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Reprod. Med., Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 3 articles

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9 pages, 833 KiB  
Article
Pre-Operative Anxiety Related to Major Urogynecologic Surgery: Insights from Perioperative Survey Data in Maine
by Nadi Nina Kaonga, Yanghee Courbron, Emmy Holmgren, Eliot Konzal, Whitney Williams, Mary Brandes and Caroline Foust-Wright
Reprod. Med. 2024, 5(1), 23-31; https://doi.org/10.3390/reprodmed5010003 - 7 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Background: Higher levels of pre-operative anxiety are associated with adverse outcomes according to the cardiothoracic and orthopedic literature on emergent surgeries. There are limited data on pre-operative anxiety levels in the gynecologic setting. This study sought to identify predictive variables for high pre-operative [...] Read more.
Background: Higher levels of pre-operative anxiety are associated with adverse outcomes according to the cardiothoracic and orthopedic literature on emergent surgeries. There are limited data on pre-operative anxiety levels in the gynecologic setting. This study sought to identify predictive variables for high pre-operative anxiety levels in patients undergoing major urogynecologic surgery. Methods: Pre- and post-operative surveys that included demographic data, a modification of the Amsterdam Pre-Operative Anxiety and Information Scale, and open-ended questions regarding anxiety were administered. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to analyze the quantitative elements of the survey data. The qualitative components of the survey data were coded and analyzed using thematic analyses. Results: A total of 54 participants completed the pre-operative survey. The median age was 62 years old, and the majority were employed (n = 34, 60.7%). Roughly 1/3 had been diagnosed with a mental health condition (n = 19, 33.9%) and nearly all had other health conditions (n = 51, 91%). The baseline APAIS score ranged from 9 to 40, with higher scores reflecting higher levels of pre-operative anxiety. The median APAIS score was 24, with a score equal to or greater than 30 being in the highest tertile. Conclusion: No associations were made between the variables and pre-operative anxiety levels. However, useful insights into our patient population were made. Full article
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11 pages, 452 KiB  
Article
Diabetes Technology in Pregnant Women with Type 1 Diabetes—Distribution and Effects on Glycemic Regulation and Perinatal Outcomes
by Sara Yalda Ghaur, Pernille Bundgaard Grinderslev, Magnus Leth-Møller, Per Glud Ovesen, Jens Fuglsang, Sanne Fisker, H. David McIntyre and Ulla Kampmann
Reprod. Med. 2024, 5(1), 12-22; https://doi.org/10.3390/reprodmed5010002 - 7 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Pregnancies complicated by type 1 diabetes (TID) are associated with an increased risk of obstetric and neonatal adverse outcomes. Optimal glycemic control prior to and through pregnancy is crucial to reduce complications. The use of diabetes technology is rapidly increasing. The aim of [...] Read more.
Pregnancies complicated by type 1 diabetes (TID) are associated with an increased risk of obstetric and neonatal adverse outcomes. Optimal glycemic control prior to and through pregnancy is crucial to reduce complications. The use of diabetes technology is rapidly increasing. The aim of the study was to investigate the use and effects of diabetes technology in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted; 84 women were included in the analysis and were divided into subgroups according to their glucose monitoring method and insulin delivery method. HbA1c values declined during pregnancy in all subgroups with no significant difference between the subgroups. A difference was, however, found in birth weight z-scores. Women using a sensor and an insulin pump had larger babies compared to women without these treatment modalities. The results of the study indicate that diabetes technology, including insulin pumps and/or glucose sensors are not superior to self-monitoring blood glucose measurement and multiple daily injection insulin therapy, which is comforting in the light of the unequal access to health benefits. Full article
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11 pages, 3654 KiB  
Article
Antenatal Secondhand Smoke (SHS) Exposure and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products (RAGE)
by Katrina L. Curtis, Kelsey M. Hirshi, Kary Tsai, Evan T. Clark, Brendan M. Stapley, Benjamin T. Bikman, Paul R. Reynolds and Juan Arroyo
Reprod. Med. 2024, 5(1), 1-11; https://doi.org/10.3390/reprodmed5010001 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 810
Abstract
Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) during fetal development results in negative postnatal effects, including altered organ development, changes in metabolism, and increased risk of respiratory illness. Previously, we found the induction of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) dependent on the expression of the receptor [...] Read more.
Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) during fetal development results in negative postnatal effects, including altered organ development, changes in metabolism, and increased risk of respiratory illness. Previously, we found the induction of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) dependent on the expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) in mice treated with SHS. Furthermore, antenatal SHS exposure increases RAGE expression in the fetal lung. Our objective was to determine the postnatal effects of antenatal SHS treatment in 4- and 12-week-old offspring. Pregnant animals were treated with SHS via a nose-only delivery system (Scireq Scientific, Montreal, Canada) for 4 days (embryonic day 14.5 through 18.5), and offspring were evaluated at 4 or 12 weeks of age. Animal and organ weights were measured, and lungs were histologically characterized. Blood pressure and heart rates were obtained, and RAGE protein expression was determined in the lungs of control and treated animals. We observed the following: (1) significant decreases in animal, liver, and heart weights at 4 weeks of age; (2) increased blood pressure in 4-week-old animals; and (3) increased RAGE expression in the lungs of the 4-week-old animals. Our results suggest an improvement in these metrics by 12 weeks postnatally such that measures were not different regardless of RA or SHS exposure. Increased RAGE expression in lungs from 4-week-old mice antenatally treated with SHS suggests a possible role for this important smoke-mediated receptor in establishing adult disease following IUGR pregnancies. Full article
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