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Electricity, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): When the grid is unavailable, but renewable energy resources and storage capacity are available, islanded microgrids can be a substitute for the grid to provide renewable energy to loads. This paper presents the design and operation of an islanded microgrid to provide renewable energy to different loads. The microgrid is based on equipment that manages the microgrid via voltage and frequency variations based on the VDE-AR-N-4105 standard. This allows open access to the microgrid, and any equipment that fulfils this standard can be connected as well as managed to allow the proper operation of the microgrid. The paper also addresses protection functions in cases of overloads or short circuits, implementing software tools to prevent the failure of the complete microgrid in the case of a fault. The paper shows a live demonstration of the proposed methods. View this paper
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18 pages, 15530 KiB  
Article
Achieving Optimal Reactive Power Compensation in Distribution Grids by Using Industrial Compensation Systems
by Johannes Rauch and Oliver Brückl
Electricity 2023, 4(1), 78-95; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity4010006 - 02 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2470
Abstract
This paper presents a method for integrating industrial consumers owning compensation systems as alternative reactive power sources into grid operating processes. In remuneration, they receive a market-based provision of reactive power. The aim is to analyze the potential of reactive power compensation systems [...] Read more.
This paper presents a method for integrating industrial consumers owning compensation systems as alternative reactive power sources into grid operating processes. In remuneration, they receive a market-based provision of reactive power. The aim is to analyze the potential of reactive power compensation systems of industrial companies connected to medium-voltage (10 kV–30 kV) AC grids in order to increase the reactive power ability of distribution grids. Measurement methods and reactive power potential results of six industrial companies are presented to characterize the amount and temporal availability of their reactive power potential. The presented approach for using the decentralized reactive power potential is a centralized reactive power control method and is based on optimal power flow (OPF) calculations. An optimization algorithm based on linear programming is used to coordinate a reactive power retrieval tuned to the actual demand. The influencing quantities are the current grid status (voltage and load flow capacity reserves at grid nodes and power lines) and the current reactive power potential of the reactive power sources. The compensation impact of six measured industrial companies on an exemplary medium-voltage grid is shown by an application example. Full article
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16 pages, 1299 KiB  
Article
DC Charging Capabilities of Battery-Integrated Modular Multilevel Converters Based on Maximum Tractive Power
by Arvind Balachandran, Tomas Jonsson and Lars Eriksson
Electricity 2023, 4(1), 62-77; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity4010005 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2426
Abstract
The increase in the average global temperature is a consequence of high greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, using alternative energy carriers that can replace fossil fuels, especially for automotive applications, is of high importance. Introducing more electronics into an automotive battery pack provides more [...] Read more.
The increase in the average global temperature is a consequence of high greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, using alternative energy carriers that can replace fossil fuels, especially for automotive applications, is of high importance. Introducing more electronics into an automotive battery pack provides more precise control and increases the available energy from the pack. Battery-integrated modular multilevel converters (BI-MMCs) have high efficiency, improved controllability, and better fault isolation capability. However, integrating the battery and inverter influences the maximum DC charging power. Therefore, the DC charging capabilities of 5 3-phase BI-MMCs for a 40-ton commercial vehicle designed for a maximum tractive power of 400 kW was investigated. Two continuous DC charging scenarios are considered for two cases: the first considers the total number of submodules during traction, and the second increases the total number of submodules to ensure a maximum DC charging voltage of 1250 V. The investigation shows that both DC charging scenarios have similar maximum power between 1 and 3 MW. Altering the number of submodules increases the maximum DC charging power at the cost of increased losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modular Battery Systems and Advanced Energy Storage Solutions)
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16 pages, 1063 KiB  
Article
Maximizing Decarbonization Benefits of Transportation Electrification in the U.S.
by Pedro Moura, Anand Mohan, Sophia Lau and Javad Mohammadi
Electricity 2023, 4(1), 46-61; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity4010004 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2197
Abstract
Transportation electrification can significantly reduce carbon footprint and accelerate the modernization of aging electric infrastructure. In the U.S., the growing adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) will significantly impact the electrical grid and associated greenhouse gas emissions, but with significant differences between the balancing [...] Read more.
Transportation electrification can significantly reduce carbon footprint and accelerate the modernization of aging electric infrastructure. In the U.S., the growing adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) will significantly impact the electrical grid and associated greenhouse gas emissions, but with significant differences between the balancing regions due to the diverse characteristics of their electrical grids. This work assesses the impacts associated with the increasing penetration of EVs in the U.S., considering the characteristics of the grid in the different regions, in order to discuss the needed strategies to maximize the future decarbonization benefits. The assessment considers the variation in generation mix profiles during the day in each region, as well as different charging profiles associated with home, work, and public charging. The results show that more ambitious policies for the increasing share of carbon-free generation in the regions with the highest emissions are needed, emphasizing incentives for the use of work and public charging, and ensuring effective management of the charging flexibility. Full article
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1 pages, 148 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Electricity in 2022
by Electricity Editorial Office
Electricity 2023, 4(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity4010003 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1248
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
23 pages, 5429 KiB  
Article
Live Field Validation of an Islanded Microgrid Based on Renewables and Electric Vehicles
by Daniel Heredero-Peris, Cristian Chillón-Antón, Francesc Girbau-Llistuella, Paula González-Fontderubinat, Oriol Gomis-Bellmunt, Marc Pagès-Giménez, Antoni Sudrià-Andreu, Samuel Galceran-Arellano and Daniel Montesinos-Miracle
Electricity 2023, 4(1), 22-44; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity4010002 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1931
Abstract
This paper presents a live field experience of creating an isolated microgrid for the Expoelectric fair during 2018 and 2019. The islanded microgrid comprises a Master Inverter with grid-forming capabilities and fault management. The Master Inverter and stationary batteries, and EVs with V2G [...] Read more.
This paper presents a live field experience of creating an isolated microgrid for the Expoelectric fair during 2018 and 2019. The islanded microgrid comprises a Master Inverter with grid-forming capabilities and fault management. The Master Inverter and stationary batteries, and EVs with V2G capabilities provide storage. A PV generation system supplies the microgrid. The loads are the fair booths, mainly lighting and chargers for personal mobility vehicles. All the equipment used in the experimental microgrid is from different manufacturers. The operation and control of the islanded microgrid are based on the VDE-AR-N-4105 standard. The paper also presents the operation of the Master Inverter during faults. The live field experience shows that the proposed operation method is valid for operating different converters from different manufacturers without needing any communication layer between them. The experimental results also show that faults can be handled correctly by the Master Inverter to operate the entire microgrid safely. In conclusion, islanded microgrids based on power electronics are feasible to replace diesel generators in faires, conventions or temporary events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Smart Energy Systems)
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0 pages, 5712 KiB  
Article
Multilevel and Multiregional Analysis of the Electricity Metabolism of Mexico across Sectors
by Natalie Ortiz-Guerrero and Rafael González-López
Electricity 2023, 4(1), 1-21; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity4010001 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2720
Abstract
This paper presents a novel tool for electricity planning, based on an improvement of MuSIASEM (Multiscale Integrated Analysis of the Societal and Ecological Metabolism) by incorporating a new regional analysis of the electricity metabolism across levels. An analysis of Mexico illustrates this toolkit [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel tool for electricity planning, based on an improvement of MuSIASEM (Multiscale Integrated Analysis of the Societal and Ecological Metabolism) by incorporating a new regional analysis of the electricity metabolism across levels. An analysis of Mexico illustrates this toolkit and shows that the industry sector has economic energy intensity (EEI) with 40.3 MWh/MMXN reaching a higher value than the commerce and services sector with 0.84 MWh/MMXN. Regarding the economic labor productivity (ELP) indicator (AV/h), the industrial sector with 208.5 TMXN/Kh reached a higher value than the commercial and services sector with 114.3 TMXN/Kh. Regarding the exosomatic metabolic rate (EMR), the household sector obtained 59.3 KWh/Kh, whereas the economic sector reached 2486.4 KWh/Kh. Disaggregation of the EMR indicator into economic sectors shows that the industrial sector reached 8.4 KWh/Kh and the commercial and services sector reached 0.10 KWh/Kh. The lack of complete data for the agricultural sector does not allow us to calculate EEI, ELP, and EMR indicators accurately. This innovative approach is useful for governance because it helps us to understand and reduce asymmetries across regions in terms of electricity consumption, resulting in more social equality and a better economic equilibrium across sectors and regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Electricity Economics)
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