# Practical Aspects of Correlation Analysis of Compressive Strength from Destructive and Non-Destructive Methods in Different Directions

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Mixtures and Samples

#### 2.2. Experimental Program

#### 2.3. Statistics

^{2}[31,32]. R

^{2}is a statistic used in the context of statistical models whose main purpose is to predict future outcomes.

## 3. Results and Discussion

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Steps to use a Schmidt hammer: (

**a**) placing the calibration element, (

**b**) testing vertically, (

**c**) testing horizontally.

**Figure 2.**Correlation of the rebound index of the horizontal test and compressive strength at 7 days for concrete C30.

**Figure 3.**Correlation of the rebound index from the horizontal test and compressive strength at 7 days for concrete C35.

**Figure 4.**Correlation of the rebound index of the horizontal test and compressive strength at 7 days for concrete C40.

**Figure 5.**Correlation of the rebound index of the vertical test and compressive strength at 7 days for concrete C30.

**Figure 6.**Correlation of the rebound index of the vertical test and compressive strength at 7 days for concrete C35.

**Figure 7.**Correlation of the rebound index of the vertical test and compressive strength at 7 days for concrete C40.

**Figure 8.**Correlation of the rebound index from the horizontal test and compressive strength at 28 days for concrete C30.

**Figure 9.**Correlation of the rebound index of the horizontal test and compressive strength at 28 days for concrete C35.

**Figure 10.**Correlation of the rebound index from the horizontal test and compressive strength at 28 days for concrete C40.

**Figure 11.**Correlation of the rebound index of the vertical test and compressive strength at 28 days for concrete C30.

**Figure 12.**Correlation of the rebound index of the vertical test and compressive strength at 28 days for concrete C35.

**Figure 13.**Correlation of the rebound index of the vertical test and compressive strength at 28 days for concrete C40.

Concrete | Sand (kg) | Gravel (kg) | Cement (kg) | Water (lit) | Slump | Water/Cement |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

C30 | 950 | 852 | 400 | 228 | 7.5–10 | 0.57 |

C35 | 950 | 852 | 450 | 234 | 7.5–10 | 0.52 |

C40 | 950 | 852 | 500 | 240 | 7.5–10 | 0.48 |

**Table 2.**Average compressive strengths in MPa and rebound number for different concrete cured for 7 days.

Age | Class | Test | Mean | STD |
---|---|---|---|---|

7 days | C30 | Compressive Strength | 31.7 MPa | 3.19 |

Rebound number (horizontal) | 28.5 | 2.81 | ||

Rebound number (vertical) | 23.1 | 1.22 | ||

C35 | Compressive Strength | 37.5 MPa | 2.74 | |

Rebound number (horizontal) | 30.1 | 2.48 | ||

Rebound number (vertical) | 24.5 | 2.25 | ||

C40 | Compressive Strength | 38.9 MPa | 4.22 | |

Rebound number (horizontal) | 33.2 | 2.14 | ||

Rebound number (vertical) | 26 | 1.75 |

**Table 3.**Average compressive strength in MPa and rebound number for different concrete cured for 28 days.

Age | Class | Test | Mean | STD |
---|---|---|---|---|

28 days | C30 | Compressive Strength | 42.9 MPa | 4.82 |

Rebound number (horizontal) | 34.1 | 2.19 | ||

Rebound number (vertical) | 25.9 | 1.73 | ||

C35 | Compressive Strength | 47.1 MPa | 4.36 | |

Rebound number (horizontal) | 35.5 | 1.19 | ||

Rebound number (vertical) | 28.6 | 2.36 | ||

C40 | Compressive Strength | 51.1 MPa | 3.68 | |

Rebound number (horizontal) | 36.1 | 1.55 | ||

Rebound number (vertical) | 30.7 | 3.15 |

Age | Class | Type of Schmidt Test | PCC | Linear Equation | R^{2} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

7 days | C30 | horizontal | 0.953 | y = 1.081x + 1.5383 | 0.9073 |

vertical | 0.982 | y = 1.1966x + 9.1457 | 0.9645 | ||

C35 | horizontal | 0.922 | y = 1.0872x + 6.1163 | 0.9664 | |

vertical | 0.958 | y = 2.4942x − 25.191 | 0.918 | ||

C40 | horizontal | 0.961 | y = 1.8962x − 23.308 | 0.9231 | |

vertical | 0.956 | y = 2.3094x − 20.519 | 0.9144 | ||

28 days | C30 | horizontal | 0.956 | y = 3.5127x − 76.918 | 0.9135 |

vertical | 0.964 | y = 1.7799x − 2.8572 | 0.9285 | ||

C35 | horizontal | 0.955 | y = 2.0978x − 27.614 | 0.9124 | |

vertical | 0.954 | y = 2.6562x − 25.137 | 0.9107 | ||

C40 | horizontal | 0.961 | y = 2.2817x − 30.216 | 0.924 | |

vertical | 0.950 | y = 1.1121x + 18.02 | 0.9019 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Badarloo, B.; Lehner, P.
Practical Aspects of Correlation Analysis of Compressive Strength from Destructive and Non-Destructive Methods in Different Directions. *Infrastructures* **2023**, *8*, 155.
https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8110155

**AMA Style**

Badarloo B, Lehner P.
Practical Aspects of Correlation Analysis of Compressive Strength from Destructive and Non-Destructive Methods in Different Directions. *Infrastructures*. 2023; 8(11):155.
https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8110155

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Badarloo, Baitollah, and Petr Lehner.
2023. "Practical Aspects of Correlation Analysis of Compressive Strength from Destructive and Non-Destructive Methods in Different Directions" *Infrastructures* 8, no. 11: 155.
https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8110155