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Adv. Respir. Med., Volume 91, Issue 3 (June 2023) – 6 articles

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10 pages, 1318 KiB  
Article
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of FAM13A Gene in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease—A Case Control Study in Vietnam
by Khanh Hoang Pham, Nhung Thi Cam Tran, Hung Do Tran, Toan Hoang Ngo, Van De Tran, Hung Huynh Vinh Ly, Nga Thi Ngoc Pham, Thang Nguyen, Binh Huy Nguyen and Kien Trung Nguyen
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(3), 268-277; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91030021 - 15 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1443
Abstract
Background: In 2018, GOLD addressed the issues of genotypes associated with risk factors for COPD. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated an association between COPD and several genetic variants of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FAM13A gene with the risk of COPD. [...] Read more.
Background: In 2018, GOLD addressed the issues of genotypes associated with risk factors for COPD. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated an association between COPD and several genetic variants of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FAM13A gene with the risk of COPD. Objective: To study the single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2869967 and rs17014601 of the FAM13A gene in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Subjects and research methods: 80 subjects diagnosed with COPD and 80 subjects determined not to have COPD according to GOLD 2020 criteria; the subjects were clinically examined, interviewed, and identified as possessing single nucleotide polymorphisms using the sanger sequencing method on whole blood samples. Results: The male/female ratio of the patient group and the control group was 79/1 and 39/1, respectively. The percentages of C and T alleles of rs2869967 in COPD patients were 50.6% and 49.4%, respectively. The percentages of C and T alleles of rs17014601 in COPD patients were 31.9% and 68.1%, respectively. At rs17014601, the ratio values of alleles T and C in the disease group and the control group were markedly different, making them statistically reliable (p = 0.031). The rate of CT genotype in the group of patients was considerably higher than that of the control group. The TT homozygous genotype had a lower risk of COPD compared with the other genotypes in the dominant model (ORTT/(CC + CT) = 0.441; CI95% = 0.233–0.833); this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.012). Conclusions: With rs17014601, it is characteristic that the frequency of the T allele appears more than the C allele, and the CT heterozygous phenotype accounts for the highest proportion in rs17014601 and rs2869967 recorded in COPD patients. There is an association between the genetic variant of the SNP FAM13A-rs17014601 and the risk of COPD. Full article
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14 pages, 838 KiB  
Article
Effect of Pharmacist-Led Interventions on Medication Adherence among Vietnamese Patients with Asthma: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Tan Thanh Nguyen, Mai Thi Xuan Truong, Dung Ngoc Lam, Tuyen Thi Thanh Le, Mai Tuyet Vi, Thanh My Tran, Thu Pham Minh Vo, Suol Thanh Pham, Bao Lam Thai Tran, Thang Nguyen and Lam Van Nguyen
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(3), 254-267; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91030020 - 13 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1748
Abstract
Background: Medication adherence in asthmatic patients enhances the effectiveness of treatments, but some studies in low and middle-income countries still show some limitations. Our study aimed to determine if pharmacist-led interventions could increase medication adherence, improve treatment effectiveness, and relieve symptom severity in [...] Read more.
Background: Medication adherence in asthmatic patients enhances the effectiveness of treatments, but some studies in low and middle-income countries still show some limitations. Our study aimed to determine if pharmacist-led interventions could increase medication adherence, improve treatment effectiveness, and relieve symptom severity in outpatients with asthma. Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial on 247 asthmatic outpatients (aged ≥ 16) with a 1:1 ratio randomization at the hospitalization time and repeated after 1-month discharge. The primary outcome was to detect the difference in medication adherence between groups. Adherence was assessed by the general medication adherence scale (GMAS). Data collected by questionnaire was coded and entered into SPSS_20 for statistical analysis; Results: 247 patients (123 intervention, 124 control) were enrolled (61.1% male). After intervention, the adherence rate was higher among the intervention group than the control group (94.3% vs. 82.8%, p = 0.001). Patient behavior and knowledge were enhanced in the intervention group (p < 0.05). Asthma symptoms were relieved in the intervention group (p = 0.014). Pharmacist-led interventions on adherence rate were higher with OR: 3.550, 95% CI: 1.378–9.143, p = 0.009. Conclusions: pharmaceutical intervention could improve medication adherence, treatment efficacy, and the outcome should not be taken for granted; further research should be carried out in this regard. Full article
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15 pages, 838 KiB  
Article
Effect of Hydration on Pulmonary Function and Development of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction among Professional Male Cyclists
by Konstantinos M. Pigakis, Vasileios T. Stavrou, Ioannis Pantazopoulos, Zoe Daniil, Aggeliki K. Kontopodi-Pigaki and Konstantinos Gourgoulianis
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(3), 239-253; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91030019 - 07 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1677
Abstract
Background: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a common problem in elite athletes. Classical pathways in the development of EIB include the osmotic and thermal theory as well as the presence of epithelial injury in the airway, with local water loss being the main trigger [...] Read more.
Background: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a common problem in elite athletes. Classical pathways in the development of EIB include the osmotic and thermal theory as well as the presence of epithelial injury in the airway, with local water loss being the main trigger of EIB. This study aimed to investigate the effects of systemic hydration on pulmonary function and to establish whether it can reverse dehydration-induced alterations in pulmonary function. Materials and Methods: This follow-up study was performed among professional cyclists, without a history of asthma and/or atopy. Anthropometric characteristics were recorded for all participants, and the training age was determined. In addition, pulmonary function tests and specific markers such as fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) were measured. All the athletes underwent body composition analysis and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). After CPET, spirometry was followed at the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, and 30th min. This study was divided into two phases: before and after hydration. Cyclists, who experienced a decrease in Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) ≥ 10% and/or Maximal Mild-Expiratory Flow Rate (MEF25–75) ≥ 20% after CPET in relation to the results of the spirometry before CPET, repeated the test in 15-20 days, following instructions for hydration. Results: One hundred male cyclists (n = 100) participated in Phase A. After exercise, there was a decrease in all spirometric parameters (p < 0.001). In Phase B, after hydration, in all comparisons, the changes in spirometric values were significantly lower than those in Phase A (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that professional cyclists have non-beneficial effects on respiratory function. Additionally, we found that systemic hydration has a positive effect on spirometry in cyclists. Of particular interest are small airways, which appear to be affected independently or in combination with the decrease in FEV1. Our data suggest that pulmonary function improves systemic after hydration. Full article
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15 pages, 1650 KiB  
Review
Identify Drug-Resistant Pathogens in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia
by Francesco Amati, Francesco Bindo, Anna Stainer, Andrea Gramegna, Marco Mantero, Mattia Nigro, Linda Bussini, Michele Bartoletti, Francesco Blasi and Stefano Aliberti
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(3), 224-238; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91030018 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
A substantial increase in broad-spectrum antibiotics as empirical therapy in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has occurred over the last 15 years. One of the driving factors leading to that has been some evidence showing an increased incidence of drug-resistant pathogens (DRP) in [...] Read more.
A substantial increase in broad-spectrum antibiotics as empirical therapy in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has occurred over the last 15 years. One of the driving factors leading to that has been some evidence showing an increased incidence of drug-resistant pathogens (DRP) in patients from a community with pneumonia, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Research has been published attempting to identify DRP in CAP through the implementation of probabilistic approaches in clinical practice. However, recent epidemiological data showed that the incidence of DRP in CAP varies significantly according to local ecology, healthcare systems and countries where the studies were performed. Several studies also questioned whether broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage might improve outcomes in CAP, as it is widely documented that broad-spectrum antibiotics overuse is associated with increased costs, length of hospital stay, drug adverse events and resistance. The aim of this review is to analyze the different approaches used to identify DRP in CAP patients as well as the outcomes and adverse events in patients undergoing broad-spectrum antibiotics. Full article
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21 pages, 3141 KiB  
Review
Lung Ultrasound in Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: Clinical Review
by Eduardo Rocca, Christian Zanza, Yaroslava Longhitano, Fabio Piccolella, Tatsiana Romenskaya, Fabrizio Racca, Gabriele Savioli, Angela Saviano, Andrea Piccioni and Silvia Mongodi
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(3), 203-223; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91030017 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5191
Abstract
Lung ultrasound has become a part of the daily examination of physicians working in intensive, sub-intensive, and general medical wards. The easy access to hand-held ultrasound machines in wards where they were not available in the past facilitated the widespread use of ultrasound, [...] Read more.
Lung ultrasound has become a part of the daily examination of physicians working in intensive, sub-intensive, and general medical wards. The easy access to hand-held ultrasound machines in wards where they were not available in the past facilitated the widespread use of ultrasound, both for clinical examination and as a guide to procedures; among point-of-care ultrasound techniques, the lung ultrasound saw the greatest spread in the last decade. The COVID-19 pandemic has given a boost to the use of ultrasound since it allows to obtain a wide range of clinical information with a bedside, not harmful, repeatable examination that is reliable. This led to the remarkable growth of publications on lung ultrasounds. The first part of this narrative review aims to discuss basic aspects of lung ultrasounds, from the machine setting, probe choice, and standard examination to signs and semiotics for qualitative and quantitative lung ultrasound interpretation. The second part focuses on how to use lung ultrasound to answer specific clinical questions in critical care units and in emergency departments. Full article
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18 pages, 1286 KiB  
Review
Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients Lights and Shadows in the Current Landscape
by Stavros Tsotsolis, Serafeim-Chrysovalantis Kotoulas and Athina Lavrentieva
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(3), 185-202; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91030016 - 08 May 2023
Viewed by 1825
Abstract
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) presents a known risk to critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2; quantifying the global burden of IPA in SARS-CoV-2 is extremely challenging. The true incidence of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and the impact on mortality is difficult to define because [...] Read more.
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) presents a known risk to critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2; quantifying the global burden of IPA in SARS-CoV-2 is extremely challenging. The true incidence of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and the impact on mortality is difficult to define because of indiscriminate clinical signs, low culture sensitivity and specificity and variability in clinical practice between centers. While positive cultures of upper airway samples are considered indicative for the diagnosis of probable CAPA, conventional microscopic examination and qualitative culture of respiratory tract samples have quite low sensitivity and specificity. Thus, the diagnosis should be confirmed with serum and BAL GM test or positive BAL culture to mitigate the risk of overdiagnosis and over-treatment. Bronchoscopy has a limited role in these patients and should only be considered when diagnosis confirmation would significantly change clinical management. Varying diagnostic performance, availability, and time-to-results turnaround time are important limitations of currently approved biomarkers and molecular assays for the diagnosis of IA. The use of CT scans for diagnostic purposes is controversial due to practical concerns and the complex character of lesions presented in SARS-CoV-2 patients. The key objective of management is to improve survival by avoiding misdiagnosis and by initiating early, targeted antifungal treatment. The main factors that should be considered upon selection of treatment options include the severity of the infection, concomitant renal or hepatic injury, possible drug interactions, requirement for therapeutic drug monitoring, and cost of therapy. The optimal duration of antifungal therapy for CAPA is still under debate. Full article
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