; https://doi.org/10.3390/dna2040015 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
The integrity of DNA replication is under constant threat from various exogenous and endogenous factors along with some epigenetic factors. When there is damage to the genome, cells respond to the damage in two major ways, DNA damage repair and DNA damage tolerance. [...] Read more.
The integrity of DNA replication is under constant threat from various exogenous and endogenous factors along with some epigenetic factors. When there is damage to the genome, cells respond to the damage in two major ways, DNA damage repair and DNA damage tolerance. One of the major mechanisms for DNA damage tolerance is DNA lesion bypass, which is performed by specific DNA polymerases called Y-family DNA polymerases including DNA polymerase eta (polη). Ever since the discovery of polη’s unique role in bypassing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), a wide range of DNA lesions have been experimentally shown to be bypassed by polη. The structural study of polη was greatly boosted by the first elucidation of the N-terminal catalytic domain of polη by X-ray crystallography in 2010. Ever since, a lot of polη catalytic domain crystal structures have been published, which were complexed with an incoming nucleotide and a lesion containing DNA including pyrimidine dimers, cisplatin GpG adduct, 8-oxoguanine (oxoG), 8-oxoadenine (oxoA), N7-methylguanine (N7mG), O6-methylguanine (O6mG), hypoxanthine (HX), and many others. Though polη’s active site is known to be rigid with few conformational changes, there are several contributing factors that could facilitate the lesion bypass such as catalytic metals, syn–anti conformational equilibrium, tautomerization, and specific residues of polη. Each of these components are discussed in detail in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Mutation and Repair to Therapeutics)
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