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Hemato, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 5 articles

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14 pages, 12705 KiB  
Review
B- and T-/NK-Cell Lymphomas in the 2022 International Consensus Classification of Mature Lymphoid Neoplasms and Comparison with the WHO Fifth Edition
by Elaine S. Jaffe and Antonino Carbone
Hemato 2024, 5(2), 157-170; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato5020013 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 591
Abstract
The World Health Organization (WHO) “Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues”, published in 2001 and subsequently updated in 2008 and 2017, defined disease entities based on morphologic and phenotypic characteristics, clinical features, and genomic findings. Recently, the criteria for the diagnosis [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization (WHO) “Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues”, published in 2001 and subsequently updated in 2008 and 2017, defined disease entities based on morphologic and phenotypic characteristics, clinical features, and genomic findings. Recently, the criteria for the diagnosis of many lymphoma entities have been refined in a proposal by the International Consensus Classification (ICC). Some provisional categories have now been recognized as “definite” entities, while other categories have undergone major revision. This article reports on the major revisions in the criteria and definition of B- and T-/NK-cell lymphomas by the ICC system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lymphomas)
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13 pages, 882 KiB  
Opinion
The Role of Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma: Is It Time to Rethink the Paradigm in the Era of Targeted Therapy?
by Paul G. Richardson
Hemato 2024, 5(2), 144-156; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato5020012 - 9 Apr 2024
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Abstract
High-dose melphalan (HDM) plus autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) remains a standard-of-care treatment approach for eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) based on demonstrated superiority in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) versus nontransplant approaches. Very high rates of minimal residual disease [...] Read more.
High-dose melphalan (HDM) plus autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) remains a standard-of-care treatment approach for eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) based on demonstrated superiority in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) versus nontransplant approaches. Very high rates of minimal residual disease (MRD)-negative responses are also being seen with novel triplet and quadruplet induction regimens plus HDM-ASCT. However, recent clinical trials have shown no overall survival benefit with transplant versus nontransplant approaches. Furthermore, HDM is associated with several important downsides, including acute and long-term toxicities, transient decreases in quality of life, the need for hospitalization, an increased mutational burden at relapse, and an elevated risk of second primary malignancies. In this context, given the highly heterogeneous nature of MM in the NDMM patient population, as well as the continued emergence of novel agents and treatment approaches, there is an increasing rationale for considering deferred HDM-ASCT approaches in selected patients. Approaches under investigation include MRD-adapted therapy and the use of novel immune-based therapies as alternatives to HDM-ASCT. Ongoing developments in understanding the pathobiology and prognostic factors in NDMM, plus immune profiling and routine MRD evaluation, will result in novel, HDM-sparing treatment paradigms, enabling further improvement in patient outcomes. Full article
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25 pages, 17634 KiB  
Article
Artificial Intelligence, Lymphoid Neoplasms, and Prediction of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 Gene Expression Using a Pan-Cancer Panel in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
by Joaquim Carreras and Naoya Nakamura
Hemato 2024, 5(2), 119-143; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato5020011 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Background: Artificial intelligence in medicine is a field that is rapidly evolving. Machine learning and deep learning are used to improve disease identification and diagnosis, personalize disease treatment, analyze medical images, evaluate clinical trials, and speed drug development. Methods: First, relevant [...] Read more.
Background: Artificial intelligence in medicine is a field that is rapidly evolving. Machine learning and deep learning are used to improve disease identification and diagnosis, personalize disease treatment, analyze medical images, evaluate clinical trials, and speed drug development. Methods: First, relevant aspects of AI are revised in a comprehensive manner, including the classification of hematopoietic neoplasms, types of AI, applications in medicine and hematological neoplasia, generative pre-trained transformers (GPTs), and the architecture and interpretation of feedforward neural net-works (multilayer perceptron). Second, a series of 233 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated with rituximab-CHOP from the Lymphoma/Leukemia Molecular Profiling Project (LLMPP) was analyzed. Results: Using conventional statistics, the high expression of MYC and BCL2 was associated with poor survival, but high BCL6 was associated with a favorable overall survival of the patients. Then, a neural network predicted MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 with high accuracy using a pan-cancer panel of 758 genes of immuno-oncology and translational research that includes clinically relevant actionable genes and pathways. A comparable analysis was performed using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Conclusions: The mathematical way in which neural networks reach conclusions has been considered a black box, but a careful understanding and evaluation of the architectural design allows us to interpret the results logically. In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, neural networks are a plausible data analysis approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lymphomas)
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4 pages, 490 KiB  
Opinion
Elderly Patients with Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma: Continuous or Fixed Duration Treatment?
by Salomon Manier and Thierry Facon
Hemato 2024, 5(2), 115-118; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato5020010 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Multiple myeloma (MM) presents unique challenges in the elderly population due to increased frailty and comorbidities. Balancing treatment efficacy, safety, and quality of life is essential in managing elderly patients. While two-drug regimens were often favored for elderly patients, recent studies show promising [...] Read more.
Multiple myeloma (MM) presents unique challenges in the elderly population due to increased frailty and comorbidities. Balancing treatment efficacy, safety, and quality of life is essential in managing elderly patients. While two-drug regimens were often favored for elderly patients, recent studies show promising outcomes with anti-CD38 antibody-based therapies, particularly daratumumab and lenalidomide with minimal dexamethasone. Continuous low-intensity treatments have shown improved progression-free survival and overall survival, with significant benefits observed in elderly patients. The DRd combination has now emerged as the standard of care for elderly MM patients, offering a favorable balance of efficacy, safety, and convenience. Ongoing trials are evaluating the addition of bortezomib in an induction phase for fit patients. New-generation immunotherapies hold promise for further refining treatment approaches, potentially leading to treatment discontinuation in select patient populations with sustained minimal residual disease negativity. Full article
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6 pages, 223 KiB  
Brief Report
Selective IgA Deficiency and Blood Component Transfusion: In Search of the Lost Evidence
by Pilar Solves, Ana Bataller, Ana Belén Gálvez, Pedro Asensi Cantó, Marta Santiago, María José Moreno, Inés Gómez-Seguí and Javier de la Rubia
Hemato 2024, 5(2), 109-114; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato5020009 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Background: Selective IgA deficiency (IgA-D) has been historically considered a high-risk entity for developing allergic/anaphylactic reactions after blood transfusion (AATRs). However, it has been suggested that the IgA-D-related anaphylactic transfusion reaction is not evidence-based. Methods: We conducted three different approaches to [...] Read more.
Background: Selective IgA deficiency (IgA-D) has been historically considered a high-risk entity for developing allergic/anaphylactic reactions after blood transfusion (AATRs). However, it has been suggested that the IgA-D-related anaphylactic transfusion reaction is not evidence-based. Methods: We conducted three different approaches to collect evidence about epidemiology, AATRs, and transfusion management of patients with IgA-D at La Fe University Hospital. Firstly, we analysed the prevalence of IgA-D in a population of patients diagnosed with acute leukaemia, The second approach consisted of collecting transfusion data from IgA-D patients. Finally, we reviewed the IgA levels of patients recorded in the hemovigilance system suffering an AATR. Results: IgA-D prevalence was 1 in 334 patients. At least one blood component was transfused to 23 patients diagnosed with IgA-D. Plasma was transfused to eight IgA-D patients, while six patients received red blood cells, platelets, and plasma. No adverse reactions were reported in any patient. AATRs occurred in 325 men and 264 women with a median age of 52 years. Severe reactions occurred in 56 patients (1/14,520 components). Mean IgA levels were 215 mg/dL (4–5570) for mild reactions and 214 mg/dL (14–824) for severe reactions (p = ns). Washed platelets were administered to two patients who developed severe and repeated AATRs. Both had normal IgA levels. Conclusions: Since the AATRs related to IgA-D are extremely low, as reported in current hemovigilance systems, IgA-D should not be considered a high-risk entity to develop AATRs. On the contrary, our findings support standard transfusion management of IgA-D patients. Full article
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