Live Field Validation of an Islanded Microgrid Based on Renewables and Electric Vehicles
2. System Sizing and Overview
- Expoelectric18 (Figure 1). The main second-life battery used by the Master Inverter is of 30 kWh. The grid feeding devices are constituted by a PV carport (by Circutor) and a battery inverter connected to an EV battery (by FCC and SMA). The PV inverter is a single-phase equipment with a 48 V battery backup. PV panels are sized at 2 kWp. The battery inverter is a single-phase converter set to deliver up to 2 kWp. Finally, some loads (lighting, chargers, and power supplies, among others) are connected to the microgrid. The loads are planned to be up to 1.5 kW per phase.
- Expoelectric19 (Figure 2). The main second-life battery for the Master Inverter is of 60 kWh, doubling the capacity of the Expoelectric18 experience. Two V2G chargers constitute the grid feeding devices (by Wallbox) connected to two EVs and a PV installation with battery support (by Audit Energy). The V2G chargers are 3 kVA single-phase bidirectional inverters based on CHAdeMO. Each V2G charger is connected permanently to a 34 kWh Nissan LEAF. The PV installation includes eighteen 315 Wp high-efficiency panels (from JA Solar), a 5 kWp three-phase inverter (by Fronius) and an 11.5 kWh Lithium battery (from ByD). Finally, some loads (lighting, chargers, and power supplies, among others) are connected to the microgrid. The loads are planned to be up to 10 kW per phase.
3. Operation and Control
3.1. Voltage Quality
3.2. Coordination without Communications
3.3. The Primary Storage System Based on Second-Life Batteries
4. Protection Considerations
4.1. Short-Circuit Proof Control Scheme
4.2. Ideal Virtual Circuit Breaker Trip Curve
- Short-circuit proof algorithm set with at 30 A, see Equation (2).
- Ideal trip curve set as a 6 A type B circuit breaker, as protection panels in the fair, are constructed. The ideal trip curve pair current-time is represented by Table 1. Between the current-time defined points, a linear interpolation is assumed.
- Testing load is 6.2 kW rated power per phase (about 27 A).
- Upstream (Master inverter side) 16 A type C physical circuit breaker installed.
- Downstream (load side) 10 A type C physical circuit breaker installed.
5. Results and Discussion
5.1. Expoelectric18 Results
5.1.1. Saturday, 6 October 2018
- Period 1—Time from 0 to 1.5 h (from 10:00 a.m. to 11:30 a.m.). This period can be classified as a low consumption period with low PV system participation due to the daytime hour.During this period, the Master Inverter supplies energy for about one hour and a half, reaching an accumulated energy of 0.7 kWh. No other active sources are actively participating in the energy mix. Figure 21 details how the Master Inverter reduces the frequency gradually because the second-life battery voltage is decreasing rapidly. This allows polling a request to the rest of the grid feeders, indicating that additional power is required.
- Period 2—Time from 1.5 to 4.5 h (from 11:30 a.m. to 14:30 p.m.). During this period, the EV inverter starts to react to the frequency imposed by the Master Inverter. Consequently, as shown in Figure 23, phase a changes the power flow direction, meaning that the EV inverter starts to deliver power. This contribution is practically constant throughout the period, delivering about 4.5 kWh.As the amount of consumption was still low (similar to Period 1), the surplus of power provided by the EV is partially used to recharge the second-life battery; refer to accumulated energy in Figure 20. This is translated into a frequency increase, as shown in Figure 21. Note also the oscillating delivered power in phase c. This can be understood as the PV also contributing by intermittently delivering power.
- Period 3—Time from 4.5 to 8.5 h(from 14:30 p.m. to 18:30 p.m.). From time 4.5 h on, as the frequency at the beginning of the period is 50.8 Hz, the EV inverter reduces its contribution. The PV system follows a similar pattern compared with Period 2.Due to the reduction of EV inverter contribution, the consumption had to be covered partially by the second-life battery. This derives a frequency drift to 50 Hz, as shown in Figure 21.It should be detailed that even the Master Inverter requests more power at the end of this third period (from time 6 h on); these last two hours correspond to the last afternoon hours. This means low or almost null PV contribution. Moreover, the EV inverter has its logic. Thus, after delivering about 5 kWh during the last time, it did not follow the Master Inverter request, although it delivers some power.
5.1.2. Sunday, 7 October 2018
5.2. Expoelectric19 Results
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Current Range [A]||Trip Curve Time [s]|
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Heredero-Peris, D.; Chillón-Antón, C.; Girbau-Llistuella, F.; González-Fontderubinat, P.; Gomis-Bellmunt, O.; Pagès-Giménez, M.; Sudrià-Andreu, A.; Galceran-Arellano, S.; Montesinos-Miracle, D. Live Field Validation of an Islanded Microgrid Based on Renewables and Electric Vehicles. Electricity 2023, 4, 22-44. https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity4010002
Heredero-Peris D, Chillón-Antón C, Girbau-Llistuella F, González-Fontderubinat P, Gomis-Bellmunt O, Pagès-Giménez M, Sudrià-Andreu A, Galceran-Arellano S, Montesinos-Miracle D. Live Field Validation of an Islanded Microgrid Based on Renewables and Electric Vehicles. Electricity. 2023; 4(1):22-44. https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity4010002Chicago/Turabian Style
Heredero-Peris, Daniel, Cristian Chillón-Antón, Francesc Girbau-Llistuella, Paula González-Fontderubinat, Oriol Gomis-Bellmunt, Marc Pagès-Giménez, Antoni Sudrià-Andreu, Samuel Galceran-Arellano, and Daniel Montesinos-Miracle. 2023. "Live Field Validation of an Islanded Microgrid Based on Renewables and Electric Vehicles" Electricity 4, no. 1: 22-44. https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity4010002