Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

A special issue of Reactions (ISSN 2624-781X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 7765

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Physics Department, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 70121 Bari, Italy
Interests: nanoparticles synthesis; materials physics; ultrashort lasers; materials; laser processing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies (IFN), National Research Council, 70126 Bari, Italy
Interests: laser micro/nanostructuring; friction reduction; superhydrophobicity; materials physics; ultrafast lasers; laser–matter interaction

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Guest Editor
Chemistry Department, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 70121 Bari, Italy
Interests: nanotechnology; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; infrared spectroscopy; electrochemistry; antimicrobials; transmission electron microscopy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanoparticles (NPs) are well-known key materials that possess unique and significantly modified physical and chemical properties compared to their bulk counterparts. NPs are suitable candidates in various research and commercial fields, including catalysis, imaging, medical applications, energy-based research, and environmental applications.

The aim of the proposed Special Issue is to collect worldwide original contributions and review papers from experts on the synthesis, properties, and applications of NPs. The Special Issue will include papers on not only different types of NPs, including fullerenes, metal NPs, ceramic NPs, and polymeric NPs, but also nanocomposites. Contributions with innovative methods to synthesize nanoparticles will be welcomed in this Special Issue, with particular attention to “green” methods. Top-down and bottom-up preparation approaches will be included. Contributions including optical and/or chemical characterization will also be considered. Special attention will be devoted to nanoparticles applications in a variety of research fields, including catalysis, optics, and medicine.

Dr. Annalisa Volpe
Dr. Caterina Gaudiuso
Dr. Maria Chiara Sportelli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • nanocomposites
  • chemical synthesis
  • physical synthesis
  • characterization
  • spectroscopy
  • nano-antimicrobials
  • food packaging
  • solar energy
  • chemical properties
  • optical properties
  • toxicity
  • green approach

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1951 KiB  
Article
Biosynthesis of Copper Nanoparticles from Acacia cornigera and Annona purpurea and Their Insecticidal Effect against Tribolium castaneum
by Rogelio Solorzano Toala, Federico Gutierrez-Miceli, Benjamin Valdez-Salas, Ernesto Beltran-Partida, Daniel Gonzalez-Mendoza, Olivia Tzintzun-Camacho, Onecimo Grimaldo-Juarez and Antobelli Basilio-Cortes
Reactions 2024, 5(2), 274-284; https://doi.org/10.3390/reactions5020013 - 08 Apr 2024
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Diverse studies have showed that the pesticides can cause important damages in ecosystem. Therefore, the development of bio pesticides through nanotechnology can increase efficacy and limit the negative impacts in the environmental that traditionally seen through the use of chemical pesticides. Nanoparticles obtained [...] Read more.
Diverse studies have showed that the pesticides can cause important damages in ecosystem. Therefore, the development of bio pesticides through nanotechnology can increase efficacy and limit the negative impacts in the environmental that traditionally seen through the use of chemical pesticides. Nanoparticles obtained from plants’ extracts can be used for effective pest management as a combined formulation of metal and some other organic material present in the plants. In the present study, our evaluated biosynthesis of nanoparticles of copper used two plant extracts (Acacia cornigera and Annona purpurea), and the Taguchi method was adopted for the synthesis optimization of the following variables of biosynthesis: temperature, pH, extract concentration, and reaction times to maximize the insecticidal activity on Tribolium castaneum. Our results showed that the nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using Acacia cornigera and Anona purpurea extract under optimum conditions under Taguchi L 9 orthogonal design, where copper nanoparticles were obtained with a size of 63–153 nm for using A. cornigera extract, 87–193 nm for A. purpurea extract, and a zeta potential of 9.6 mV and −32.7 mV, respectively. The nanoparticles of copper from A. cornigera showed effective insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum, and 90% mortality compared to the 76.6% obtained from nanoparticles of copper from A. purpurea. The results suggest that Cu-nanoparticles derived from both plants could be used as a biocontrol agent of Tribolium castaneum, a pest of stored grain with great economic importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications)
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12 pages, 2712 KiB  
Article
Silver Nanoparticles Coated with Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor: Synthesis, Characterization, Liberation and Anti-Escherichia coli Activity
by Layla M. Gonzales Matushita, Luis Palomino and Juan Carlos F. Rodriguez-Reyes
Reactions 2023, 4(4), 713-724; https://doi.org/10.3390/reactions4040041 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Epithelial tissue regeneration may be favored if the tissue receives both therapeutic agents such as recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) and, simultaneously, antibacterial materials capable of reducing the risk of infections. Herein, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are well-known antibacterial materials, [...] Read more.
Epithelial tissue regeneration may be favored if the tissue receives both therapeutic agents such as recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) and, simultaneously, antibacterial materials capable of reducing the risk of infections. Herein, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are well-known antibacterial materials, and impregnate them with rhEGF in order to study a bio-nanomaterial of potential interest for epithelial tissue regeneration. A suspension of Ag NPs is prepared by the chemical reduction method, employing sodium citrate as both a reducer and capping agent. The AgNPs suspension is mixed with a saline solution containing rhEGF, producing rhEGF-coated Ag NPs with rhEGF loadings between 0.1 and 0.4% w/w. ELISA assays of supernatants demonstrate that, in all studied cases, over 90% of the added rhEGF forms part of the coating, evidencing a high efficiency in impregnation. During the preparation of rhEGF-coated Ag NPs, no significant changes are observed on the nanoparticles, which are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and infrared spectroscopy. The liberation of rhEGF in vitro was followed for 72 h, finding that approximately 1% of rhEGF that is present is released. The rhEGF-coated AgNPs shows antibacterial activity against E. coli, although such activity is decreased with respect to that observed from naked AgNPs. Having confirmed the possibility of simultaneously liberating rhEGF and reducing the proliferation of bacteria, this work helps to support the use of rhEGF-loaded metallic nanoparticles for tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications)
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13 pages, 2559 KiB  
Article
Full Factorial Design Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Origanum vulgare
by Nickolas Rigopoulos, Christina Megetho Gkaliouri, Viktoria Sakavitsi and Dimitrios Gournis
Reactions 2023, 4(3), 505-517; https://doi.org/10.3390/reactions4030030 - 14 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) involves a reduction reaction of a metal salt solution mixed with a plant extract. The reaction yield can be controlled using several independent factors, such as extract and metal concentration, temperature, and incubation time. AgNPs from Origanum [...] Read more.
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) involves a reduction reaction of a metal salt solution mixed with a plant extract. The reaction yield can be controlled using several independent factors, such as extract and metal concentration, temperature, and incubation time. AgNPs from Origanum vulgare (oregano) were synthesized in the past. However, no investigations were performed on the combined effects of independent factors that affect the synthesis. In this work, silver nitrate, oregano extract, and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations were chosen as the independent factors, and full factorial design under Response Surface Methodology was employed. UV–Vis absorbance spectroscopy, X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the nanoparticles. A Voigt function was fitted on the measured UV–Vis spectra. The fitting parameters of the Voigt function, peak wavelength, area, and Full Width at Half Maximum, were used as the responses. A quadratic model was fitted for the peak wavelength and area. The NaOH concentration proved to be the dominant factor in nanoparticle synthesis. UV–Vis absorbance showed a characteristic plasmon resonance of AgNPs at 409 nm. XRD verified the crystallinity of the nanoparticles and FTIR identified the ligands involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications)
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Review

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60 pages, 7129 KiB  
Review
Photocatalytic TiO2-Based Nanostructures as a Promising Material for Diverse Environmental Applications: A Review
by Maria-Anna Gatou, Athanasia Syrrakou, Nefeli Lagopati and Evangelia A. Pavlatou
Reactions 2024, 5(1), 135-194; https://doi.org/10.3390/reactions5010007 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1149
Abstract
Contemporary technological and industrial advancements have led to increased reliance on chemicals for product innovation, leading to heightened contamination of water sources by traditional pollutants (organic dyes, heavy metals) and disease-causing microorganisms. Wastewater treatment processes now reveal “emerging pollutants”, including pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, [...] Read more.
Contemporary technological and industrial advancements have led to increased reliance on chemicals for product innovation, leading to heightened contamination of water sources by traditional pollutants (organic dyes, heavy metals) and disease-causing microorganisms. Wastewater treatment processes now reveal “emerging pollutants”, including pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, and agricultural chemicals. While some are benign, certain emerging pollutants can harm diverse organisms. Researchers seek cost-effective water purification methods that completely degrade pollutants without generating harmful by-products. Semiconductor-based photocatalytic degradation, particularly using titanium dioxide (TiO2), is popular for addressing water pollution. This study focuses on recent applications of TiO2 nanostructures in photocatalysis for eliminating various water pollutants. Structural modifications, like doping and nanocomposite formation, enhance photocatalyst performance. The study emphasizes photocatalytic elimination mechanisms and comprehensively discusses factors impacting both the mechanism and performance of nano-TiO2-based photocatalysts. Characteristics of TiO2, such as crystal structure and energy band-gap, along with its photocatalytic activity mechanism, are presented. The review covers the advantages and limitations of different TiO2 nanostructure production approaches and addresses potential toxicity to human health and the environment. In summary, this review provides a holistic perspective on applying nano-TiO2 materials to mitigate water pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications)
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19 pages, 2158 KiB  
Review
Biogenic Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles and Their Application as Bioactive Agents: A Critical Overview
by Maria Chiara Sportelli, Caterina Gaudiuso, Annalisa Volpe, Margherita Izzi, Rosaria Anna Picca, Antonio Ancona and Nicola Cioffi
Reactions 2022, 3(3), 423-441; https://doi.org/10.3390/reactions3030030 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2692
Abstract
Zinc oxide is a safe material for humans, with high biocompatibility and negligible cytotoxicity. Interestingly, it shows exceptional antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc., especially when reduced to the nanometer size. As it is easily understandable, thanks to its properties, it is [...] Read more.
Zinc oxide is a safe material for humans, with high biocompatibility and negligible cytotoxicity. Interestingly, it shows exceptional antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc., especially when reduced to the nanometer size. As it is easily understandable, thanks to its properties, it is at the forefront of safe antimicrobials in this pandemic era. Besides, in the view of the 2022 European Green Deal announced by the European Commission, even science and nanotechnology are moving towards “greener” approaches to the synthesis of nanoparticles. Among them, biogenic ZnO nanoparticles have been extensively studied for their biological applications and environmental remediation. Plants, algae, fungi, yeast, etc., (which are composed of naturally occurring biomolecules) play, in biogenic processes, an active role in the formation of nanoparticles with distinct shapes and sizes. The present review targets the biogenic synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, with a specific focus on their bioactive properties and antimicrobial application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications)
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