Previous Issue
Volume 5, March
 
 

Reprod. Med., Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 5 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
16 pages, 4428 KiB  
Article
Kinetic Energy and the Free Energy Principle in the Birth of Human Life
by Yasunari Miyagi, Yasuyuki Mio, Keitaro Yumoto, Rei Hirata, Toshihiro Habara and Nobuyoshi Hayashi
Reprod. Med. 2024, 5(2), 65-80; https://doi.org/10.3390/reprodmed5020008 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 169
Abstract
The retrospective noninterventional study investigated the kinetic energy of video images of 18 fertilized eggs (7 were normal and 11 were abnormal) recorded by a time-lapse device leading up to the beginning of the first cleavage. The norm values of cytoplasmic particles were [...] Read more.
The retrospective noninterventional study investigated the kinetic energy of video images of 18 fertilized eggs (7 were normal and 11 were abnormal) recorded by a time-lapse device leading up to the beginning of the first cleavage. The norm values of cytoplasmic particles were measured by the optical flow method. Three phase profiles for normal cases were found regarding the kinetic energy: 2.199 × 10−24 ± 2.076 × 10−24, 2.369 × 10−24 ± 1.255 × 10−24, and 1.078 × 10−24 ± 4.720 × 10−25 (J) for phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In phase 2, the energies were 2.369 × 10−24 ± 1.255 × 10−24 and 4.694 × 10−24 ± 2.996 × 10−24 (J) (mean ± SD, p = 0.0372), and the time required was 8.114 ± 2.937 and 6.018 ± 5.685 (H) (p = 0.0413) for the normal and abnormal cases, respectively. The kinetic energy change was considered a condition for applying the free energy principle, which states that for any self-organized system to be in equilibrium in its environment, it must minimize its informational free energy. The kinetic energy, while interpreting it in terms of the free energy principle suggesting clinical usefulness, would further our understanding of the phenomenon of fertilized egg development with respect to the birth of human life. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 206 KiB  
Communication
Risk of Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury by Delivering Provider
by Taniya V. Walker, Ciara Bryson, Sara Rahman and Charelle M. Carter-Brooks
Reprod. Med. 2024, 5(2), 57-64; https://doi.org/10.3390/reprodmed5020007 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Introduction and Hypothesis: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIs) complicate 5.8% of vaginal deliveries. Our objective was to assess if the primary delivery provider, a nurse-midwife versus physician obstetrician, is associated with OASIs. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of the Consortium of Safe [...] Read more.
Introduction and Hypothesis: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIs) complicate 5.8% of vaginal deliveries. Our objective was to assess if the primary delivery provider, a nurse-midwife versus physician obstetrician, is associated with OASIs. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of the Consortium of Safe Labor, a multicenter, retrospective cohort study. Included were nulliparous women with singleton, vaginal delivery at ≥37 weeks from 2002 to 2008. Women were excluded if delivery was complicated by shoulder dystocia or from sites without midwife deliveries. Student’s t-tests, chi-squared analysis, and Fisher’s exact test were used as appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression and propensity score-matching analyses were performed. Results: Of 228,668 births at 19 sites, 2735 births from 3 sites met the inclusion criteria: 1551 physician and 1184 midwife births. Of all births, 4.2% (n = 116) were complicated by OASIs. Physician patients were older, more often White, privately insured, with higher BMI, more medical co-morbidities, and labor inductions/augmentations. Midwife patients had higher fetal gestational age and infant birth weights (all p < 0.05). OASIs were more common in physician compared to midwife births (5.9% vs. 2.0%, p < 0.0001). This difference persisted in multivariable logistic regression. OASIs were 2.4 (95%CI 1.5–3.9) times more likely with physician delivery when controlling for maternal heart disease, episiotomy, increasing maternal age, decreasing maternal BMI, non-White race, and increasing birthweight. The AUC was 0.78. With propensity score matching, OASI rates remained higher amongst physician births (6.6% vs. 1.8%, p < 0.0001; aOR 3.8 (95%CI 2.0–7.1)). Conclusion: OASIs were more common in physician compared to midwife deliveries even when controlling for other associated factors. Full article
14 pages, 2649 KiB  
Article
IL17A Suppresses IGFBP1 in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells
by Susumu Tanaka, Misa Sawachika, Namika Yoshida, Kensuke Futani, Hiromi Murata and Hidetaka Okada
Reprod. Med. 2024, 5(2), 43-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/reprodmed5020006 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Interleukin (IL) 17A has been implicated in preeclampsia, preterm labor, and miscarriage. IL17A production in non-lymphoid tissues is mainly carried out by unconventional γδ17T cells. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) 3, a subgroup of innate lymphocytes, can also be a source of IL17A in [...] Read more.
Interleukin (IL) 17A has been implicated in preeclampsia, preterm labor, and miscarriage. IL17A production in non-lymphoid tissues is mainly carried out by unconventional γδ17T cells. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) 3, a subgroup of innate lymphocytes, can also be a source of IL17A in the endometrium and are required from implantation to early pregnancy, with their regulation ensuring that pregnancy continues. Herein, we examined the expression of γδ17T cells and ILC3 regulators IL1B, IL23A, and IL17D and IL17A receptors (IL17RA/IL17RC) in human endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) and cell lines (KC02-44D). Accordingly, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting were employed. IL1B, IL23A, and IL17D were significantly upregulated in decidualized EnSCs and KC02-44D cells. A significant augmentation in IL17RA/IL17RC was also observed in decidualization. IL17A stimulation of KC02-44D cells during decidualization suppressed the decidualization marker IGFBP1. The involvement of transcription factor Forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) in this repression was reflected by its translocation from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. A role for IkB kinase alpha in FOXO1 phosphorylation-mediated migration was also suggested. Taken together, our findings indicate that the secretion of IL17A by γδ17T and ILC3 cells in the uterus contributes to EnSCs function and may play critical roles in regulating IGFBP1-mediated implantation and fetal growth. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 473 KiB  
Article
Defining the Limits of Postpartum Leukocytosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Lindsay A. Hartup, Elizabeth Guarisco, Xuemei Song, Zhu Wang and Angela R. Boyd
Reprod. Med. 2024, 5(2), 33-42; https://doi.org/10.3390/reprodmed5020005 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 339
Abstract
There are established reference ranges for many laboratory values during pregnancy. Fewer studies exist regarding the expected white blood cell (WBC) count after delivery. The aim of this study was to determine appropriate postpartum leukocytosis in a diverse patient cohort. Patients who delivered [...] Read more.
There are established reference ranges for many laboratory values during pregnancy. Fewer studies exist regarding the expected white blood cell (WBC) count after delivery. The aim of this study was to determine appropriate postpartum leukocytosis in a diverse patient cohort. Patients who delivered a live fetus at 37 weeks or later were retrospectively identified. Complete blood counts collected on hospital admission and postpartum day one were used to quantify the change in WBC count associated with delivery. A total of 2245 patients were included; of these patients, 1476 delivered vaginally and 769 delivered via cesarean section. The average change in WBC count was 2.99 × 103/mm3. A WBC count of 20.19 × 103/mm3 defined the 95th percentile. The average rise in WBC count was 3.31 × 103/mm3 after vaginal delivery and 2.34 × 103/mm3 after cesarean section (p < 0.001). Patients with chorioamnionitis or endometritis had an average postpartum WBC rise of 7.38 × 103/mm3 compared to 2.99 × 103/mm3 in controls (p < 0.001). There was no difference in WBC count rise with comorbid asthma, diabetes, or chronic hypertension. A greater WBC count rise was found in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension. This study provides reference values for the average rise in WBC count after delivery and the 95th percentile postpartum WBC count in a diverse, medically complex patient population with and without delivery complications. Our findings further highlight maternal medical comorbidities that may contribute to the degree of postpartum leukocytosis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

1 pages, 140 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Rose et al. The Effect of In Vitro Maturation (IVM) Protocol Changes on Measures of Oocyte/Embryo Competence. Reprod. Med. 2023, 4, 65–73
by Bruce I. Rose, Kevin Nguyen and Samuel E. Brown
Reprod. Med. 2024, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/reprodmed5020004 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 253
Abstract
**Samuel E [...] Full article
Previous Issue
Back to TopTop