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Reactions, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 5 articles

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12 pages, 1867 KiB  
Article
Modeling of the Anaerobic Digestion of Biomass Produced by Agricultural Residues in Greece
by Efstathios Papachristopoulos, George N. Prodromidis, Dennis E. Mytakis, Vagelis G. Papadakis and Frank A. Coutelieris
Reactions 2024, 5(2), 338-349; https://doi.org/10.3390/reactions5020017 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 86
Abstract
This study combines theoretical modeling and experimental validation to explore anaerobic digestion comprehensively. Developing a computational model is crucial for accurately simulating a digester’s performance, considering various feedstocks and operational parameters. The main objective was to adapt the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1) [...] Read more.
This study combines theoretical modeling and experimental validation to explore anaerobic digestion comprehensively. Developing a computational model is crucial for accurately simulating a digester’s performance, considering various feedstocks and operational parameters. The main objective was to adapt the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1) simulation code to align with the laboratory-scale anaerobic digestion reactor’s specifications, especially regarding the liquid–gas transfer process. Within this computational framework, users may define model parameters and elucidate processes occurring in compartments reflecting the physical design. The model accurately predicts total concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) as well as the produced biogas, with an average difference of less than 10% between experimental and simulated data. This consistency underscores the reliability and effectiveness of the adapted model in capturing anaerobic digestion nuances under specified conditions. Full article
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20 pages, 5045 KiB  
Review
Ir-Catalyzed ortho-C-H Borylation of Aromatic C(sp2)-H Bonds of Carbocyclic Compounds Assisted by N-Bearing Directing Groups
by Hamad H. Al Mamari
Reactions 2024, 5(2), 318-337; https://doi.org/10.3390/reactions5020016 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 422
Abstract
C-H borylation is a powerful strategy for the construction of C-B bonds due to the synthetic versatility of C-B bonds. Various transition metals affect the powerful functionalization of C-H bonds, of which Ir is the most common. Substrate-directed methods have enabled directed Ir-catalyzed [...] Read more.
C-H borylation is a powerful strategy for the construction of C-B bonds due to the synthetic versatility of C-B bonds. Various transition metals affect the powerful functionalization of C-H bonds, of which Ir is the most common. Substrate-directed methods have enabled directed Ir-catalyzed C-H borylation at the ortho position. Amongst the powerful directing groups in Ir-catalyzed C-H borylation are N-containing carbocyclic systems. This review covers substrate-directed Ir-catalyzed ortho-C-H borylation of aromatic C(sp2)-H bonds in N-containing carbocyclic compounds, such as anilines, amides, benzyl amines, hydrazones, and triazines. Full article
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13 pages, 817 KiB  
Article
Generalized Linear Driving Force Formulas for Diffusion and Reaction in Porous Catalysts
by Mirosław K. Szukiewicz and Elżbieta Chmiel-Szukiewicz
Reactions 2024, 5(2), 305-317; https://doi.org/10.3390/reactions5020015 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Approximate models are a fast and most often precise tool for determining the effectiveness factor for heterogeneous catalysis processes that are realized in the real world. They are also frequently applied as robust transient models describing the work of a single catalyst pellet [...] Read more.
Approximate models are a fast and most often precise tool for determining the effectiveness factor for heterogeneous catalysis processes that are realized in the real world. They are also frequently applied as robust transient models describing the work of a single catalyst pellet or as a part of a more complex model, for example, a reactor model, where mass balances for the gas phase and solid phase are necessary. So far, approximate models for diffusion and reaction processes have been presented for processes described by a single balance equation. In the present work, approximate models without the mentioned limitation are presented and discussed. In addition, simple rules are shown for the development of other complex approximate models without tedious derivation in the complex domain. The formulas considered in this work are typical long-time approximations of the transient process. The accuracy is good, especially in the range of small and intermediate Thiele modulus values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Reactions in 2024)
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20 pages, 7700 KiB  
Article
Sewage Sludge Plasma Gasification: Characterization and Experimental Rig Design
by Nuno Pacheco, André Ribeiro, Filinto Oliveira, Filipe Pereira, L. Marques, José C. Teixeira, Cândida Vilarinho and Flavia V. Barbosa
Reactions 2024, 5(2), 285-304; https://doi.org/10.3390/reactions5020014 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 842
Abstract
The treatment of wastewater worldwide generates substantial quantities of sewage sludge (SS), prompting concerns about its environmental impact. Various approaches have been explored for SS reuse, with energy production emerging as a viable solution. This study focuses on harnessing energy from domestic wastewater [...] Read more.
The treatment of wastewater worldwide generates substantial quantities of sewage sludge (SS), prompting concerns about its environmental impact. Various approaches have been explored for SS reuse, with energy production emerging as a viable solution. This study focuses on harnessing energy from domestic wastewater treatment (WWT) sewage sludge through plasma gasification. Effective syngas production hinges on precise equipment design which, in turn, depends on the detailed feedstock used for characterization. Key components of plasma gasification include the plasma torch, reactor, heat exchanger, scrubber, and cyclone, enabling the generation of inert slag for landfill disposal and to ensure clean syngas. Designing these components entails considerations of sludge composition, calorific power, thermal conductivity, ash diameter, and fusibility properties, among other parameters. Accordingly, this work entails the development of an experimental setup for the plasma gasification of sewage sludge, taking into account a comprehensive sludge characterization. The experimental findings reveal that domestic WWT sewage sludge with 40% humidity exhibits a low thermal conductivity of approximately 0.392 W/mK and a calorific value of LHV = 20.78 MJ/kg. Also, the relatively low ash content (17%) renders this raw material advantageous for plasma gasification processes. The integration of a detailed sludge characterization into the equipment design lays the foundation for efficient syngas production. This study aims to contribute to advancing sustainable waste-to-energy technologies, namely plasma gasification, by leveraging sewage sludge as a valuable resource for syngas production. Full article
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11 pages, 1951 KiB  
Article
Biosynthesis of Copper Nanoparticles from Acacia cornigera and Annona purpurea and Their Insecticidal Effect against Tribolium castaneum
by Rogelio Solorzano Toala, Federico Gutierrez-Miceli, Benjamin Valdez-Salas, Ernesto Beltran-Partida, Daniel Gonzalez-Mendoza, Olivia Tzintzun-Camacho, Onecimo Grimaldo-Juarez and Antobelli Basilio-Cortes
Reactions 2024, 5(2), 274-284; https://doi.org/10.3390/reactions5020013 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Diverse studies have showed that the pesticides can cause important damages in ecosystem. Therefore, the development of bio pesticides through nanotechnology can increase efficacy and limit the negative impacts in the environmental that traditionally seen through the use of chemical pesticides. Nanoparticles obtained [...] Read more.
Diverse studies have showed that the pesticides can cause important damages in ecosystem. Therefore, the development of bio pesticides through nanotechnology can increase efficacy and limit the negative impacts in the environmental that traditionally seen through the use of chemical pesticides. Nanoparticles obtained from plants’ extracts can be used for effective pest management as a combined formulation of metal and some other organic material present in the plants. In the present study, our evaluated biosynthesis of nanoparticles of copper used two plant extracts (Acacia cornigera and Annona purpurea), and the Taguchi method was adopted for the synthesis optimization of the following variables of biosynthesis: temperature, pH, extract concentration, and reaction times to maximize the insecticidal activity on Tribolium castaneum. Our results showed that the nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using Acacia cornigera and Anona purpurea extract under optimum conditions under Taguchi L 9 orthogonal design, where copper nanoparticles were obtained with a size of 63–153 nm for using A. cornigera extract, 87–193 nm for A. purpurea extract, and a zeta potential of 9.6 mV and −32.7 mV, respectively. The nanoparticles of copper from A. cornigera showed effective insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum, and 90% mortality compared to the 76.6% obtained from nanoparticles of copper from A. purpurea. The results suggest that Cu-nanoparticles derived from both plants could be used as a biocontrol agent of Tribolium castaneum, a pest of stored grain with great economic importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications)
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