Next Issue
Volume 5, June
Previous Issue
Volume 4, December
 
 

Hemato, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 8 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
29 pages, 5345 KiB  
Review
Review of Peripheral Blood Eosinophilia: Workup and Differential Diagnosis
by Michael Dennis Weaver, Bianca Glass, Chance Aplanalp, Gauri Patel, Jeshrine Mazhil, Isabella Wang and Samir Dalia
Hemato 2024, 5(1), 81-108; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato5010008 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 593
Abstract
Eosinophils are a type of granulocyte key to immune system modulation seen in a number of disease processes. Nearly every major organ system can be connected to peripheral eosinophilia through a number of different disease processes, ranging from benign conditions to malignancy. In [...] Read more.
Eosinophils are a type of granulocyte key to immune system modulation seen in a number of disease processes. Nearly every major organ system can be connected to peripheral eosinophilia through a number of different disease processes, ranging from benign conditions to malignancy. In this paper, we review both common and rare causes of peripheral eosinophilia, their symptoms, and a framework for the workup of peripheral eosinophilia of unknown etiology. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 565 KiB  
Article
Immune Checkpoint Inhibition in Pediatric Oncology Patients: A Single-Institution Experience
by Natalia Wojciechowska, Kaci Orr, Karen Albritton, Kenneth Heym, Kelly Vallance, Lauren Murray, Rocio Aguilar and Anish Ray
Hemato 2024, 5(1), 66-80; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato5010007 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment approach in oncology, as it is specifically designed to boost the strength and accuracy of the immune system, allowing it to target tumor cells but spare non-tumor tissue. This treatment not only demonstrates potential for improved [...] Read more.
Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment approach in oncology, as it is specifically designed to boost the strength and accuracy of the immune system, allowing it to target tumor cells but spare non-tumor tissue. This treatment not only demonstrates potential for improved clinical outcomes but may also be associated with fewer adverse effects compared to traditional therapies. Despite its early success, the application of immunotherapy has largely been limited to adult cancer patients, with slow adoption noted in the treatment of pediatric cancer patients. Our objective is to demonstrate a single institution’s experience with immunotherapy in pediatric cancer patients and to discuss the use of these treatment modalities in this unique patient population. We performed a retrospective chart review and identified patients who received immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and/or underwent immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing for programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), quantification of tumor mutational burden (TMB), and classification of microsatellite instability (MSI) status. In total, we identified seven pediatric cancer patients who received therapy with ICIs. Four of these patients demonstrated positive PD-L1 expression, high TMB, and/or MSI-high status. These patients were treated with nivolumab alone or in combination with ipilimumab or brentuximab. The diagnoses included: multifocal epithelioid and spindle cell hemangioma (n = 1); metastatic melanoma (n = 2); histiocytic sarcoma (n = 1); rectal adenocarcinoma in the setting of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome (CMMRD) (n = 1); and Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2). The patients received between four and nineteen cycles of immunotherapy. Immunotherapy-related adverse events included: mild allergic reaction; prodromal symptoms; anemia; neutropenia; transaminitis; endocrinopathies; and self-limiting neuritis. Of the seven patients, three are still being treated with immunotherapy (the patients with rectal adenocarcinoma, metastatic melanoma, and multifocal epithelioid and spindle cell hemangioma) with positive treatment responses observed on imaging, one is being treated with other modalities (the patient with Hodgkin lymphoma), two have achieved remission (the patients with metastatic melanoma and Hodgkin lymphoma), and one has relapsed (the patient with histiocytic sarcoma). The three patients who completed their immunotherapy regimens have been followed for 1 month, 4 months, and 10 months, respectively. This report of a single-institution experience with immunotherapy in pediatric cancer patients highlights the positive impact immunotherapy can have, especially when utilized to treat relapsed/refractory malignancies, as tumor regression or stabilization of disease burden was achieved in six of the patients described (CR = 2; PR = 4). Further research is needed to accurately identify pediatric oncology patients who could benefit from immunotherapy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 8255 KiB  
Article
Haemostaseological Changes of VWF and FVIII during Pregnancy and the Oestrus Cycle in a Porcine Model of Von Willebrand Disease
by Rabea Möller, Katharina Kaiser, Ulrich Baulain, Björn Petersen, Carsten Detering, Mahnaz Ekhlasi-Hundrieser, Richard Zimmermann, Christian Mühlfeld, Mario von Depka Prondzinski, Christiane Pfarrer and Stefanie Lehner
Hemato 2024, 5(1), 48-65; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato5010006 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Pregnancy and the oestrus cycle are challenging for female patients suffering from von Willebrand disease (VWD). Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the changes in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) during pregnancy and the oestrus cycle in our porcine model [...] Read more.
Pregnancy and the oestrus cycle are challenging for female patients suffering from von Willebrand disease (VWD). Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the changes in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) during pregnancy and the oestrus cycle in our porcine model of von Willebrand disease compared with the wild-type. Plasma analyses regarding primary hemostasis, secondary hemostasis, and VWF multimers, as well as immunohistochemistry analyses of VWF in the uterus and ovary, were performed. For levels of VWF and FVIII activities, significant elevations were seen in the last trimester. Primary hemostasis improved towards the end of pregnancy. In the oestrus cycle, significantly lower VWF values can be seen in the immunohistochemistry of the ovaries during the oestrus, while values were highest in the metoestrus. VWF multimer patterns in pigs were similar to the ones in human VWD patients. In summary, the course of VWF and FVIII during pregnancy and the oestrus cycle in porcine VWD were investigated for the first time. The porcine model seems to be suitable for haemostaseological studies on VWD. This provides an advantage for investigating reproduction-related bleeding and understanding the underlying mechanisms of post-partum hemorrhage or miscarriage in women with VWD. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 264 KiB  
Review
Parenteral Iron Therapy for Pediatric Patients
by Elpis Mantadakis, Sonia Alexiadou and Panagiota Zikidou
Hemato 2024, 5(1), 35-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato5010005 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 886
Abstract
Iron deficiency (ID) is by far the most common nutritional disorder in developing and developed countries. When left untreated, ID leads to anemia. Although the usually recommended treatment for iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is oral iron therapy with countless products, such therapy necessitates [...] Read more.
Iron deficiency (ID) is by far the most common nutritional disorder in developing and developed countries. When left untreated, ID leads to anemia. Although the usually recommended treatment for iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is oral iron therapy with countless products, such therapy necessitates administration for >3–6 months with questionable patient compliance since most oral iron products have an unpleasant metallic aftertaste and cause intestinal side effects. In addition, in certain gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel diseases or untreated gluten-sensitive enteropathy, oral iron therapy is contraindicated or unsuccessful. Intravenous iron is considered safe in adults, where adverse events are mild and easily managed. The experience with parenteral iron in children is much more limited, and many pediatricians appear reluctant to use it because of uncorroborated fears of serious anaphylactic reactions. In the current article, we thoroughly review the available pediatric literature on the use of all commercially available parenteral iron products except ferumoxytol, which was recently removed from the market. We conclude that parenteral iron appears to be safe in children; it works faster than oral iron, and the newer third-generation products allow replacement of the total iron deficit in a single sitting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Non Neoplastic Blood Disorders)
9 pages, 351 KiB  
Article
Patterns of Blood Transfusion in Sickle Cell Disease Hospitalizations
by Aditi Sharma, Amit Dahiya, Asif Alavi, Indryas Woldie, Aditya Sharma, Jeffrey Karson and Vijendra Singh
Hemato 2024, 5(1), 26-34; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato5010004 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 949
Abstract
Background: Transfusional iron overload causes significant morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD). Nevertheless, red blood cell transfusions continue to be essential in its management. This study describes the transfusion patterns among SCD hospitalizations. Methods: Hospitalizations for SCD in the 2017–2018 Nationwide [...] Read more.
Background: Transfusional iron overload causes significant morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD). Nevertheless, red blood cell transfusions continue to be essential in its management. This study describes the transfusion patterns among SCD hospitalizations. Methods: Hospitalizations for SCD in the 2017–2018 Nationwide Readmissions Database were divided into two groups based on whether they received transfusions. Descriptive analysis was performed to compare their demographics and complications. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with transfusions. Results: Out of 109,783 hospitalizations, 28,300 were transfused, and 81,483 were not transfused. Females and older individuals were higher in the transfused category than the non-transfused category (59.49% vs. 53.52% and 28.86% vs. 21.27%, respectively; p < 0.001 for both). The wealthiest population was more likely to be in the transfused category (11.27% vs. 8.34%; p < 0.001). Admissions to teaching hospitals, large metropolitan hospitals, and highest-volume hospitals were higher in the non-transfused category vs. transfused category (79.89% vs. 72.17%; p < 0.001, 69.26% vs. 65.35%; p 0.003 and 74.71% vs. 63.51%; p < 0.001, respectively). Most admissions were transfused once, with three or more transfusions being given more in the non-teaching hospitals than the teaching hospitals (1.27% vs. 0.41%; p 0.01). Furthermore, a higher proportion of early transfusions occurred in the non-teaching hospitals (65.6% vs. 57.82% for admission days 1 and 2; p < 0.001). Admission to a teaching hospital was associated with lower blood transfusion odds than a non-teaching hospital. Conclusion: A quarter of admissions for SCD receive a blood transfusion. In addition to performing more frequent and early transfusions, the odds of being transfused are higher in non-teaching hospitals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Non Neoplastic Blood Disorders)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1221 KiB  
Case Report
Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Case Report on BTKis versus Venetoclax-Rituximab
by Alessandro Cellini, Andrea Visentin, Alessandro Salvalaggio, Mario Cacciavillani, Sergio Ferrari and Chiara Briani
Hemato 2024, 5(1), 19-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato5010003 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 735
Abstract
The dysregulation of the immune system in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) often allows for the development of immune-mediated diseases. Among them, autoimmune cytopenias are the most common, but cases of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) have been reported. We herein report on a [...] Read more.
The dysregulation of the immune system in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) often allows for the development of immune-mediated diseases. Among them, autoimmune cytopenias are the most common, but cases of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) have been reported. We herein report on a patient who developed a CIDP while undergoing ibrutinib treatment for CLL, prompting drug discontinuation. Steroid treatment and a rituximab course proved to be ineffective at obtaining long-term control of CIDP, but therapy with venetoclax and rituximab, which was started due to CLL progression, led to the progressive amelioration of the symptoms up to complete remission of the neurological disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Leukemias)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 681 KiB  
Review
Synthetic Lethality Approaches in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
by Francisco Alejandro Lagunas-Rangel and Venice Chávez-Valencia
Hemato 2024, 5(1), 6-18; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato5010002 - 26 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a remarkable cancer that mainly affects children, has seen commendable advances in its treatment. However, the occurrence of relapses after initial treatments poses a major threat and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in pediatric patients. [...] Read more.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a remarkable cancer that mainly affects children, has seen commendable advances in its treatment. However, the occurrence of relapses after initial treatments poses a major threat and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in pediatric patients. To address this problem, innovative therapeutic approaches for ALL need to be continuously developed and refined. Synthetic lethality, an interaction between genes in which alteration of only one allows survival, but simultaneous alteration of both leads to inviability, is emerging as a promising therapeutic approach against ALL and other cancers. In this regard, the review aims to examine the documented cases of synthetic lethality in ALL reported to date (2023) and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Furthermore, this review explores possible targets that have so far gone unnoticed, justifying their importance in this context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Leukemias)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 801 KiB  
Editorial
Hemato Keeps You Updated on the Research in Hematology
by Antonino Carbone
Hemato 2024, 5(1), 1-5; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato5010001 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Hemato (ISSN 2673-6357) is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that publishes original articles and reviews highlighting important advances in the fundamental areas of Hematology [...] Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop