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Organics, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 4 articles

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40 pages, 29528 KiB  
Review
How Much Potential Do Nucleoside Analogs Offer to Combat Human Corona Viruses?
by Włodzimierz Buchowicz and Mariola Koszytkowska-Stawińska
Organics 2024, 5(2), 71-110; https://doi.org/10.3390/org5020006 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Nucleoside analogs (NAs) have been extensively examined as plausible antiviral agents in recent years, in particular since the outbreak of the global pandemic of COVID-19 in 2019. In this review, the structures and antiviral properties of over 450 NAs are collected according to [...] Read more.
Nucleoside analogs (NAs) have been extensively examined as plausible antiviral agents in recent years, in particular since the outbreak of the global pandemic of COVID-19 in 2019. In this review, the structures and antiviral properties of over 450 NAs are collected according to the type of virus, namely SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-NL63. The activity of the NAs against HCoV-related enzymes is also presented. Selected studies dealing with the mode of action of the NAs are discussed in detail. The repurposing of known NAs appears to be the most extensively investigated scientific approach towards efficacious anti-HCoV agents. The recently reported de novo-designed NAs seem to open up additional approaches to new drug candidates. Full article
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12 pages, 3310 KiB  
Article
Innovative Application of Polyether Amine as a Recyclable Catalyst in Aerobic Thiophenol Oxidation
by Lingxia Chen, Junyu Li, Ke Ni, Xinshu Qin, Lijun Wang, Jiaman Hou, Chao Wang, Xuan Li, Minlong Wang and Jie An
Organics 2024, 5(2), 59-70; https://doi.org/10.3390/org5020005 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Polyether amines are versatile compounds characterized by a flexible structure, consisting of polyoxypropylene and polyoxyethylene as the backbone, with amine groups at each end. They have widespread applications in various industrial processes and daily life. Despite their versatility, the utilization of polyether amines [...] Read more.
Polyether amines are versatile compounds characterized by a flexible structure, consisting of polyoxypropylene and polyoxyethylene as the backbone, with amine groups at each end. They have widespread applications in various industrial processes and daily life. Despite their versatility, the utilization of polyether amines as base catalysts is rare. In this study, one kind of three-arm polyether amine 1 was employed as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of thiophenols, leading to the synthesis of disulfides. The oxidative coupling of thiols serves as a fundamental pathway for the production of disulfides, which are vital in both chemical and biological processes. In contrast to known methods for thiol oxidation, this polyether amine-based catalytic process eliminates the need for expensive stoichiometric oxidants and minimizes the formation of over-oxidized by-products. Using a mere 0.5 mol % of the polyether amine 1 as the catalyst, a remarkable > 96% yield was achieved for all 16 tested substrates, encompassing a diverse range of functional groups, under the catalytic aerobic oxidation conditions. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that over 90% of the polyether amine catalyst can be efficiently recovered for reuse without loss of activity, making this a sustainable and cost-effective catalytic approach. Full article
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13 pages, 3086 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Novel Trisubstituted Olefin-Type Probe Molecules Containing N-Heterocycles and Their Application in Detection of Malononitrile
by Zhao-Hua Chen, Shi-Wei Yu, Wen-Jin Xu, Miao-Xin Li, Yong Zeng, Si-Wei Deng, Jian-Yun Lin and Zhao-Yang Wang
Organics 2024, 5(2), 46-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/org5020004 - 2 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 551
Abstract
Recently, the construction of the trisubstituted olefin-type probe molecules has elicited the attention of many researchers. However, the synthesis of the trisubstituted olefin-type probes containing two N-heterocycles simultaneously has been rarely reported. In this study, starting from the inexpensive mucobromic acid 1 [...] Read more.
Recently, the construction of the trisubstituted olefin-type probe molecules has elicited the attention of many researchers. However, the synthesis of the trisubstituted olefin-type probes containing two N-heterocycles simultaneously has been rarely reported. In this study, starting from the inexpensive mucobromic acid 1 and N-heterocyclic compound 2, we first utilized a simple one-step reaction to synthesize a series of trisubstituted olefin-type compounds 3 simultaneously bearing with the structure of two N-heterocyclic rings in the absence of transition metal catalysts with a yield of 62–86%. The optimal reaction conditions were systematically explored, and the structure of the obtained compounds 3 were well characterized with 1H NMR, 13C NMR, X-ray single-crystal and HR-MS. The preliminary observation showed that, in the presence of base, mucobromic acid 1 reacts as its ring-opening structure, and the successive nucleophilic substitution reaction and Michael addition reaction can generate the target product 3. Considering that the aldehyde group in the molecular structure of the trisubstituted olefin-type compounds 3 may react with malononitrile, we carried out some relevant investigations so as to realize the visual detection of malononitrile. Interestingly, among the products, compounds 3a3c can be prepared in portable test strips through a simple process and used to achieve the naked-eye detection of malononitrile in environmental systems as designed. Full article
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14 pages, 4465 KiB  
Article
Supramolecular Catalysis with Chiral Mono- and Bis-(Thio)Urea-Derivatives
by Veronica Iuliano, Paolo Della Sala, Carmen Talotta, Margherita De Rosa, Carmine Gaeta, Placido Neri and Annunziata Soriente
Organics 2024, 5(2), 32-45; https://doi.org/10.3390/org5020003 - 26 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Chiral mono- and bis-(thio)urea supramolecular organocatalysts were studied in the enantioselective vinylogous addition reaction of 2-trimethylsilyloxyfuran (TMSOF) to carbonylic compounds; the corresponding chiral γ-hydroxymethyl-butenolides are obtained in good yields and with high enantiomeric excesses. The catalyst structure, as well as the reaction conditions, [...] Read more.
Chiral mono- and bis-(thio)urea supramolecular organocatalysts were studied in the enantioselective vinylogous addition reaction of 2-trimethylsilyloxyfuran (TMSOF) to carbonylic compounds; the corresponding chiral γ-hydroxymethyl-butenolides are obtained in good yields and with high enantiomeric excesses. The catalyst structure, as well as the reaction conditions, strongly influence the efficiency of the reaction. The conformational features of mono(thio)urea catalysts 2 and 3 and bis(thio)urea catalysts 7 and 8 were investigated by DFT calculations along with the structure of their complexes with benzaldehyde. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Non-Covalent Interaction (NCI) calculations provided useful information concerning the activating H-bonding interactions in the complexes. Full article
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