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Uro, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 4 articles

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29 pages, 1831 KiB  
Review
A Review on Risk Factors, Diagnostic Innovations, and Plant Based Therapies for the Management of Erectile Dysfunction
by Faris Alrumaihi, Ravindra Raut, Ehsan Ahmed Yahia, Vikalp Kumar and Shehwaz Anwar
Uro 2024, 4(2), 60-88; https://doi.org/10.3390/uro4020006 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 327
Abstract
Men of all ages frequently experience erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence, and it is a difficult health issue that adversely affects the quality of life of those who experience it. There are multiple types of treatment strategies for ED available, depending on the [...] Read more.
Men of all ages frequently experience erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence, and it is a difficult health issue that adversely affects the quality of life of those who experience it. There are multiple types of treatment strategies for ED available, depending on the origin and severity of ED, as well as any underlying medical issues. However, these therapeutics are known to have a number of negative health effects. In contrast, plant-based treatments are more effective for managing diseases due to their ability to modulate biological processes like inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell signaling molecules. Many medicinal plants have been reported to be quite helpful in the improvement of ED. In this review, ED and its causes, diagnostic methods, treatment strategies, and some of the most potent plant-based interventions against ED are discussed in greater detail, along with a description of their mechanisms of action and a brief discussion of approaches to increase their efficacy, with a focus on the management of ED using herbal interventions as complementary and alternative medicines. While there is hope that medicinal plants could provide lead substances for erectile dysfunction medications, additional investigation is necessary to ascertain the efficacy and security of these prospective treatments. Full article
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10 pages, 755 KiB  
Article
The Value of Adding Exosome-Based Prostate Intelliscore to Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Prostate Biopsy: A Retrospective Analysis
by Noah King, Jacob Lang, Sree Jambunathan, Conner Lombardi, Barbara Saltzman, Nadiminty Nagalakshmi and Puneet Sindhwani
Uro 2024, 4(2), 50-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/uro4020005 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 322
Abstract
Introduction: Currently, there is limited evidence for the relationship of Exosome-based Prostate Intelliscore (EPI) and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in stratifying risk for clinically significant prostate cancer. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we sought to characterize the relationship between these two [...] Read more.
Introduction: Currently, there is limited evidence for the relationship of Exosome-based Prostate Intelliscore (EPI) and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in stratifying risk for clinically significant prostate cancer. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we sought to characterize the relationship between these two noninvasive metrics and prostate biopsy outcome. Methods: Data were collected via electronic medical record for all patients who underwent EPI testing from 1 January 2019 to 3 February 2022 and had available medical records at a single mid-western university medical center. Positive test result was defined as >15.6 for EPI, ≥3 PI-RADS score and ≥3 + 4 Gleason Score for biopsy findings. Utility of EPI, mpMRI and combined use was characterized through calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and ROC analysis. Results: A total of 226 patients were identified as receiving EPI testing for risk stratification of clinically significant prostate cancer. Sensitivity for EPI was 91%, mpMRI was 90%, and the highest was combined use at 96%. With ROC analysis, AUC for EPI alone was 0.57 (95% CI, 0.47–0.67) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.70–0.87) for mpMRI alone. With prior positive EPI result, AUC for combined use with mpMRI was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.71–0.89). Further subgroup analysis resulted in increased AUC values of EPI 0.67 (95% CI, 0.48–0.87), mpMRI 0.90 (95% CI, 0.76–1.0), and combined 0.90 (95% CI, 0.75–1.0) in the African American population. Discussion: We observed that the combined use of EPI and mpMRI led to an avoided biopsy in 43% of patients. Using both parameters increased the overall sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer. The best test performance was observed in the African American cohort. Identifying optimal noninvasive tools to assess risk for prostate cancer is crucial to providing accurate and cost-effective care. Future study should utilize a prospective study design to further support the combined use of these metrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urologic Oncology: Analysis and Treatment)
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14 pages, 309 KiB  
Review
The Clinical Management of Leukocytospermia in Male Infertility: A Narrative Review
by Usman Hussain, Nikit Venishetty, Marwan Alkassis and Omer Raheem
Uro 2024, 4(2), 36-49; https://doi.org/10.3390/uro4020004 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 554
Abstract
A major global health concern, male infertility affects 8–12% of couples globally. Leukocytospermia is a complicated illness that is distinguished from other reasons causing male infertility by having high white blood cell counts in semen. The complex mechanisms behind leukocytospermia’s effects on sperm [...] Read more.
A major global health concern, male infertility affects 8–12% of couples globally. Leukocytospermia is a complicated illness that is distinguished from other reasons causing male infertility by having high white blood cell counts in semen. The complex mechanisms behind leukocytospermia’s effects on sperm function and fertility are examined in this review. Leukocytospermia induces oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that impair DNA integrity, mitochondrial function, cytoplasmic extrusion, and sperm quality overall. Leukocytospermia is exacerbated by non-infectious factors, such as substance abuse and varicocele, even though genital tract infections are a common cause. The usefulness and dependability of diagnostic techniques range from immunochemistry to direct counting. Although there is still disagreement on the most effective course of action, clinical-care techniques, such as antioxidant supplementation and antibiotic therapy, attempt to address underlying causes and reduce ROS-induced damage. Prospectively, the combination of artificial intelligence with the latest developments in artificial reproductive technologies presents opportunities for more precise diagnosis and customized treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Male Infertility—Diagnosis and Treatment)
13 pages, 269 KiB  
Review
The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Male Infertility: Evaluation and Treatment: A Narrative Review
by Nikit Venishetty, Marwan Alkassis and Omer Raheem
Uro 2024, 4(2), 23-35; https://doi.org/10.3390/uro4020003 - 25 Mar 2024
Viewed by 913
Abstract
Male infertility has affected an increasingly large population over the past few decades, affecting over 186 million people globally. The advent of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and artificial intelligence (AI) has changed the landscape of diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. Through an [...] Read more.
Male infertility has affected an increasingly large population over the past few decades, affecting over 186 million people globally. The advent of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and artificial intelligence (AI) has changed the landscape of diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. Through an extensive literature review encompassing the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases, various AI techniques such as machine learning (ML), artificial neural networks (ANNs), deep learning (DL), and natural language processing (NLP) were examined in the context of evaluating seminal quality, predicting fertility potential, and improving semen analysis. Research indicates that AI models can accurately estimate the quality of semen, diagnose problems with sperm, and provide guidance on reproductive health decisions. In addition, developments in smartphone-based semen analyzers and computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) are indicative of initiatives to improve the price, portability, and accuracy of results. Future directions point to possible uses for AI in ultrasonography assessment, microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE), and home-based semen analysis. Overall, AI holds significant promise in revolutionizing the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility, offering standardized, objective, and efficient approaches to addressing this global health challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Male Infertility—Diagnosis and Treatment)
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