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Osteology, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 3 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Gene therapy is gaining traction as an effective treatment for several deleterious disorders by delivering genetic material using viral or non-viral vectors to correct mutated genes. Research in the field focuses primarily on the treatment of cancers; however, it shows great promise for treating diseases related to pediatric orthopedics. This review aims to describe gene therapy’s application, efficacy and safety in pediatric orthopedics. This paper will examine common pediatric orthopedic disorders including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta, spinal muscular atrophy and osteosarcoma. As a whole, gene therapy is rapidly advancing in the field of pediatric orthopedics; however, further research is crucial in continuing and spreading these advancements and for the treatment of other debilitating pediatric-related orthopedic disorders. View this paper
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12 pages, 292 KiB  
Review
Gene Therapy in Pediatric Orthopedics
by Emmanuel Olaonipekun, Anthony Lisyansky, Robin Olaonipekun, Bouchra Ghania Merabia, Karim Gaber and Waleed Kishta
Osteology 2024, 4(1), 33-44; https://doi.org/10.3390/osteology4010003 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Gene therapy is gaining traction as an effective treatment for several deleterious disorders by delivering genetic material using viral or non-viral vectors to correct mutated genes. Research in the field focuses primarily on the treatment of cancers; however, it shows great promise for [...] Read more.
Gene therapy is gaining traction as an effective treatment for several deleterious disorders by delivering genetic material using viral or non-viral vectors to correct mutated genes. Research in the field focuses primarily on the treatment of cancers; however, it shows great promise for treating diseases related to pediatric orthopedics. This review aims to describe gene therapy’s application, efficacy and safety in pediatric orthopedics. This paper will examine common pediatric orthopedic disorders including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta, spinal muscular atrophy and osteosarcoma. Overall, gene therapy for spinal muscular atrophy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy has made great advances with approved gene therapy drugs already in use, while therapy for osteogenesis imperfecta and osteosarcoma treatments is still widely preclinical but still promising. As a whole, gene therapy is rapidly advancing in the field of pediatric orthopedics; however, further research is crucial in continuing and spreading these advancements and for the treatment of other debilitating pediatric-related orthopedic disorders. Full article
22 pages, 11389 KiB  
Review
Sixty Years of Innovation in Biomechanical Orthognathic Surgery: The State of the Art and Future Directions
by Carlos Aurelio Andreucci
Osteology 2024, 4(1), 11-32; https://doi.org/10.3390/osteology4010002 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Craniofacial surgery is proposed and performed for a variety of reasons, ranging from congenital or acquired malformations to emotional disorders and parafunctions of the masticatory, respiratory, auditory, and visual systems. Surgery of the mandible and its orthostatic repositioning is the most common of [...] Read more.
Craniofacial surgery is proposed and performed for a variety of reasons, ranging from congenital or acquired malformations to emotional disorders and parafunctions of the masticatory, respiratory, auditory, and visual systems. Surgery of the mandible and its orthostatic repositioning is the most common of these corrections of craniofacial anomalies. Throughout the history of these procedures, various techniques have been proposed and perfected, but always with a high rate of minor and major complications. The recurrence rate of mandibular malposition is high, as is the temporary loss of facial sensitivity and motor skills. These outcomes are often related to the choice of surgical technique rather than the skill of the surgeon, which is considered to be one of the most important factors in the final outcome. Surgical techniques involving direct manipulation of the vascular-nervous bundles, such as bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, clearly present the possibility of major or minor complications. In this study, an orthognathic surgical technique, performed by the same team for over 40 years and now available through a 20-year postoperative patient follow-up study, is presented with a literature review relating it to biomechanical concepts and bone remodeling to analyze the evolution of orthognathic surgery since it became common practice to correct maxillofacial discrepancies. In this review, we also present a case report in which previous orthodontic treatment prepared a patient for surgical correction of mandibular bone discrepancy without the need for combined maxillary and/or genioplasty, and we describe the most commonly used techniques today, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The combination of established concepts together promotes favorable stability of mandibular osteotomies, functional anatomical positioning of the temporomandibular joint, reduced risk of injury to the mandibular vasculo-nervous bundle, and good aesthetics with positive patient acceptance and no relapse, thus these are the objectives for proposing innovative treatments that combine the technologies available today. Full article
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10 pages, 1839 KiB  
Case Report
Mandibular Fracture following Dental Implant Protocol: Clinical Report and One-Year Follow-Up
by Calber Artur Andreucci, Murillo Martins and Carlos Aurelio Andreucci
Osteology 2024, 4(1), 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3390/osteology4010001 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 800
Abstract
Bone fractures following mandibular dental implant protocols associated with diagnosed osteoporosis are rare in the literature. We present a case in which a 55-year-old male patient with no previous medical history presented to the emergency department with pain in the left mandibular parasymphysis [...] Read more.
Bone fractures following mandibular dental implant protocols associated with diagnosed osteoporosis are rare in the literature. We present a case in which a 55-year-old male patient with no previous medical history presented to the emergency department with pain in the left mandibular parasymphysis and gingival bleeding. Clinical examination revealed crepitus, mandibular mobility, and clinical signs of localized fracture and infection. Further radiographs confirmed a mandibular fracture in the region of the alveolus of tooth 34 and four implants placed in the mandible as part of the patient’s immediate implant protocol. The infection developed into osteomyelitis, which was treated with a combination of antibiotics. After the infectious process had been eradicated, new complementary tests were carried out, which revealed that the patient had osteoporosis. Oral rehabilitation treatment and calcium replacement were carried out under specialist medical supervision. The importance of proper planning and clinical assessment of the patient is discussed, and the proposed long-term management of the case has been carried out. Full article
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